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Publications (8 of 8) Show all publications
Akl, Z., Akl, M., Eriksson, C., Gifford, M. & Dalal, K. (2019). Evaluating seat belt use in Lebanon (1997-2017). Open Public Health Journal, 12(1), 127-135
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating seat belt use in Lebanon (1997-2017)
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2019 (English)In: Open Public Health Journal, ISSN 1874-9445, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 127-135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: The use of seat belts has made a significant contribution to the reduction of road traffic casualties, and the risk inherent with not wearing seat belts in all seats of a vehicle is now well-known worldwide. The use of seat belts has a major role in reducing fatal and nonfatal injuries in all types of motor-vehicles crashes. Aim: The aim of this study is to understand the reasons behind the variation in seat belt use over the past two decades in Lebanon. It analyzes the situation and suggests recommendations to improve seat belt use in Lebanon. Design: Nine observational studies had been conducted in Lebanon during the last two decades between 1997 and 2017, and one qualitative study was performed in 2017. Results: The results show a significant variation in the use of the seat belt. When enforcement efforts are in progress, seat belt use increases. While when there are no checkpoints and the enforcement of seat belt use is almost absent, a significant fall was noticed. Discussion: The results of this study proved the failure of the Lebanese government in saving hundreds of lives just by a simple measure of enforcing seat belt law. Although experiences from various countries prove that such laws usually have a long-lasting effect on seat belt use, Lebanon failed to pursue the successful implementation of this law due to security and political problems. Conclusion: During the past two decades, Lebanon witnessed continuous fluctuations in seat belt use. Outside few short enforcement campaigns, our observations showed lack in seat belt use. Our observations of seat belt use among drivers and front seat passengers showed a significant correlation between seat belt use and the enforcement of seat belt law. The greatest national benefits from seat belt use are obtained when wearing rates are very high. This can be achieved only through a sustained enforcement campaign alongside other seat belt wearing interventions such as publicity and education. © 2019 Open Public Health Journal. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bentham Science Publishers B.V., 2019
Keywords
Injury prevention, Law enforcement, Lebanon, Media campaigns, Road Traffic Injuries (RTI), Seat belts
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Law and Society
Research subject
Individual and Society VIDSOC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17580 (URN)10.2174/1874944501912010127 (DOI)2-s2.0-85070240780 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-23 Created: 2019-08-23 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved
Dalal, K., Lee, M.-S., Ussatayeva, G. & Gifford, M. (2015). Female genital mutilation: a multi-country study. HealthMed, 9(4), 161-167
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Female genital mutilation: a multi-country study
2015 (English)In: HealthMed, ISSN 1840-2291, E-ISSN 1986-8103, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 161-167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
DRUNPP, 2015
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Woman, Child and Family (WomFam)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10842 (URN)
Available from: 2015-04-16 Created: 2015-04-16 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Wang, S. M., Zou, J. L., Gifford, M. & Dalal, K. (2014). Young students' knowledge and perception of health and fitness: A study in Shanghai, China. Health Education Journal, 73(1), 20-27
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Young students' knowledge and perception of health and fitness: A study in Shanghai, China
2014 (English)In: Health Education Journal, ISSN 0017-8969, E-ISSN 1748-8176, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 20-27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: This study investigated how young urban students conceptualize health and fitness and tried to identify their sources of information about health-related issues. The findings are intended to help make suggestions for policy makers to design and develop effective health-education strategies. Methods: Focus group discussions (FGDs) of 20 groups, each comprised of eight 10th-grade students, were carried out. In total 160 students participated in the FGDs. Results: Young students' knowledge and perceptions about health and fitness had certain limitations, although most of the students emphasized the importance of good health and felt that they knew the meaning of health and fitness. They were most concerned with physical health and failed to consider other aspects of health such as mental/psychological, behavioural and social aspects. This represents a lack of awareness of contemporary conceptions of health and illness. Conclusion: These findings are important when considering the design of effective high school health education strategies that meet state content standards and for influencing students to continue participating in health-promoting activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2014
Keywords
China, fitness, health, high school students, qualitative
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16610 (URN)10.1177/0017896912469565 (DOI)000328881400003 ()2-s2.0-84891414801 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-08 Created: 2019-02-08 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
Lundh, D., Hedelin, H., Jonsson, K., Gifford, M. & Larsson, D. (2013). Assessing chronic pelvic pain syndrome patients: Blood plasma factors and cortisol saliva. Scandinavian Journal of Urology, 47(6), 521-528
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing chronic pelvic pain syndrome patients: Blood plasma factors and cortisol saliva
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2013 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology, ISSN 2168-1813, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 521-528Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective. The aim of this study was to identify changes in inflammatory molecules in the blood (plasma) of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic syndrome (CP/CPPS) compared with controls. Altered levels indicate a systemic component by possible involvement of the prostate and/or the inner pelvic floor musculature. Material and methods. In 32 patients with CP/CPPS and 37 controls, blood plasma levels of testosterone, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), TNF-beta, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-1 beta were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cortisol in saliva samples was measured in the morning and late evening. All participants answered a questionnaire regarding their health profile. Results. Significantly higher levels of MIF (p = 0.012) were detected in patients. The testosterone level was, contrary to other studies, little lower in patients (p = 0.014; age adjusted). When controls with health issues and patients with a parallel disease were excluded, the MIF and TNF-alpha levels were higher in the patients (p = 0.007, p = 0.016, respectively) than in controls, and the testosterone was slightly lower in patients (p = 0.047). Conclusions. The findings show an immune response extending to the circulatory system, in which MIF makes a significant contribution to CP/CPPS. This study also indicates TNF-alpha as a circulatory component when excluding subjects with concomitant diseases. Both MIF and TNF-alpha have previously been highlighted for other diseases related to chronic pain and here also for CP/CPPS. These results provide further insights into the immunological basis of CP/CPPS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Informa Healthcare, 2013
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medical sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-8783 (URN)10.3109/21681805.2013.769460 (DOI)000328899000013 ()23394140 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84890518365 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-02-14 Created: 2014-02-14 Last updated: 2020-01-29Bibliographically approved
Lao, Z., Gifford, M. & Dalal, K. (2012). Economic Cost of Childhood Unintentional Injuries. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 3(5), 303-312
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic Cost of Childhood Unintentional Injuries
2012 (English)In: International Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 2008-7802, E-ISSN 2008-8213, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 303-312Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: This study aims to review the economic cost of childhood (0-18 years) unintentional injuries (UI) and focuses upon comparing the cost burden between developing and developed countries.

Methods: Articles were selected from PUBMED using the search words “Economic Cost”, “Unintentional injuries” and “Children”. Nine articles were selected.

Results: Studies in China focused upon cost to hospitals, in Bangladesh they focused on personal payment in rural areas, and in Vietnam they focused upon community-based cost analysis. There was one study from Norway on UI at home. There were 5 articles from the USA focusing on submersion injury, UI insurance, unintentional traumatic brain injury, UI due to firearms and UI medical costs. The cost of childhood UI is enormous, ranging from US $516,938 to US $9,550,704 per year. This represents a large economic burden on society. Additionally, there is a large gap between lower-middle income countries (LMIC) and high income countries (HIC) in the burden of injury, injury health care and insurance systems.

Conclusion: Different bases and contexts of studies make it difficult to draw a solid conclusion about the amount of costs of UI among children. Therefore, more studies of children’s unintentional injuries should be carried out in low and middle income countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Medknow Publications, 2012
Keywords
Children, cost, high-income countries, low and middle income countries, unintentional injuries
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Medical sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-6463 (URN)22708026 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84862017973 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-10-08 Created: 2012-10-08 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Dalal, K., Lao, Z., Gifford, M. & Wang, S.-M. (2012). Knowledge and attitudes towards childhood injury prevention: a study of parents in Shanghai, China. HealthMed, 6(11), 3783-3789
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Knowledge and attitudes towards childhood injury prevention: a study of parents in Shanghai, China
2012 (English)In: HealthMed, ISSN 1840-2291, Vol. 6, no 11, p. 3783-3789Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Childhood injuries are a major problem worldwide. The study explored the parents' knowledge and attitudes towards childhood injury prevention in relation to theirsocioeconomic status. The study also tried to compare parents' perceptions of cause and place of child injury with actual cause and place of injury. This was a cross sectional study of 986 randomly selected parents whose children (3-6 years old) were enrolled at selected kindergartens in a 'Safe Community' in Shanghai, China. Chi-square tests and bar diagrams were used. Almost all parents (97%) thought that injury was a serious problem for their children. Around half of the parents thought that child injuries could be prevented while almost one-third (29%) of parents indicated that there were risk factors in the living environment of their children. Parental perceptions of cause of injuries and place of injuries significantly differed from that of the reality. Parents identified the most common barriers of childhood injury prevention: lack of parental attention (41.6%), environment (35.6%) and children's risky behavior (22.7%). The difference between parental opinions and reality illustrated that parents had incorrect knowledge of childhood injuries, which might lead to incorrect foci of prevention programs. Before tackling environmental modifications to prevent child injuries, policy makers should focus on rectifying parents' incorrect perceptions and on modifying their attitudes as key players. It is important to first raise awareness about childhood injury prevention among the parents for appropriate intervention strategies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
D R U N P P, 2012
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medical sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-7490 (URN)000313115600037 ()2-s2.0-84871961841 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-03-21 Created: 2013-03-21 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Dalal, K., Shinn Lee, M. & Gifford, M. (2012). Male Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Wife Beating: A Multi-Country Study in South Asia. Journal of Adolescent Health, 50(5), 437-442
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Male Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Wife Beating: A Multi-Country Study in South Asia
2012 (English)In: Journal of Adolescent Health, ISSN 1054-139X, E-ISSN 1879-1972, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 437-442Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This study has aimed to address the gaps in knowledge about male adolescents and their attitudes toward wife beating in multi-country study in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal.

Methods: The study used secondary data generated from nationally representative samples of male adolescents (aged 15–19 years) in the demographic and health surveys data in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal. These were household surveys using structured questionnaires, with 275 boys in Bangladesh, 13,078 boys in India, and 939 boys in Nepal. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were used to assess the associations.

Results: In Bangladesh, 42% of 275 respondents had justified wife beating; in India, 51% of 13,078 male adolescents had supported wife beating; and in Nepal, 28% of 939 respondents had supported wife abuse. Individual-level factors, such as rural residency, low educational attainment, low economic status, being unemployed, and having a history of family violence, were positively associated with the justification of wife abuse.

Conclusions: This multi-country study indicates a general trend of male adolescents' strong supportive attitude toward wife beating, and hence may suggest that policy makers can specifically target young groups of the population for various interventions for reducing violence against women.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keywords
Boys; Violence against women; Attitude; Bangladesh; India; Nepal
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medical sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-5895 (URN)10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.09.012 (DOI)000303128600004 ()2-s2.0-84860233813 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-05-24 Created: 2012-05-24 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Shabnam, J., Gifford, M. & Dalal, K. (2012). Socioeconomic inequalities in the use of delivery care services in Bangladesh: a comparative study between 2004 and 2007. Health, 3(12), 762-771
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Socioeconomic inequalities in the use of delivery care services in Bangladesh: a comparative study between 2004 and 2007
2012 (English)In: Health, ISSN 1949-4998, Vol. 3, no 12, p. 762-771Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study explores inequalities in the utilization of delivery care services in different administrative divisions in Bangladesh, by key socioeconomic factors. It estimates the extent of the relationship between women’s socioeconomic inequalities and their place of delivery during 2004 and 2007. Trends in relation to place of delivery in relation to residency and education over a period of thirteen years (1993-2007) have also been measured. The study analyzed the trends and patterns in utilization of institutional delivery care among mothers, using data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS) conducted during 1993-2007. The data was disaggregated by area of residence in different divisions in Bangladesh. Bi-variate analyses, concentration curves and multivariate logistic regression were employed in the analysis of the data. The study indicated slow progress in the utilization of institutional delivery care among mothers in Bangladesh between 1993 and 2007. Large variations in outcome measures were observed among the different divisions. Multivariate analyses suggested growing inequalities in utilization of delivery care services between different economic groups and parents with different educational levels. The use of institutional delivery care remains substantially lower among poor and less educated rural mothers in Bangladesh, irrespective of age and employment. Further studies are recommended to explore the specific causes relating to the non-utilization of institutional delivery care.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scientific Research Publishing, 2012
Keywords
Home Delivery; Lorenz Curve; Socioeconomic Status; Trend; Bangladesh
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medical sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-5897 (URN)10.4236/health.2011.312127 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-05-24 Created: 2012-05-24 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2841-0920

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