his.sePublikationer
Ändra sökning
RefereraExporteraLänk till posten
Permanent länk

Direktlänk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Effects of measurements on correlations of software code metrics
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-2895-0780
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 2764-2818Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Context

Software metrics play a significant role in many areas in the life-cycle of software including forecasting defects and foretelling stories regarding maintenance, cost, etc. through predictive analysis. Many studies have found code metrics correlated to each other at such a high level that such correlated code metrics are considered redundant, which implies it is enough to keep track of a single metric from a list of highly correlated metrics.

Objective

Software is developed incrementally over a period. Traditionally, code metrics are measured cumulatively as cumulative sum or running sum. When a code metric is measured based on the values from individual revisions or commits without consolidating values from past revisions, indicating the natural development of software, this study identifies such a type of measure as organic. Density and average are two other ways of measuring metrics. This empirical study focuses on whether measurement types influence correlations of code metrics.

Method

To investigate the objective, this empirical study has collected 24 code metrics classified into four categories, according to the measurement types of the metrics, from 11,874 software revisions (i.e., commits) of 21 open source projects from eight well-known organizations. Kendall’s τ -B is used for computing correlations. To determine whether there is a significant difference between cumulative and organic metrics, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, and paired-samples sign test are performed.

Results

The cumulative metrics are found to be highly correlated to each other with an average coefficient of 0.79. For corresponding organic metrics, it is 0.49. When individual correlation coefficients between these two measure types are compared, correlations between organic metrics are found to be significantly lower (with p <0.01) than cumulative metrics. Our results indicate that the cumulative nature of metrics makes them highly correlated, implying cumulative measurement is a major source of collinearity between cumulative metrics. Another interesting observation is that correlations between metrics from different categories are weak.

Conclusions

Results of this study reveal that measurement types may have a significant impact on the correlations of code metrics and that transforming metrics into a different type can give us metrics with low collinearity. These findings provide us a simple understanding how feature transformation to a different measurement type can produce new non-collinear input features for predictive models.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Springer, 2019. Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 2764-2818
Nyckelord [en]
Software code metrics, Measurement effects on correlations, Collinearity, Software engineering, Cumulative measurement
Nationell ämneskategori
Programvaruteknik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17532DOI: 10.1007/s10664-019-09714-9ISI: 000477582700029Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85066026436OAI: oai:DiVA.org:his-17532DiVA, id: diva2:1343089
Tillgänglig från: 2019-08-15 Skapad: 2019-08-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-08Bibliografiskt granskad

Open Access i DiVA

fulltext(13183 kB)76 nedladdningar
Filinformation
Filnamn FULLTEXT01.pdfFilstorlek 13183 kBChecksumma SHA-512
2d0c9651640d6fa8db50d1dcdd396be404463fb65f8c32ff9af2c4df42082edf24002a0443b6dc1ec2f042f489241f59f2ced81a31d043b97083d931c611fef7
Typ fulltextMimetyp application/pdf

Övriga länkar

Förlagets fulltextScopus

Personposter BETA

Hansson, Jörgen

Sök vidare i DiVA

Av författaren/redaktören
Hansson, Jörgen
Av organisationen
Institutionen för informationsteknologiForskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi
I samma tidskrift
Journal of Empirical Software Engineering
Programvaruteknik

Sök vidare utanför DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Totalt: 76 nedladdningar
Antalet nedladdningar är summan av nedladdningar för alla fulltexter. Det kan inkludera t.ex tidigare versioner som nu inte längre är tillgängliga.

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetricpoäng

doi
urn-nbn
Totalt: 390 träffar
RefereraExporteraLänk till posten
Permanent länk

Direktlänk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf