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Dietary Diversity and Its Association with Diet Quality and Health Status of European Children, Adolescents, and Adults: Results from the I.Family Study
Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy.
Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy.
Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy.
Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, Bremen, Germany ; Institute of Statistics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Bremen University, Germany.
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2023 (English)In: Foods, E-ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 12, no 24, article id 4458Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dietary diversity (DD) plays a crucial role in fostering high-quality diets, but its association with health outcomes, particularly body adiposity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), is inconsistent. This may be due to a lack of a standardized method for estimating DD. Our study investigates the association between two DD indices, namely the dietary diversity score (DDS) and food variety score (FVS), and anthropometric measures, biochemical parameters, and diet quality in a large population sample from the I.Family study across research centers in eight European countries. In our cross-sectional analysis of 3035 participants, DDSs varied among countries, with a higher prevalence in the third DDS tertile among those with higher education. DDS showed a positive association with diet quality across all age groups. Higher DDS tertile individuals showed increased fiber, fruit, and vegetable intake, greater meal frequency, and lower ultra-processed food consumption. No relevant biochemical differences were observed across DDS tertiles, and a higher DDS was associated with lower overweight/obesity prevalence only in adults. No significant associations were found with FVS. Our findings emphasize the need to consider food groups for a more accurate estimation of diet quality. This aligns with studies suggesting DDS alone is not an independent risk factor for obesity in children and adolescents. Public health programs should prioritize food diversity to promote improved nutrition and overall well-being in communities. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023. Vol. 12, no 24, article id 4458
Keywords [en]
diet diversity, diet quality, obesity
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Food Science Pediatrics
Research subject
Research on Citizen Centered Health, University of Skövde (Reacch US)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23530DOI: 10.3390/foods12244458ISI: 001131383700001PubMedID: 38137262Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85180655392OAI: oai:DiVA.org:his-23530DiVA, id: diva2:1826259
Note

CC BY 4.0 DEED

© 2023 by the authors

Correspondence Address: F. Lauria; Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, 83100, Italy; email: flauria@isa.cnr.it

We are grateful for the participation of European children and their parents in this examination. We acknowledge the support received from school boards, headmasters, and communities. We gratefully acknowledge Rosaria Tremigliozzi for her support in statistical analysis. Finally, we acknowledge the support of the CNR project NUTRAGE FOE-2021 DBA.AD005.225 and the National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP), Mission 4 Component 2 Investment 1.3—Call fortender No. 341 of 15 March 2022 of the Italian Ministry of University and Research, funded by the European Union—NextGenerationEU; award number: project code PE00000003, concession decree no. 1550 of 11 October 2022 adopted by the Italian Ministry of University and Research, project title “ON Foods—Research and innovation network on food and nutrition Sustainability, Safety and Security—Working ON Foods”. The pan-European IDEFICS/I.Family children cohort is registered under ISRCTN62310987.

Available from: 2024-01-11 Created: 2024-01-11 Last updated: 2024-01-31Bibliographically approved

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Eiben, Gabriele

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