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Nilsson, Maria
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Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Alenljung, B. & Nilsson, M. (2012). Beslutstödssystem (1ed.). In: Jens Allwood, Mikael Jensen (Ed.), Kognitionsvetenskap: (pp. 595-602). Studentlitteratur
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beslutstödssystem
2012 (Swedish)In: Kognitionsvetenskap / [ed] Jens Allwood, Mikael Jensen, Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 595-602Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Studentlitteratur, 2012 Edition: 1
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-6958 (URN)978-91-44-05166-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-12-28 Created: 2012-12-28 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, M., van Laere, J., Susi, T. & Ziemke, T. (2012). Information fusion in practice: A distributed cognition perspective on the active role of users. Information Fusion, 13(1), 60-78
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Information fusion in practice: A distributed cognition perspective on the active role of users
2012 (English)In: Information Fusion, ISSN 1566-2535, E-ISSN 1872-6305, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 60-78Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Traditionally, the focus of most information fusion research has been on computational aspects, as illustrated by, for example, different versions of the JDL data fusion model. Consequently, the human user has mainly been conceived as a relatively passive recipient of fused information. However, the importance of understanding the active role of human information processing in information fusion is gaining increasing recognition, as also reflected in discussions of a "level 5" in the JDL model. This paper presents a case study of the interaction between human and machine information processing in a maritime surveillance control room. A detailed analysis of cognitive processes and information flows involved in identifying and tracking moving vessels illustrates how machines and human operators collaboratively perform fusion in a highly distributed fashion. The theoretical framework of distributed cognition provides an alternative or complementary way of analysing information fusion systems/processes that more clearly reveals the actual complexities of the interaction between human and machine information processing in practice. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keywords
Human-computer interaction, Human factors, Distributed cognition, Maritime surveillance, User-fusion, User refinement
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-5462 (URN)10.1016/j.inffus.2011.01.005 (DOI)000296991100006 ()2-s2.0-80053950119 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-02-22 Created: 2012-02-22 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Alenljung, B. & Nilsson, M. (2012). Människa-dator-interaktion (1ed.). In: Jens Allwood, Mikael Jensen (Ed.), Kognitionsvetenskap: (pp. 573-581). Studentlitteratur
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Människa-dator-interaktion
2012 (Swedish)In: Kognitionsvetenskap / [ed] Jens Allwood, Mikael Jensen, Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 573-581Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Studentlitteratur, 2012 Edition: 1
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-6957 (URN)978-91-44-05166-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-12-28 Created: 2012-12-28 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, M. (2010). Capturing Semi-Automated Decision Making: The Methodology of CASADEMA. (Doctoral dissertation). Örebro: Örebro University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capturing Semi-Automated Decision Making: The Methodology of CASADEMA
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents a new methodology named CASADEMA (CApturing Semi-Automated DEcision MAking) which captures the interaction between humans and the technology they use to support their decision-making within the domain of Information Fusion. We are particularly interested in characterising the interaction between human decision makers and artefacts in semi-automated fusion processes. In our investigation we found that the existing approaches are limited in their ability to capture such interactions in sufficient detail. The presented method is built upon a distributed-cognition perspective. The use of this particular theoretical framework from cognitive science enables the method to take into account not only the role of the data captured in the physical and digital artefacts of the fusion system (e.g., radar readings, information from a fax or database, a piece of paper, etc.), but also the cognitive support function of the artefacts themselves (e.g., as an external memory) as part of the fusion process. That is, the interdependencies between the fusion process and decision-making can be captured. This thesis thus contributes to two main fields. Firstly, it enables, through CASADEMA, a distributed-cognition perspective of fusion processes in the, otherwise, rather technology-oriented field of Information Fusion. This has important conceptual implications, since it views fusion processes as extending beyond the boundary of physical/computer systems, to include humans, technology, and tools, as well as the interactions between them. It is argued that a better understanding of these interactions can lead to a better design of fusion processes, making CASADEMA an important contribution to the information fusion field. Secondly, the thesis provides, again in the form of CASADEMA, a practical application of the distributed-cognition theoretical framework. Importantly, the notations and definitions introduced in CASADEMA structure the otherwise currently rather loosely defined concepts and approaches in distributed cognition research. Hence, the work presented here also contributes to the fields of cognitive science and human-computer interaction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University, 2010. p. 200
Series
Örebro Studies in Technology, ISSN 1650-8580 ; 43
Keywords
Decision Making, Distributed Cognition, Human-Computer Interaction, Information Fusion, Semi-Automated processes
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-4698 (URN)978-91-7668-774-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2011-02-15 Created: 2011-02-01 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
van Laere, J. & Nilsson, M. (2009). Evaluation of a workshop to capture knowledge from subject matter experts in maritime surveillance. In: Information Fusion, 2009. FUSION '09. 12th International Conference on: . Paper presented at 12th International Conference on Information Fusion, FUSION 2009, Seattle, WA, United States, 6-9 July 2009 (pp. 171-178). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of a workshop to capture knowledge from subject matter experts in maritime surveillance
2009 (English)In: Information Fusion, 2009. FUSION '09. 12th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 171-178Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on a brainstorming workshop with subject matter experts that aimed at identifying potential anomalies for world wide maritime surveillance. An extensive description of the workshop process and output is presented. The evaluation consists of two parts. First, the output of the workshop is compared with the output of a similar workshop as presented in Roy [1]. Secondly, the methodological differences between capturing know-how of subject matter experts in a workshop versus observing daily work of operators, as applied in Nilsson et al [2], is discussed. The conclusions are that brainstorming workshops and field studies should be combined to compensate for their weaknesses. Also, the outcomes of both methods heavily depend on the selection of operators to be observed, respectively the selection of subject matter experts invited. A final recommendation is that multiple studies and workshops are needed until no ‘new’ anomalies are identified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2009
Keywords
Maritime Surveillance, Anomalies, User Study, HCI, Situation Awareness
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-3454 (URN)000273560000023 ()2-s2.0-70449419697 (Scopus ID)978-0-9824438-0-4 (ISBN)
Conference
12th International Conference on Information Fusion, FUSION 2009, Seattle, WA, United States, 6-9 July 2009
Available from: 2009-10-20 Created: 2009-10-20 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Blasch, E., Valin, P., Bosse, E., Nilsson, M., van Laere, J. & Shahbazian, E. (2009). Implication of Culture: User Roles in Information Fusion for Enhanced Situational Understanding. In: Information Fusion, 2009. FUSION '09. 12th International Conference on: . Paper presented at Information Fusion, 2009. FUSION '09. 12th International Conference on (pp. 1272-1279). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implication of Culture: User Roles in Information Fusion for Enhanced Situational Understanding
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2009 (English)In: Information Fusion, 2009. FUSION '09. 12th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 1272-1279Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Information Fusion coordinates large-volume data processing machines to address user needs. Users expect a situational picture to extend their ability of sensing events, movements, and activities. Typically, data is collected and processed for object location (e.g. target identification) and movement (e.g. tracking); however, high-level reasoning or situational understanding depends on the spatial, cultural, and political effects. In this paper, we explore opportunities where information fusion can aid in the selection and processing of the data for enhanced tacit knowledge understanding by (1) display fusion for data presentation (e.g. cultural segmentation), (2) interactive fusion to allow the user to inject a priori knowledge (e..g. cultural values), and (3) associated metrics of predictive capabilities (e.g. cultural networks). In a simple scenario, cultural information impacts on situational understanding from deception is demonstrated using the Technology-Emotion-Culture-Knowledge (TECK) attributes of the Observer-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2009
Keywords
Fusion, Situational Assessment, Interface Design, Knowledge Representation, User Refinement
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-3412 (URN)000273560001018 ()978-0-9824438-0-4 (ISBN)
Conference
Information Fusion, 2009. FUSION '09. 12th International Conference on
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Andler, S. F., Fredin, M., Gustavsson, P. M., van Laere, J., Nilsson, M. & Svenson, P. (2009). SMARTracIn: a concept for spoof resistant tracking of vessels and detection of adverse intentions. In: Edward M. Carapezza (Ed.), Sensors, and Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Technologies for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense VIII: . Paper presented at Conference on Sensors, and Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Technologies for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense VIII : Orlando, FL : APR 15-17, 2009 (pp. 73050G-1-73050G-9). SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, Article ID 73050G.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SMARTracIn: a concept for spoof resistant tracking of vessels and detection of adverse intentions
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2009 (English)In: Sensors, and Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Technologies for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense VIII / [ed] Edward M. Carapezza, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2009, p. 73050G-1-73050G-9, article id 73050GConference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of maritime surveillance systems is to detect threats earlyenough to take appropriate actions. We present the results ofa study on maritime domain awareness performed during the fallof 2008. We analyze an identified capability gap of worldwidesurveillance in the maritime domain, and report from a userworkshop addressing the identified gap. We describe a SMARTracIn conceptsystem that integrates information from surveillance systems with background knowledgeon normal conditions to help users detect and visualize anomaliesin vessel traffic. Land-based systems that cover the coastal watersas well as airborne, space-borne and ships covering open seaare considered. Sensor data are combined with intelligence information fromship reporting systems and databases. We describe how information fusion,anomaly detection and semantic technology can be used to helpusers achieve more detailed maritime domain awareness. Human operators area vital part of this system and should be activecomponents in the fusion process. We focus on the problemof detecting anomalous behavior in ocean-going traffic, and a roomand door segmentation concept to achieve this. This requires theability to identify vessels that enter into areas covered bysensors as well as the use of information management systemsthat allow us to quickly find all relevant information.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2009
Series
Proceedings of SPIE, ISSN 0277-786X ; Volume 7305
Keywords
Maritime domain awareness, tracking, information fusion, early warning
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-3953 (URN)10.1117/12.818567 (DOI)000292552700011 ()2-s2.0-69649086095 (Scopus ID)9780819475718 (ISBN)
Conference
Conference on Sensors, and Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Technologies for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense VIII : Orlando, FL : APR 15-17, 2009
Available from: 2010-05-24 Created: 2010-05-20 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, M., van Laere, J., Ziemke, T., Berggren, P. & Kylesten, B. (2008). A user study of the Impact matrix, a fusion based decision support for enhanced situation awareness. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion 2008 (FUSION 2008): . Paper presented at 11th International Conference on Information Fusion, Cologne, Germany, 30 June-3 July 2008 (pp. 440-447). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A user study of the Impact matrix, a fusion based decision support for enhanced situation awareness
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2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion 2008 (FUSION 2008), IEEE conference proceedings, 2008, p. 440-447Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

 Today’s asymmetric threats put new challenges on military decision making. As new technology develops we have new possibilities to support decision making in such environments. However, it is important that the tools developed take into account users’ (commanders’) decision needs. This paper presents some initial user studies of Swedish commanders testing a prototype application developed to answer these new challenges introduced by asymmetric threats. The application aids commanders by supporting situation awareness in terms of providing an overview of incoming intelligence reports and displaying probabilities of future events. The user study focuses on how the tool can support commanders’ daily decision making activities. The results indicate that the general concept could be useful for Swedish commanders and analysts, but some suggestions for improvements are made. The issues found in this study will inform the continuing evaluation of this tool.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2008
Keywords
Information fusion, HCI, decision support, decision making, user study, situation awareness
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-2422 (URN)10.1109/ICIF.2008.4632244 (DOI)2-s2.0-56749128117 (Scopus ID)978-3-00-024883-2 (ISBN)978-3-8007-3092-6 (ISBN)
Conference
11th International Conference on Information Fusion, Cologne, Germany, 30 June-3 July 2008
Available from: 2008-12-03 Created: 2008-12-03 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, M. (2008). Characterising User Interaction to Inform Information-Fusion-Driven Decision Support. In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series. Paper presented at 15th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics the Ergonomics of Cool Interaction, ECCE 2008;Funchal;16 September 2008through19 September 2008 (pp. 10-13). ACM Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterising User Interaction to Inform Information-Fusion-Driven Decision Support
2008 (English)In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, ACM Press, 2008, p. 10-13Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Motivation – The motivation is to extend the current technology driven design approach in information fusion by characterising how users interact with and are active components in information fusion based decision support.

Research approach – A combination of theoretical and empirical investigations has been chosen to examine how users interact with information fusion based decision support.

Findings/Design – The results define the building blocks for a future framework. So far, a new decision support class, i.e., fusion driven decision support, has been suggested. The class characterises the information fusion process, the users’ role, and factors that affect interactions with such systems. Also, the result indicates that Distributed Cognition is a useful tool for capturing semi-automated information fusion processes.

Research limitations/Implications – So far, the building blocks for a framework, which capture users and information fusion systems, have been identified and further studies are needed in order to fully develop the framework.

Originality/Value – The characterisation of the user makes a contribution to the technologically oriented research field of information fusion, which most often considers users as passive receivers of information. In addition, the research makes a contribution to the field of decision support by extending the current list of decision support classes with semi-automated decision support.

Take away message – Unlike common beliefs, the information fusion process extends the boundary of the physical system, to include humans, technology, tools and the interactions among them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Press, 2008
Series
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series ; 369
Keywords
Information fusion, decision support, user interaction
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-2563 (URN)10.1145/1473018.1473023 (DOI)2-s2.0-77953775533 (Scopus ID)978-1-60558-399-0 (ISBN)
Conference
15th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics the Ergonomics of Cool Interaction, ECCE 2008;Funchal;16 September 2008through19 September 2008
Available from: 2009-01-21 Created: 2009-01-21 Last updated: 2017-11-27
Nilsson, M., van Laere, J., Ziemke, T. & Edlund, J. (2008). Extracting rules from expert operators to support situation awareness in maritime surveillance. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2008): . Paper presented at 11th International Conference on Information Fusion, Cologne, Germany, 30 June-3 July 2008 (pp. 908-915). IEEE Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extracting rules from expert operators to support situation awareness in maritime surveillance
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2008), IEEE Press, 2008, p. 908-915Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

 In maritime surveillance, supporting operators’ situation awareness is a very important issue for enabling the possibility to detect anomalous behaviour. We present a user study which conceptualises knowledge to be implemented in a rulebased application aiming at supporting situation awareness. Participatory observations were used as a method for extracting operators’ knowledge. The result of the user study is in the form of a number of identified rules emerging from organisational factors, group thinking and individual experience. A description of the rule-based prototype is presented a long with the result from the user study. This is also discussed together with the applicability of rule based systems and how to support situation awareness.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2008
Keywords
Information fusion, situation awareness, maritime surveillance, knowledge elicitation, expert systems
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-2421 (URN)10.1109/ICIF.2008.4632308 (DOI)2-s2.0-56749140813 (Scopus ID)978-3-00-024883-2 (ISBN)978-3-8007-3092-6 (ISBN)
Conference
11th International Conference on Information Fusion, Cologne, Germany, 30 June-3 July 2008
Available from: 2008-12-03 Created: 2008-12-03 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
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