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Neural Networks for Modeling of Electrical Parameters and Losses in Electric Vehicle
University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
2023 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Permanent magnet synchronous machines have various advantages and have showed the most superiorperformance for Electric Vehicles. However, modeling them is difficult because of their nonlinearity. In orderto deal with the complexity, the artificial neural network and machine learning models including k-nearest neighbors, decision tree, random forest, and multiple linear regression with a quadratic model are developed to predict electrical parameters and losses as new prediction approaches for the performance of Volvo Cars’ electric vehicles and evaluate their performance. The test operation data of the Volvo Cars Corporation was used to extract and calculate the input and output data for each prediction model. In order to smooth the effects of each input variable, the input data was normalized. In addition, correlation matrices of normalized inputs were produced, which showed a high correlation between rotor temperature and winding resistance in the electrical parameter prediction dataset. They also demonstrated a strong correlation between the winding temperature and the rotor temperature in the loss prediction dataset.Grid search with 5-fold cross validation was implemented to optimize hyperparameters of artificial neuralnetwork and machine learning models. The artificial neural network models performed the best in MSE and R-squared scores for all the electrical parameters and loss prediction. The results indicate that artificial neural networks are more successful at handling complicated nonlinear relationships like those seen in electrical systems compared with other machine learning algorithms. Compared to other machine learning algorithms like decision trees, k-nearest neighbors, and multiple linear regression with a quadratic model, random forest produced superior results. With the exception of q-axis voltage, the decision tree model outperformed the knearestneighbors model in terms of parameter prediction, as measured by MSE and R-squared score. Multiple linear regression with a quadratic model produced the worst results for the electric parameters prediction because the relationship between the input and output was too complex for a multiple quadratic equation to deal with. Random forest models performed better than decision tree models because random forest ensemblehundreds of subset of decision trees and averaging the results. The k-nearest neighbors performed worse for almost all electrical parameters anticipation than the decision tree because it simply chooses the closest points and uses the average as the projected outputs so it was challenging to forecast complex nonlinear relationships. However, it is helpful for handling simple relationships and for understanding relationships in data. In terms of loss prediction, the k-nearest neighbors and decision tree produced similar results in MSE and R-squared score for the electric machine loss and the inverter loss. Their prediction results were worse than the multiple linear regression with a quadratic model, but they performed better than the multiple linear regression with a quadratic model, for forecasting the power difference between electromagnetic power and mechanical power.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2023. , p. 52
Keywords [en]
Artificial neural network, machine learning, random forest, deep learning, electric vehicle, decision tree, k-nearest neighbors, permanent magnet synchronous machine
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23115OAI: oai:DiVA.org:his-23115DiVA, id: diva2:1789150
External cooperation
Volvo Cars Corporation
Subject / course
Virtual Product Realization
Educational program
Intelligent Automation - Master's Programme, 60 ECTS
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2023-08-18 Created: 2023-08-18 Last updated: 2023-08-18Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
  • apa-cv
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
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Language
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Output format
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