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Wolters, M., Boernhorst, C., Schwarz, H., Rise, P., Galli, C., Moreno, L. A., . . . Ahrens, W. (2017). Association of desaturase activity and C-reactive protein in European children. Pediatric Research, 81(1), 27-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association of desaturase activity and C-reactive protein in European children
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2017 (English)In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 27-32Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Desaturase enzymes influence the fatty acid (FA) composition of body tissues and their activity affects the conversion rate of saturated to monounsaturated FA and of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) to long-chain PUFA. Desaturase activity has further been shown to be associated with inflammation. We investigate the association between delta-9 (D9D), delta-6 (D6D) and delta-5 desaturase (D5D) activity and high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) in young children. METHODS: In the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) cohort study children were examined at baseline (TO) and after 2 y (T1). D9D, D6D, and D5D activities were estimated from TO product-precursor FA ratios. CRP was measured at TO and T1. In a subsample of 1,943 children with available information on FA, CRP, and covariates, the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of desaturase activity and CRP were analyzed. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, a D9D increase of 0.01 units was associated with a 11% higher risk of having a serum CRP Percentile 75 (P75) (OR, 99% CI: 1.11 (1.01; 1.22)) whereas D6D and D5D were not associated with CRP. No significant associations were observed between baseline desaturase activity and CRP 2 y later. CONCLUSION: Cross-sectionally, our results indicate a positive association of D9D and CRP independent of weight status. High D9D activity may increase the risk of subclinical inflammation which is associated with metabolic disorders. As D9D expression increases with higher intake of saturated FA and carbohydrates, dietary changes may influence D9D activity and thus CRP. However, it remains to be investigated whether there is a causal relationship between D9D activity and CRP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2017
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14410 (URN)10.1038/pr.2016.186 (DOI)000391906800005 ()27653088 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85009815582 (Scopus ID)
Note

Group Author(s): IDEFICS Consortium

Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Hebestreit, A., Intemann, T., Siani, A., De Henauw, S., Eiben, G., Kourides, Y. A., . . . Pigeot, I. (2017). Dietary Patterns of European Children and Their Parents in Association with Family Food Environment: Results from the I.Family Study. Nutrients, 9(2), Article ID 126.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary Patterns of European Children and Their Parents in Association with Family Food Environment: Results from the I.Family Study
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2017 (English)In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 126Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to determine whether an association exists between children's and parental dietary patterns (DP), and whether the number of shared meals or soft drink availability during meals strengthens this association. In 2013/2014 the I. Family study cross-sectionally assessed the dietary intakes of families from eight European countries using 24-h dietary recalls. Usual energy and food intakes from six-to 16-year-old children and their parents were estimated based on the NCI Method. A total of 1662 child-mother and 789 child-father dyads were included; DP were derived using cluster analysis. We investigated the association between children's and parental DP and whether the number of shared meals or soft drink availability moderated this association using mixed effects logistic regression models. Three DP comparable in children and parents were obtained: Sweet & Fat, Refined Cereals, and Animal Products. Children were more likely to be allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP when their fathers were allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP and when they shared at least one meal per day (OR 3.18; 95% CI 1.84; 5.47). Being allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP increased when the mother or the father was allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP and when soft drinks were available (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.80; 4.28 or OR 4.26; 95% CI 2.16; 8.41, respectively). Availability of soft drinks and negative parental role modeling are important predictors of children's dietary patterns.

Keywords
food consumption, family resemblance, cluster analysis, shared meals, soft drink, childhood obesity
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14396 (URN)10.3390/nu9020126 (DOI)000397023100039 ()2-s2.0-85012295394 (Scopus ID)
Note

Authors on behalf of the I.Family Consortium

Available from: 2017-11-13 Created: 2017-11-13 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
De Decker, A., Verbeken, S., Sioen, I., Van Lippevelde, W., Braet, C., Eiben, G., . . . De Henauw, S. (2017). Palatable food consumption in children: interplay between (food) reward motivation and the home food environment. European Journal of Pediatrics, 176(4), 465-474
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Palatable food consumption in children: interplay between (food) reward motivation and the home food environment
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2017 (English)In: European Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0340-6199, E-ISSN 1432-1076, Vol. 176, no 4, p. 465-474Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To understand the importance of the home food environment on unhealthy food consumption in children high in reward sensitivity, this study tested the hypothesis that the home availability of unhealthy food moderates the effect of reward sensitivity on children's fast-food consumption frequency, exerted via food cue responsiveness. Children between 7.5 and 14 years (n = 174, 50.6% boys) reported on reward sensitivity and food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'external eating'). Their height and weight were measured. Parents reported on their children's fast-food consumption frequency, food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'food responsiveness'), and on the home availability of unhealthy foods. Two moderated mediation models were conducted, one with the parent- and one with the child-reported food cue responsiveness as mediator. Findings suggested that with a high home availability of unhealthy foods, (a) a higher fast-food consumption frequency was found in children high in reward sensitivity and (b) the relation between reward sensitivity and the fast-food consumption frequency was mediated by external eating. Conclusions: The findings point at the importance of the home food environment in children high in reward sensitivity. They suggest to limit the home availability of unhealthy foods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Reward sensitivity, Palatable food, Home availability, Food responsiveness, External eating, Child
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14395 (URN)10.1007/s00431-017-2857-4 (DOI)000398605300005 ()28132093 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85010952443 (Scopus ID)
Note

Authors on behalf of the I.Family Consortium

Available from: 2017-11-13 Created: 2017-11-13 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Iguacel, I., Fernandez-Alvira, J. M., Bammann, K., De Clercq, B., Eiben, G., Gwozdz, W., . . . Moreno, L. A. (2016). Associations between social vulnerabilities and dietary patterns in European children: the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study. British Journal of Nutrition, 116(7), 1288-1297
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between social vulnerabilities and dietary patterns in European children: the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study
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2016 (English)In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 116, no 7, p. 1288-1297Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Socio-economic inequalities in childhood can determine dietary patterns, and therefore future health. This study aimed to explore associations between social vulnerabilities and dietary patterns assessed at two time points, and to investigate the association between accumulation of vulnerabilities and dietary patterns. A total of 9301 children aged 2-9 years participated at baseline and 2-year follow-up examinations of the Identification and prevention of Dietary-and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS study. In all, three dietary patterns were identified at baseline and follow-up by applying the K-means clustering algorithm based on a higher frequency of consumption of snacks and fast food (processed), sweet foods and drinks (sweet), and fruits and vegetables (healthy). Vulnerable groups were defined at baseline as follows: children whose parents lacked a social network, children from single-parent families, children of migrant origin and children with unemployed parents. Multinomial mixed models were used to assess the associations between social vulnerabilities and children's dietary patterns at baseline and follow-up. Children whose parents lacked a social network (OR 1.31; 99% CI 1.01, 1.70) and migrants (OR 1.45; 99% CI 1.15, 1.83) were more likely to be in the processed cluster at baseline and follow-up. Children whose parents were homemakers (OR 0.74; 99% CI 0.60, 0.92) were less likely to be in the processed cluster at baseline. A higher number of vulnerabilities was associated with a higher probability of children being in the processed cluster (OR 1.78; 99% CI 1.21, 2.62). Therefore, special attention should be paid to children of vulnerable groups as they present unhealthier dietary patterns.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2016
Keywords
Vulnerable groups, Dietary patterns, Inequalities, Socio-economic status, Children
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14411 (URN)10.1017/S0007114516003330 (DOI)000386911000016 ()27666744 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84988737023 (Scopus ID)
Note

Group Author(s): IDEFICS Consortium

Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Hebestreit, A., Barba, G., De Henauw, S., Eiben, G., Hadjigeorgiou, C., Kovacs, E., . . . Boernhorst, C. (2016). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy intake and BMI z-score in European children. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 13, Article ID 23.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy intake and BMI z-score in European children
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2016 (English)In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 13, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Evidence for the effect of dietary energy on BMI z-scores in young children is limited. We aim to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of daily energy intake (EI) on BMI z-scores of European boys and girls considering growth-related height dependencies of EI using residual EI. Methods: To investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of daily energy intake (EI) on BMI z-scores of European boys and girls considering growth-related height dependencies of EI using residual EI. Methods: Subjects were children aged 2-< 10 y old (N = 2753, 48.2 % girls) participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary-and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) baseline and follow-up examination. Usual EI (kcal/day) was calculated based on the National Cancer Institute-method excluding subjects with implausible reported EI. Effect of age, height and sex-adjusted residuals of EI on BMI z-score was investigated stratified by baseline age-group (2-< 4 y, 4-< 6 y, 6-< 8 y and 8-< 10 y) cross-sectionally using linear regression models adjusted for relevant confounders (crude model: age, sex, country; fully adjusted model: plus parental ISCED level, parental BMI, screen time; subgroup analysis: plus objectively measured physical activity). Longitudinal associations were estimated between changes in (Delta) residual EI per year and Delta BMI z-score per year with adjustments analogously to the cross-sectional models but with additional adjustment for residual EI at baseline. Results: Cross-sectionally, positive associations were observed between residual EI and BMI z-score for the full study sample, for boys and in older (>= 6 years) but not in younger children in the crude and fully adjusted model. Longitudinally, small positive associations were observed between Delta residual EI per y on Delta BMI z-score per y for the full study sample and in 4-< 6 y olds in the crude and fully adjusted model. Conclusion: In conclusion, EI above the average intakes for a certain sex, age and height are weakly associated with BMI z-scores in European children. Residual EI may be considered as a useful exposure measure in children as it accounts for growth-related changes in usual EI during childhood.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2016
Keywords
Residual energy intake, Europe, Cohort, BMI z-score, Children
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14423 (URN)10.1186/s12966-016-0344-3 (DOI)000370121200002 ()26879850 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84957961342 (Scopus ID)
Note

Group Author(s): IDEFICS Consortium

Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Bel-Serrat, S., Mouratidou, T., Pala, V., Huybrechts, I., Boernhorst, C., Fernandez-Alvira, J. M., . . . Moreno, L. A. (2014). Relative validity of the Children's Eating Habits Questionnaire- food frequency section among young European children: the IDEFICS Study. Public Health Nutrition, 17(2), 266-276
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relative validity of the Children's Eating Habits Questionnaire- food frequency section among young European children: the IDEFICS Study
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2014 (English)In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 266-276Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To compare, specifically by age group, proxy-reported food group estimates obtained from the food frequency section of the Children's Eating Habits questionnaire (CEHQ-FFQ) against the estimates of two non-consecutive 24h dietary recalls (24-HDR). Design: Estimates of food group intakes assessed via the forty-three-food-group CEHQ-FFQ were compared with those obtained by a computerized 24-HDR. Agreement on frequencies of intakes (equal to the number of portions per recall period) between the two instruments was examined using crude and de-attenuated Pearson's correlation coefficients, cross-classification analyses, weighted kappa statistics (kappa(w)) and Bland-Altman analysis. Setting: Kindergartens/schools from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) Study cross-sectional survey (2007-2008). Subjects: Children aged 2-9 years (n 2508, 50.4% boys). Results: The CEHQ-FFQ provided higher intake estimates for most of the food groups than the 24-HDR. De-attenuated Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.01 (sweetened fruit) to 0.48 (sweetened milk) in children aged 2-<6 years (mean = 0.25) and from 0.01 (milled cereal) to 0.44 (water) in children aged 6-9 years (mean = 0.23). An average of 32 % and 31 % of food group intakes were assigned to the same quartile in younger and older children, respectively, and classification into extreme opposite quartiles was <= 12 % for all food groups in both age groups. Mean kappa(w) was 0.20 for 2-<6-year-olds and 0.17 for 6-9-year-olds. Conclusions: The strength of association estimates assessed by the CEHQ-FFQ and the 24-HDR varied by food group and by age group. Observed level of agreement and CEHQ-FFQ ability to rank children according to intakes of food groups were considered to be low.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2014
Keywords
Relative validation, FFQ, 24 h Dietary recall, Children, Proxy reports
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14446 (URN)10.1017/S1368980012005368 (DOI)000332957800004 ()23286734 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84896479982 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Börnhorst, C., Huybrechts, I., Hebestreit, A., Vanaelst, B., Molnar, D., Bel-Serrat, S., . . . Pigeot, I. (2013). Diet-obesity associations in children: approaches to counteract attenuation caused by misreporting. Public Health Nutrition, 16(2), 256-266
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diet-obesity associations in children: approaches to counteract attenuation caused by misreporting
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2013 (English)In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 256-266Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Measurement errors in dietary data lead to attenuated estimates of associations between dietary exposures and health outcomes. The present study aimed to compare and evaluate different approaches of handling implausible reports by exemplary analysis of the association between dietary intakes (total energy, soft drinks, fruits/vegetables) and overweight/obesity in children. Design: Cross-sectional multicentre study. Setting: Kindergartens/schools from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS Study. Subjects: Children (n 5357) aged 2-9 years who provided one 24 h dietary recall and complete covariate information. Results: The 24 h recalls were classified into three reporting groups according to adapted Goldberg cut-offs: under-report, plausible report or over-report. In the basic logistic multilevel model (adjusted for age and sex, including study centre as random effect), the dietary exposures showed no significant association with overweight/obesity (energy intake: OR=0.996 (95% CI 0.983, 1.010); soft drinks: OR=0.999 (95% CI 0.986, 1.013)) and revealed even a positive association for fruits/vegetables (OR=1.009 (95% CI 1.001, 1.018)). When adding the reporting group (dummy variables) and a propensity score for misreporting as adjustment terms, associations became significant for energy intake as well as soft drinks (energy: OR=1.074 (95% CI 1.053, 1.096); soft drinks: OR=1.015 (95% CI 1.000, 1.031)) and the association between fruits/vegetables and overweight/obesity pointed to the reverse direction compared with the basic model (OR=0.993 (95% CI 0.984, 1.002)). Conclusions: Associations between dietary exposures and health outcomes are strongly affected or even masked by measurement errors. In the present analysis consideration of the reporting group and inclusion of a propensity score for misreporting turned out to be useful tools to counteract attenuation of effect estimates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2013
Keywords
Adjustment, Cross-sectional, Propensity score, Reporting group, 24 h Dietary recall
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14458 (URN)10.1017/S1368980012004491 (DOI)000313976100010 ()23046605 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84872140131 (Scopus ID)
Note

Group Author(s): IDEFICS Consortium

Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Hunsberger, M., Pena, P., Lissner, L., Grafstrom, L., Vanaelst, B., Boernhorst, C., . . . Eiben, G. (2013). Validity of self-reported lunch recalls in Swedish school children aged 6-8 years. Nutrition Journal, 12, Article ID 129.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validity of self-reported lunch recalls in Swedish school children aged 6-8 years
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2013 (English)In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 12, article id 129Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Previous studies have suggested that young children are inaccurate reporters of dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to validate a single recall of the previous day's school lunch reported by 6-8 year old Swedish children and to assess teacher-recorded intake of the same meal in a standardized food journal. An additional research question was whether parents could report their child's intake of the previous day's lunch. Subjects constituted a convenience sample from the large, multi-country study Identification and prevention of Dietary-and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS). Validations of both children's recalls and teachers' records were made by comparing results with the duplicate plate reference method. Findings: Twenty-five children (12 boys/13 girls) aged 6-8 years participated in the validation study at one school in western Sweden. Children were accurate self-reporters of their dietary intake at lunch, with no significant difference between reported and weighed intake (Mean difference (SD): 7(50) kcals, p=0.49). Teachers significantly over-reported intake (Mean difference (SD): 65(79) kcals, p=0.01). For both methods, child-reported and teacher-recorded, correlations with weighed intake were strong (Pearson's correlations r=0.92, p<0.001 and r=0.83, p<0.001 respectively). Bland-Altman plots showed strong agreement between child-reported and weighed intakes but confirmed systematic differences between teacher-records and weighed intakes. Foods were recalled by children with a food-match rate of 90%. In all cases parents themselves were unable to report on quantities consumed and only four of 25 children had parents with knowledge regarding food items consumed. Conclusions: Children 6-8 years of age accurately recalled their school lunch intake for one occasion while teachers recorded with less accuracy. Our findings suggest that children as young as six years of age may be better able to report on their dietary intake than previously suggested, at least for one main meal at school. Teacher-recorded intake provides a satisfactory estimate but with greater systematic deviation from the weighed intake. Parents were not able to report on their children's school lunches consumed on the previous day.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2013
Keywords
Dietary intake, 24-hour recall, Child reported dietary intake, Relative validation
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14450 (URN)10.1186/1475-2891-12-129 (DOI)000325210200001 ()24047239 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84884195165 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Lissner, L., Lanfer, A., Gwozdz, W., Olafsdottir, S., Eiben, G., Moreno, L. A., . . . Reisch, L. (2012). Television habits in relation to overweight, diet and taste preferences in European children: the IDEFICS study. European Journal of Epidemiology, 27(9), 705-715
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Television habits in relation to overweight, diet and taste preferences in European children: the IDEFICS study
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2012 (English)In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 705-715Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Early television exposure has been associated with various health outcomes including childhood obesity. This paper describes associations between patterns of television viewing, on one hand, and diet, taste preference and weight status, on the other, in European preschoolers and schoolchildren. The IDEFICS baseline survey was conducted at examination centers in Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Germany, Hungary, and Spain. 15,144 children aged 2-9 completed the basic protocol, including anthropometry and parental questionnaires on their diets and television habits. A subsample of 1,696 schoolchildren underwent further sensory testing for fat and sweet taste preferences. Three dichotomous indicators described: children's habitual television exposure time; television viewing during meals; and having televisions in their bedrooms. Based on these variables we investigated television habits in relation to overweight (IOTF) and usual consumption of foods high in fat and sugar. A possible role of taste preference in the latter association was tested in the sensory subgroup. All television indicators were significantly associated with increased risk of overweight, with odds ratios ranging from 1.21 to 1.30, in fully adjusted models. Children's propensities to consume high-fat and high-sugar foods were positively and, in most analyses, monotonically associated with high-risk television behaviors. The associations between television and diet propensities were not explained by preference for added fat or sugar in test foods. To summarize, in addition to being more overweight, children with high-risk television behaviors may, independent of objectively measured taste preferences for fat and sugar, passively overconsume higher-fat and particularly higher-sugar diets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2012
Keywords
Television, Diet, Taste preference, Childhood overweight
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14463 (URN)10.1007/s10654-012-9718-2 (DOI)000310589700005 ()22911022 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84871317605 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5438-970x

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