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25-Hydroxyvitamin D reference percentiles and the role of their determinants among European children and adolescents
Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology-BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology-BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy.
GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad de Zaragoza, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón), Zaragoza, Spain and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
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2022 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 76, no 4, p. 564-573Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background/objectives

To provide age- and sex-specific percentile curves of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) by determinants from 3-<15 year-old European children, and to analyse how modifiable determinants influence 25(OH)D.

Subjects/methods

Serum samples were collected from children of eight European countries participating in the multicenter IDEFICS/I.Family cohort studies. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were analysed in a central lab by a chemiluminescence assay and the values from 2171 children (N = 3606 measurements) were used to estimate percentile curves using the generalized additive model for location, scale and shape. The association of 25(OH)D with time spent outdoors was investigated considering sex, age, country, parental education, BMI z score, UV radiation, and dietary vitamin D in regressions models.

Results

The age- and sex-specific 5th and 95th percentiles of 25(OH)D ranged from 16.5 to 73.3 and 20.8 to 79.3 nmol/l in girls and boys, respectively. A total of 63% had deficient (<50 nmol/l), 33% insufficient (50-<75 nmol/l) and 3% sufficient (≥75 nmol/l) levels. 25(OH)D increased with increasing UV radiation, time spent outdoors, and vitamin D intake and slightly decreased with increasing BMI z score and age. The odds ratio (OR) for a non-deficient 25(OH)D status (reference category: deficient status) by one additional hour spent outdoors was 1.21, 95% CI [1.12–1.31], i.e., children who spent one more hour per day outdoors than other children had a 21% higher chance of a non-deficient than a deficient status.

Conclusion

A majority of children suffer from deficient 25(OH)D. UV radiation, outdoor time, and dietary vitamin D are important determinants of 25(OH)D.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022. Vol. 76, no 4, p. 564-573
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Pediatrics
Research subject
Research on Citizen Centered Health, University of Skövde (Reacch US)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:his:diva-20264DOI: 10.1038/s41430-021-00985-4ISI: 000676061600004PubMedID: 34302130Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85111676685OAI: oai:DiVA.org:his-20264DiVA, id: diva2:1583111
Funder
EU Sixth Framework Programme for Research, Contract No. 016181 (FOOD)EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, Contract No. 266044German Research Foundation (DFG), 391977161
Note

CC BY 4.0

Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to M.W. email: wolters@leibniz-bips.de

Published online: 23 July 2021

Available from: 2021-08-05 Created: 2021-08-05 Last updated: 2022-04-19Bibliographically approved

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Eiben, Gabriele

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