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van Laere, J., Ibrahim, O., Larsson, A., Olsson, L., Johansson, B. & Gustavsson, P. (2018). Analyzing the Implications of Design Choices in Existing Simulation-Games for Critical Infrastructure Resilience. In: Heide Karen Lukosch; Geertje Bekebrede; Rens Kortmann (Ed.), Heide Karen Lukosch, Geertje Bekebrede, Rens Kortmann (Ed.), Simulation Gaming: Applications for Sustainable Cities and Smart Infrastructures: 48th International Simulation and GamingAssociation Conference, ISAGA 2017 Delft, The Netherlands, July 10–14, 2017 Revised Selected Papers. Paper presented at 48th International Simulation and Gaming Association Conference, ISAGA 2017 Delft, The Netherlands, July 10–14, 2017 (pp. 15-23). Paper presented at 48th International Simulation and Gaming Association Conference, ISAGA 2017 Delft, The Netherlands, July 10–14, 2017. Cham: Springer, 10825
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing the Implications of Design Choices in Existing Simulation-Games for Critical Infrastructure Resilience
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2018 (English)In: Simulation Gaming: Applications for Sustainable Cities and Smart Infrastructures: 48th International Simulation and GamingAssociation Conference, ISAGA 2017 Delft, The Netherlands, July 10–14, 2017 Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Heide Karen Lukosch; Geertje Bekebrede; Rens Kortmann, Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 10825, p. 15-23Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A literature study has identified the major impacts of importantdesign choices in simulation models and simulation-games that model criticalinfrastructure resilience. The four major groups of design choices discussed inthis article are: (1) the chosen learning goal (system understanding or collaborationtraining), (2) realism and time scale of the scenario, (3) design of playerroles and communication rules, (4) number of action alternatives, replay-abilityand richness of performance feedback while playing. Researchers and practitionerswho build simulation-games for studying critical infrastructure resiliencecan use the accumulated insights on these four aspects to improve the quality oftheir game design and the quality of the simulation models the game participantsinteract with.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2018
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science 10825, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 10825
Keywords
Design choices, Critical infrastructures, Resilience, Gaming-simulation, Simulation
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15759 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-91902-7_2 (DOI)000465823100002 ()2-s2.0-85048038239 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-91901-0 (ISBN)978-3-319-91902-7 (ISBN)
Conference
48th International Simulation and Gaming Association Conference, ISAGA 2017 Delft, The Netherlands, July 10–14, 2017
Projects
CCRAAAFFFTING
Available from: 2018-06-21 Created: 2018-06-21 Last updated: 2023-01-03Bibliographically approved
van Laere, J., Berggren, P., Gustavsson, P., Ibrahim, O., Johansson, B., Larsson, A., . . . Wiberg, C. (2017). Challenges for critical infrastructure resilience: cascading effects of payment system disruptions. In: Tina Comes; Frédérick Bénaben; Chihab Hanachi; Matthieu Lauras; Aurélie Montarnal (Ed.), : . Paper presented at 14th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM2017), Albi, France, May 21-24, 2017 (pp. 281-292). ISCRAM, 14, Article ID 1464.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges for critical infrastructure resilience: cascading effects of payment system disruptions
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2017 (English)In: / [ed] Tina Comes; Frédérick Bénaben; Chihab Hanachi; Matthieu Lauras; Aurélie Montarnal, ISCRAM, 2017, Vol. 14, p. 281-292, article id 1464Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Critical infrastructures become more and more entangled and rely extensively on information technology. Adeeper insight into the relationships between critical infrastructures enables the actors involved to more quicklyunderstand the severity of information technology disruptions and to identify robust cross-functional mitigatingactions. This study illustrates how and why disruptions in the payment system in Sweden could create cascadingeffects in other critical infrastructures with potentially severe consequences for many citizens, governmentinstitutions and companies. Data from document studies, interviews and workshops with field experts revealseven challenges for collective cross-functional critical infrastructure resilience that need to be dealt with: 1)Shortage of food, fuel, cash, medicine; 2) Limited capacity of alternative payment solutions; 3) Cities are morevulnerable than the countryside; 4) Economically vulnerable groups in society are more severely affected; 5)Trust maintenance needs; 6) Crisis communication needs; 7) Fragmentation of responsibility for criticalinfrastructures across many actors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ISCRAM, 2017
Series
ISCRAM Proceedings, E-ISSN 2411-3387 ; 2017
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13553 (URN)2-s2.0-85030706059 (Scopus ID)
Conference
14th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM2017), Albi, France, May 21-24, 2017
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, 2016-3046
Available from: 2017-03-23 Created: 2017-05-11 Last updated: 2023-01-03Bibliographically approved
Atif, Y., Ding, J., Lindström, B., Jeusfeld, M., Andler, S. F., Yuning, J., . . . Gustavsson, P. M. (2017). Cyber-Threat Intelligence Architecture for Smart-Grid Critical Infrastructures Protection. In: : . Paper presented at The International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, CRITIS 2017, Lucca, Italy, October 8-13, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cyber-Threat Intelligence Architecture for Smart-Grid Critical Infrastructures Protection
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Critical infrastructures (CIs) are becoming increasingly sophisticated with embedded cyber-physical systems (CPSs) that provide managerial automation and autonomic controls. Yet these advances expose CI components to new cyber-threats, leading to a chain of dysfunctionalities with catastrophic socio-economical implications. We propose a comprehensive architectural model to support the development of incident management tools that provide situation-awareness and cyber-threats intelligence for CI protection, with a special focus on smart-grid CI. The goal is to unleash forensic data from CPS-based CIs to perform some predictive analytics. In doing so, we use some AI (Artificial Intelligence) paradigms for both data collection, threat detection, and cascade-effects prediction. 

Keywords
critical infrastructures, cyber-threat, situation awareness, smart-grid, machine-learning, artificial intelligence, multi-agent systems
National Category
Computer Sciences Embedded Systems Energy Systems Remote Sensing Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems; Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14516 (URN)
Conference
The International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, CRITIS 2017, Lucca, Italy, October 8-13, 2017
Projects
ELVIRA
Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2023-01-02Bibliographically approved
Riveiro, M., Gustavsson, P. M., Lebram, M., Bengstsson, M., Blomqvist, P. & Wallinius, M. (2016). Enhanced Training through Interactive Visualization of Training Objectives and Models. In: Proceedings of the STO-MP-MSG-143, Ready for the Predictable, Prepared for the Unexpected: M&S for Collective Defence in Hybrid Environments and Hybrid Conflicts. Paper presented at 2016 NATO Modelling & Simulation Group (NMSG) Symposium, Bucharest, Romania, October 20-21, 2016. NATO Science & Technology Organization (STO)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced Training through Interactive Visualization of Training Objectives and Models
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2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the STO-MP-MSG-143, Ready for the Predictable, Prepared for the Unexpected: M&S for Collective Defence in Hybrid Environments and Hybrid Conflicts, NATO Science & Technology Organization (STO) , 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Military forces operate in complex and dynamic environments [1] where bad decisions might have fatal consequences. A key ability of the commander, team and individual warfighter is to quickly adapt to novel situations. Live, Virtual and Constructive training environments all provide elements of best practices for this type of training. However, many of the virtual training are designed without thorough consideration of the effectiveness and efficiency of embedded instructional strategies [2], and without considering the cognitive capabilities and limitations of trainees. As highlighted recently by Stacy and Freeman [3], large military training exercises require a significant commitment of resources, and to net a return on that investment, training scenarios for these events should systematically address well-specified training objectives, even if they often, do not.

In order to overcome these shortcomings with both Live and Virtual training systems and following our previous work [4,5,6], this paper presents a design solution for a proof-of-concept prototype that visualizes and manages training objectives and performance measures, at individual and collective levels. To illustrate its functionality we use real-world data from Live training exercises. Finally, this paper discusses how to learn from previous training experiences using data mining methods in order to build training models to provide instructional personalized feedback to trainees.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATO Science & Technology Organization (STO), 2016
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Technology; Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL); Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13129 (URN)978-92-837-2060-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2016 NATO Modelling & Simulation Group (NMSG) Symposium, Bucharest, Romania, October 20-21, 2016
Projects
NOVA 20140294 (Knowledge Foundation)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20140294
Available from: 2016-11-22 Created: 2016-11-22 Last updated: 2023-01-03Bibliographically approved
Yano, E. T., de Abreu, W., Gustavsson, P. M. & Åhlfeldt, R.-M. (2015). A framework to support the development of Cyber Resiliency with Situational Awareness Capability. In: 20th ICCRTS Proceedings: C2, Cyber, and Trust. Paper presented at 20th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, June 16-19, Annapolis, Maryland, USA. International Command and Control Institute
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A framework to support the development of Cyber Resiliency with Situational Awareness Capability
2015 (English)In: 20th ICCRTS Proceedings: C2, Cyber, and Trust, International Command and Control Institute , 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cybersecurity success is essentially the result of an effective risk management process. However, this process is being challenged by the inherent complexity of systems, developed with vulnerable components and protocols, and the crescent sophistication of attackers, now backed by well-resourced criminal organizations and nations. With this scenario of uncertainties and high volume of events, it is essential the ability of cyber resiliency. Cyber resiliency is the ability of a system, organization, mission, or business process to anticipate, withstand, recover from, and adapt capabilities in the face of adversary conditions, stresses, or attacks on the cyber resources it needs to function. In the present work, it is presented a framework for cyber resiliency where a segmentation strategy and the Intrusion Kill Chain (IKC) attack model, developed by Lockheed-Martin, are central elements. Segmentation allows the construction of a layered defense, where the highest-priority assets are in the inner layers and the attackers are forced to surpass several layers to reach them. The IKC attack model is a model of seven phases that the attackers must perform to achieve their goals. Each segment is supposed to be designed with the best efforts to prevent, detect and contain an IKC. According to the Situational Awareness (SA) model of Endsley, the Level of Perception is achieved through sensors connected to the controls of prevention, detection and containment of IKC in different segments. The Level of Understanding is obtained by identifying the segments impacted by the attackers, and the Level of Projection by the identification of the next segments to be attacked and defense actions required to contain this advance. The use of the framework leads to the development of a structured set of defense mechanisms, and supports the development of SA capability to allow defenders to make correct decisions in order to maintain the mission even under a heavy attack

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Command and Control Institute, 2015
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Technology; Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11629 (URN)
Conference
20th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, June 16-19, Annapolis, Maryland, USA
Available from: 2015-10-27 Created: 2015-10-27 Last updated: 2023-01-03Bibliographically approved
Rego, I. d., Amorim, J. d., Gustavsson, P. M. & Andler, S. F. (2015). Multimedia production projects: Relevant issues and possible models for mobile learning. In: Mohamed Ally and Badrul H. Khan (Ed.), International Handbook of E-Learning Volume 2: Implementation and Case Studies (pp. 69-76). New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multimedia production projects: Relevant issues and possible models for mobile learning
2015 (English)In: International Handbook of E-Learning Volume 2: Implementation and Case Studies / [ed] Mohamed Ally and Badrul H. Khan, New York: Routledge, 2015, p. 69-76Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Routledge, 2015
National Category
Computer Sciences Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13058 (URN)000383667900009 ()2-s2.0-84957403007 (Scopus ID)978-1-315-76090-2 (ISBN)978-1-138-79372-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-10-27 Created: 2016-10-27 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Amorim, J. A., Yano, E. T., Åhlfeldt, R.-M., Andler, S. F. & Gustavsson, P. M. (2014). Awareness and training: Identification of relevant security skills and competencies. In: Claudio da Rocha Brito, Melany M. Ciampi (Ed.), Engineering Education in a Technology-Dependent World: Book of Abstracts. Paper presented at INTERTECH'2014 - XIII International Conference on Engineering and Technology Education, March 16-19, 2014, Guimarães, portugal (pp. 37). Guimarães: INTERTECH
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Awareness and training: Identification of relevant security skills and competencies
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2014 (English)In: Engineering Education in a Technology-Dependent World: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Claudio da Rocha Brito, Melany M. Ciampi, Guimarães: INTERTECH , 2014, , p. 57p. 37-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In order to identify needed skills and competencies for privacy and security, we propose a systematic process that maps privacy and security threats to related controls that are required to prevent, detect or remove such threats. This work suggests how to apply the process, while discussing how games and simulations can be used both to develop the desired behavior and to monitor the current competency level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Guimarães: INTERTECH, 2014. p. 57
Series
Proceedings of International Conference on Engineering and Technology Education, ISSN 2317-4382 ; Vol 13
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Technology; Information Systems; Distributed Real-Time Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-9920 (URN)978-85-65992-28-2 (ISBN)978-85-66680-28-7 (ISBN)
Conference
INTERTECH'2014 - XIII International Conference on Engineering and Technology Education, March 16-19, 2014, Guimarães, portugal
Available from: 2014-09-09 Created: 2014-09-09 Last updated: 2019-11-12Bibliographically approved
Pozzer, C., Amorim, J. A., Gustavsson, P. M., Mellin, J., Heldal, I. & Azevedo, A. T. (2014). Imprecise Computation as an Enabler for Complex and Time Critical HLA Simulation Networks. In: Proceedings of Simulation Interoperability Workshop: . Paper presented at Fall Simulation Interoperability Workshop, 2014 Fall SIW; Orlando; United States; 8 September 2014 through 12 September 2014 (pp. 171-179).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Imprecise Computation as an Enabler for Complex and Time Critical HLA Simulation Networks
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2014 (English)In: Proceedings of Simulation Interoperability Workshop, 2014, p. 171-179Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A trend over the past years is that simulation systems for training are being connected in simulation networks, allowing the interaction of teams spread in distributed sites. By combining interconnected simulation systems the simulation complexity increases and may affect time-critical simulation tasks in a negative way. As a consequence, the training simulation objectives may not be met. The same problem may occur when performing, for example, mission rehearsal on site, since available computation resources are usually very limited in this scenario, or for a joint fires scenario, where the large and complex functional chain (including intelligence, C2, forward observer, pilots, etc.) may overload existing resources. In this work, the technique of imprecise computation in real-time systems (ICRS) to preserve time-critical simulation tasks is presented. The ICRS technique allows time-critical tasks to produce quicker solutions for approximate results and saves computational resources. This paper discusses the main advantages of theICRS technique by a review of the commonly used optimization concepts built upon imprecise computation field. Thepaper ends with presenting a work-in-progress: an architectural solution for aligning ICRS with the High Level Architecture (HLA), standardized as the IEEE 1516-series.

Keywords
scheduling for imprecise computation, HLA, simulation, joint fires, real-time systems, integration
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Technology; Distributed Real-Time Systems; Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-9891 (URN)2-s2.0-84910115603 (Scopus ID)9781634393898 (ISBN)
Conference
Fall Simulation Interoperability Workshop, 2014 Fall SIW; Orlando; United States; 8 September 2014 through 12 September 2014
Projects
Agent-orient large-scale complex virtual environments
Available from: 2014-09-04 Created: 2014-09-04 Last updated: 2023-01-03Bibliographically approved
Mellin, J., Pozzer, C., Heldal, I. & Gustavsson, P. M. (2014). Using Imprecise Computation for Virtual and Constructive Simulations. In: A. Tolk, S. Y. Diallo, I. O. Ryzhov, L. Yilmaz, S. Buckley, & J. A. Miller (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2014 Winter Simulation Conference: . Paper presented at 2014 Winter Simulation Conference (WSC), December 7-10, 2014, Savannah, USA (pp. 4043-4044). IEEE Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Imprecise Computation for Virtual and Constructive Simulations
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2014 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] A. Tolk, S. Y. Diallo, I. O. Ryzhov, L. Yilmaz, S. Buckley, & J. A. Miller, IEEE Press, 2014, p. 4043-4044Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this work, we raise three critical questions that must be investigated to ameliorate composability ofvirtual simulation models and to enable adoption of systematic and stringent real-time techniques toenable more scalable simulation models for virtual and constructive simulation. The real-time techniquesin question enable us to separate between policies and mechanisms and, thus, the simulation engine candecide dynamically how to run the simulation given the existing resources (e.g., processor) and the goalsof the simulation (e.g., sufficient fidelity in terms of timing and accuracy). The three critical questionsare: (i) how to design efficient and effective algorithms for making dynamic simulation model designdecisions during simulation; (ii) how to map simulation entities (e.g., agents) into (real-time) tasks; and(iii) how to enable a divide and conquer approach to validating simulation models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2014
Keywords
virtual simulation, constructive simulation, scalability, agent-oriented, resource management
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Natural sciences; Distributed Real-Time Systems; Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10470 (URN)978-1-4799-7486-3 (ISBN)
Conference
2014 Winter Simulation Conference (WSC), December 7-10, 2014, Savannah, USA
Available from: 2014-12-21 Created: 2014-12-21 Last updated: 2023-01-03Bibliographically approved
Amorim, J. A., Hendrix, M., Andler, S. F., Llinas, J., Gustavsson, P. M. & Brodin, M. (2013). Cyber Security Training Perspectives. In: : . Paper presented at 2013 Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (ACSAC), New Orleans, December 9–13, 2013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cyber Security Training Perspectives
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2013 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Building comprehensive cyber security strategies to protect people, infrastructure and assets demands research on methods and practices to reduce risks. Once the methods and practices are identified, there is a need to develop training for the manystakeholders involved, from security experts to the end user. In thispaper, we discuss new approaches for training, which includes the development of serious games for training on cyber security. The identification of the theoretical framework to be used for situation and threat assessment receives special consideration.

Keywords
Cyber Security, Information Fusion, Serious Games, Training
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10363 (URN)
Conference
2013 Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (ACSAC), New Orleans, December 9–13, 2013
Available from: 2014-12-09 Created: 2014-12-09 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9423-9079

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