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Eye-Tracking Beyond Peripersonal Space in Virtual Reality: Validation and Best Practices
University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment. (Interaction Lab (ILAB))ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2254-1396
University of Skövde, School of Informatics. (Interaction Lab (ILAB))
University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment. (User Centred Product Design (UCPD))ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0746-9816
University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. (Interaction Lab (ILAB))ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6568-9342
2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Virtual Reality, E-ISSN 2673-4192, Vol. 3, article id 864653Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent developments in commercial virtual reality (VR) hardware with embedded eye-tracking create tremendous opportunities for human subjects researchers. Accessible eye-tracking in VR opens new opportunities for highly controlled experimental setups in which participants can engage novel 3D digital environments. However, because VR embedded eye-tracking differs from the majority of historical eye-tracking research, in both providing for relatively unconstrained movement and stimulus presentation distances, there is a need for greater discussion around methods for implementation and validation of VR based eye-tracking tools. The aim of this paper is to provide a practical introduction to the challenges of, and methods for, 3D gaze-tracking in VR with a focus on best practices for results validation and reporting. Specifically, first, we identify and define challenges and methods for collecting and analyzing 3D eye-tracking data in VR. Then, we introduce a validation pilot study with a focus on factors related to 3D gaze tracking. The pilot study provides both a reference data point for a common commercial hardware/software platform (HTC Vive Pro Eye) and illustrates the proposed methods. One outcome of this study was the observation that accuracy and precision of collected data may depend on stimulus distance, which has consequences for studies where stimuli is presented on varying distances. We also conclude that vergence is a potentially problematic basis for estimating gaze depth in VR and should be used with caution as the field move towards a more established method for 3D eye-tracking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022. Vol. 3, article id 864653
Keywords [en]
eye tracking, virtual reality, gaze depth, vergence, validation
National Category
Computer Sciences Human Computer Interaction Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); User Centred Product Design
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:his:diva-21062DOI: 10.3389/frvir.2022.864653ISI: 001023339600001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85138010016OAI: oai:DiVA.org:his-21062DiVA, id: diva2:1652018
Part of project
Synergy Virtual Ergonomics (SVE), Knowledge Foundation
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

CC BY 4.0

Correspondence: Maurice Lamb Maurice.Lamb@his.se

published: 08 April 2022

The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will bemade available by the authors, without undue reservation. The software used for data collection in this project can be found at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6368107.

Funding of this project was provided through the Knowledge Foundation as a part of both the Recruitment and Strategic Knowledge Reinforcement initiative and within the Synergy Virtual Ergonomics (SVE) project (#20180167).

We want to thank the Knowledge Foundation and the associated INFINIT research environment at the University of Skövde for support through funding of both the Recruitment and Strategic Knowledge Reinforcement initiative and within the Synergy Virtual Ergonomics (SVE) project. This support is gratefully acknowledged.

Available from: 2022-04-14 Created: 2022-04-14 Last updated: 2023-08-23Bibliographically approved

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Lamb, MauricePerez Luque, EstelaBilling, Erik

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