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Sina, E., Buck, C., Jilani, H., Tornaritis, M., Veidebaum, T., Russo, P., . . . Hebestreit, A. (2019). Association of infant feeding patterns with taste preferences in European children and adolescents: A retrospective latent profile analysis. Nutrients, 11(5), 1-16, Article ID 1040.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association of infant feeding patterns with taste preferences in European children and adolescents: A retrospective latent profile analysis
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2019 (English)In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1-16, article id 1040Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim was to investigate associations between the duration of infant feeding practices (FP) and taste preferences (TP) in European children and adolescents. A total of 5526 children (6-16 years old) of the I.Family study completed a Food and Beverage Preference Questionnaire to measure their preferences for sweet, fatty and bitter tastes. Mothers retrospectively reported the FPs duration in months: exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), exclusive formula milk feeding (EFMF), combined breastfeeding (BF&FMF) and the age at the introduction of complementary foods (CF). Using logistic regression analyses and latent class analysis (latent profiles of FP and CF were identified), we explored associations between profiles and TP, adjusting for various covariates, including the Healthy Diet Adherence Score (HDAS). A total of 48% of children had short durations of EBF (≤4 months) and BF&FMF (≤6 months) and were introduced to CF early (<6 months). No significant relationship was observed between the single FPs and TP, even when considering common profiles of FP. HDAS was inversely associated with sweet and fatty TP, but positively with bitter TP. Contrary to our hypotheses, we did not observe associations between FP and children’s TP later in life. Further studies with higher FP variation and longitudinal design are needed to investigate the causal associations between infant FP and taste preferences later in life. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
Breastfeeding, Children, Formula milk, Healthy diet adherence, I.Family, IDEFICS study, Taste preference, adolescent, article, artificial milk, bitter taste, breast feeding, child, European, feeding behavior, female, healthy diet, human, human experiment, latent class analysis, major clinical study, mother, questionnaire, retrospective study
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Pediatrics Nutrition and Dietetics
Research subject
Individual and Society VIDSOC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17232 (URN)10.3390/nu11051040 (DOI)000471021600100 ()31075915 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065951480 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-20 Created: 2019-06-20 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
van Meer, F., van der Laan, L. N., Eiben, G., Lissner, L., Wolters, M., Rach, S., . . . Smeets, P. A. .. (2019). Development and body mass inversely affect children's brain activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during food choice. NeuroImage, 201, 1-10, Article ID 116016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development and body mass inversely affect children's brain activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during food choice
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2019 (English)In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 201, p. 1-10, article id 116016Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Childhood obesity is a rising problem caused in part by unhealthy food choices. Food choices are based on a neural value signal encoded in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and self-control involves modulation of this signal by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). We determined the effects of development, body mass (BMI Cole score) and body mass history on the neural correlates of healthy food choice in children. 141 children (aged 10-17y) from Germany, Hungary and Sweden were scanned with fMRI while performing a food choice task. Afterwards health and taste ratings of the foods were collected. In the food choice task children were asked to consider the healthiness or tastiness of the food or to choose naturally. Overall, children made healthier choices when asked to consider healthiness. However, children who had a higher weight gain per year chose less healthy foods when considering healthiness but not when choosing naturally. Pubertal development stage correlated positively while current body mass correlated negatively with dlPFC activation when accepting foods. Pubertal development negatively and current body mass positively influenced the effect of considering healthiness on activation of brain areas involved in salience and motivation. In conclusion, children in earlier stages of pubertal development and children with a higher body weight exhibited less activation in the dlPFC, which has been implicated in self-control during food choice. Furthermore, pubertal development and body mass influenced neural responses to a health cue in areas involved in salience and motivation. Thus, these findings suggest that children in earlier stages of pubertal development, children with a higher body mass gain and children with overweight may possibly be less susceptible to healthy eating interventions that rely on self-control or that highlight health aspects of food. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Development, Overweight, Decision making, fMRI, Food choice
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Individual and Society VIDSOC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17504 (URN)10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116016 (DOI)000487755700008 ()31310861 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85069629740 (Scopus ID)
Note

on behalf of the I.Family Consortium

Available from: 2019-08-09 Created: 2019-08-09 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved
Oli, N., Vaidya, A., Eiben, G. & Krettek, A. (2019). Effectiveness of health promotion regarding diet and physical activity among Nepalese mothers and their young children: The Heart-health Associated Research, Dissemination, and Intervention in the Community (HARDIC) trial. Global Health Action, 12, 1-12, Article ID 1670033.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effectiveness of health promotion regarding diet and physical activity among Nepalese mothers and their young children: The Heart-health Associated Research, Dissemination, and Intervention in the Community (HARDIC) trial
2019 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 12, p. 1-12, article id 1670033Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Nepal, like many low- and middle-income countries, exhibits rising burden of cardiovascular diseases. Misconceptions, poor behavior, and a high prevalence of risk factors contribute to this development. Health promotion efforts along with primary prevention strategies, including risk factor reduction in both adults and children, are therefore critical. Objectives: This study assessed the effectiveness of a health promotion intervention on mothers' knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and their children's behavior regarding diet and physical activity. Methods: The Heart-health Associated Research, Dissemination and Intervention in the Community (HARDIC), a community-based trial, used peer education to target mothers with 1-9-year-old children in the peri-urban Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Nepal, during August-November 2016. In the intervention area, 47 peer mothers were trained to conduct four education classes for about 10 fellow mothers (N = 391). After 3 months, all eligible mothers in the intervention and control areas were interviewed and the results were compared with the KAP of all eligible mothers at baseline. Results: Post-intervention, mothers' KAP median scores had improved regarding heart-healthy diet and physical activity. More mothers had 'good' KAP (>75% of maximum possible scores), and mothers with 'good' knowledge increased from 50% to 81%. Corresponding control values increased only from 58% to 63%. Mothers' attitude and practice improved. Additionally, mothers in the intervention area reported improvement in their children's diet and physical activity behavior. Moreover, Difference in Differences analysis showed that the HARDIC intervention significantly increased mothers' KAP scores and children's behavior scores in the intervention area compared to the control area. Conclusions: Our intervention improves KAP scores regarding diet and physical activity and shows potential for expansion via community health workers, volunteers, and/or local women. Moreover, HARDIC can contribute to Nepal's Package of Essential Noncommunicable Diseases Initiative, which currently lacks a specific package for health promotion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Diet, health promotion, mothers, physical activity, young children
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Individual and Society VIDSOC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17750 (URN)10.1080/16549716.2019.1670033 (DOI)000489957600001 ()31573416 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85072763901 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-02 Created: 2019-10-02 Last updated: 2019-10-25
Jilani, H., Pohlabeln, H., De Henauw, S., Eiben, G., Hunsberger, M., Molnar, D., . . . Hebestreit, A. (2019). Relative Validity of a Food and Beverage Preference Questionnaire to Characterize Taste Phenotypes in Children Adolescents and Adults. Nutrients, 11(7), Article ID 1453.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relative Validity of a Food and Beverage Preference Questionnaire to Characterize Taste Phenotypes in Children Adolescents and Adults
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2019 (English)In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 1453Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To assess the relative validity of our food and beverage preference questionnaire we investigated the association between sweet and fatty taste preference scores (assessed using a food and beverage preference questionnaire) and sweet and fatty food propensity scores (derived from a food frequency questionnaire). In I.Family, a large European multi-country cohort study, 12,207 participants from Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden, including 5291 adults, 3082 adolescents, and 3834 children, completed a food and beverage preference questionnaire with 63 items. Cumulative preference scores for sweet and fatty taste were calculated from the single item ranking ranging from 1 to 5. The relative consumption frequency of foods classified as sweet and fatty was used to calculate the corresponding consumption propensities, a continuous variable ranging from 0 to 100. We conducted regression analyses to investigate the association between sweet and fatty taste preference scores and sweet and fatty food propensity scores, respectively, separately for adults, adolescents >= 12 years, and for children <12 years. The overall sweet taste preference score was positively associated with the sweet food consumption propensity score (beta = 2.4, 95% CI: 2.1;2.7) and the fatty taste preference score was positively associated with the fatty food consumption propensity score (beta = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.8;2.2). After stratification for age (children <12 years, adolescents >= 12 years, and adults), the effect remained significant in all age groups and was strongest in adolescents and adults. We conclude that our food and beverage preference questionnaire is a useful instrument for epidemiological studies on sensory perception and health outcomes and for the characterization of sensory taste phenotypes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
taste preference questionnaire, validation, European children, adolescents, adults
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Research subject
Individual and Society VIDSOC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17577 (URN)10.3390/nu11071453 (DOI)000478885400030 ()31252542 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85067061506 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-23 Created: 2019-08-23 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
Iguacel, I., Michels, N., Ahrens, W., Bammann, K., Eiben, G., Fernández-Alvira, J. M., . . . consortium, I. (2019). Reply to the letter to the editor: “Socioeconomic status and childhood metabolic syndrome” [Letter to the editor]. International Journal of Cardiology, 283, 190-191
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reply to the letter to the editor: “Socioeconomic status and childhood metabolic syndrome”
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 283, p. 190-191Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ireland Ltd, 2019
Keywords
obesity, child, lifestyle-induced health
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Individual and Society VIDSOC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16731 (URN)10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.02.047 (DOI)000461330100041 ()30890249 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85062917163 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-28 Created: 2019-03-28 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved
Bixby, H., Eiben, G. & Ezzati, M. (2019). Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults [Letter to the editor]. Nature, 569(7755), 260-264
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
2019 (English)In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 569, no 7755, p. 260-264Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities1,2. This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity3-6. Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017-and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions-was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing-and in some countries reversal-of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Nutrition and Dietetics Economic Geography
Research subject
Individual and Society VIDSOC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16915 (URN)10.1038/s41586-019-1171-x (DOI)000467473600049 ()31068725 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065577280 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-24 Created: 2019-05-24 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, J., Rothenberg, E., Lissner, L., Eiben, G., Zettergren, A. & Skoog, I. (2019). Time trends in nutrient intake and dietary patterns among five birth cohorts of 70-year-olds examined 1971-2016: results from the Gothenburg H70 birth cohort studies, Sweden. Nutrition Journal, 18(1), Article ID 66.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time trends in nutrient intake and dietary patterns among five birth cohorts of 70-year-olds examined 1971-2016: results from the Gothenburg H70 birth cohort studies, Sweden
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2019 (English)In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 66Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Nutrition is a key factor in healthy ageing but there are still gaps in knowledge about risk- and protective factors linking diet and healthy ageing. The aim of this study was to investigate time trends in dietary patterns and nutrient intake in an older population, in order to increase the understanding of whether dietary recommendations are followed and if nutrient needs are met. Methods Cross-sectional data was derived from five samples of 70-year-olds examined 1971-72, 1981-83, 1992-93, 2000-02 and 2014-16 from the Gothenburg H70 birth cohort studies in Sweden. A total of 2246 individuals (56% women) participated. Dietary intake was determined by the diet history method, which is an interview including questions on usual frequencies and portion sizes of food intake during the preceding three months. Recommended values of nutrient intake and determinants of healthful dietary patterns were based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Statistical analyses were performed using general linear models, student's t-test and chi-square test, stratified by sex. Results The intake of fruits and vegetables, fish and seafood, whole grain products and nuts and seeds increased during the study period (p < 0.0001), among both sexes. However, there was also an increase in alcohol intake (p < 0.0001), especially from wine and beer, and in 2014-16 more than 30% had an alcohol intake above recommendations. Protein intake increased (p < 0.0001 for women and p = 0.0004 for men), and 48% of the women and 37% of the men had a protein intake above recommended 1.2 g/kg body weight and day in 2014-16. The proportion of participants at risk of inadequate intake of vitamins C, D and folate decreased during the study period, among both sexes (p < 0.0001). However, vitamin D intake from diet was still below average requirement level of 7.5 mu g/day for 49% of the women and 32% of the men in 2014-16. Conclusions Dietary patterns have changed among 70-year-olds during the past five decades, with an increase in healthful foods and a higher nutrient density in later born birth cohorts. However, the intake of alcohol increased, especially among women. Results from this study can be useful as a basis for dietary guidelines and used for prevention strategies involving older adults in population-based and health care settings.

Keywords
Dietary patterns; Macronutrients; Micronutrients, Energy intake, Nutrient intake, Older adults, Diet history, Time trends
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Individual and Society VIDSOC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17969 (URN)10.1186/s12937-019-0493-8 (DOI)000495631900001 ()31694635 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-12-04 Created: 2019-12-04 Last updated: 2019-12-04
Intemann, T., Pigeot, I., De Henauw, S., Eiben, G., Lissner, L., Krogh, V., . . . Pala, V. (2019). Urinary sucrose and fructose to validate self-reported sugar intake in children and adolescents: results from the I.Family study. European Journal of Nutrition, 58(3), 1247-1258
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urinary sucrose and fructose to validate self-reported sugar intake in children and adolescents: results from the I.Family study
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2019 (English)In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 1247-1258Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: Excessive consumption of free sugar increases the risk for non-communicable diseases where a proper assessment of this intake is necessary to correctly estimate its association with certain diseases. Urinary sugars have been suggested as objective biomarkers for total and free sugar intake in adults but less is known about this marker in children and adolescents. Therefore, the aim of this exploratory study is to evaluate the relative validity of self-reported intake using urinary sugars in children and adolescents.

METHODS: The study was conducted in a convenience subsample of 228 participants aged 5-18 years of the I.Family study that investigates the determinants of food choices, lifestyle and health in European families. Total, free and intrinsic sugar intake (g/day) and sugar density (g/1000 kcal) were assessed using 24-h dietary recalls (24HDRs). Urinary sucrose (USUC) and urinary fructose (UFRU) were measured in morning urine samples and corrected for creatinine excretion (USUC/Cr, UFRU/Cr). Correlation coefficients, the method of triads and linear regression models were used to investigate the relationship between intake of different types of sugar and urinary sugars.

RESULTS: The correlation between usual sugar density calculated from multiple 24HDRs and the sum of USUC/Cr and UFRU/Cr (USUC/Cr + UFRU/Cr) was 0.38 (p < 0.001). The method of triads revealed validity coefficients for the 24HDR from 0.64 to 0.87. Linear regression models showed statistically significant positive associations between USUC/Cr + UFRU/Cr and the intake of total and free sugar.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the relative validity of total and free sugar intake assessed by self-reported 24HDRs in children and adolescents.

Keywords
24-h dietary recall, Dietary sugar, Sugar biomarker, Urine sugars, Validity coefficient
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Individual and Society VIDSOC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16110 (URN)10.1007/s00394-018-1649-6 (DOI)000466922700029 ()29511828 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85063694392 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-31 Created: 2018-08-31 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
Jilani, H. S., Pohlabeln, H., Buchecker, K., Gwozdz, W., De Henauw, S., Eiben, G., . . . Hebestreit, A. (2018). Association between parental consumer attitudes with their children's sensory taste preferences as well as their food choice. PLoS ONE, 13(8), Article ID e0200413.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association between parental consumer attitudes with their children's sensory taste preferences as well as their food choice
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2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 8, article id e0200413Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background We investigated the association between the consumer attitudes of European parents and their children's taste preferences and food choice. Furthermore, we studied whether the parental consumer attitudes were related to education level.

Methods This analysis included 1,407 IDEFICS study children aged 6.0 to 11.8 years and from 7 European countries, who participated in the sensory taste perception module between 2007 and 2010. Parental consumer attitude was operationalized as 'trusting in foods known from advertisements' (trusting advertisements) and as 'not avoiding additives in food' (not avoiding additives). Parents reported their educational attainment and completed a food frequency questionnaire for their children. Consumption frequencies of sweet, fatty and processed foods as well as a healthy diet adherence score were calculated. Children performed fat, sweet and umami taste preference tests. Multivariable logistic models were used to analyse the association between parental consumer attitudes and their children's taste preference frequencies as well as parental education. Linear regression models were used to analyse the association between parental consumer attitudes and their children's food consumption.

Results Parental consumer attitudes were not associated with children's fat, sweet and umami taste preferences. Children of parents trusting advertisements consumed more frequently processed foods (beta = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.49; 1.93). Children of parents not avoiding additives consumed more often sweet, fatty and processed foods and had a lower healthy diet adherence score (beta = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.03; 3.70; beta = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.12; 3.43; beta = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.22; 1.59; beta = -2.87, 95% CI: -3.89; -1.85, respectively). Unfavourable parental consumer attitudes were associated with a lower parental education level across Europe (Compared to high education: Odds Ratio (OR) of trusting advertisements with medium education: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.77; 1.40; OR with low education: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.15; 3.54; OR of not avoiding additives with medium education: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.44; 2.54; OR with low education: 1.76, 95% CI: 0.96; 3.24).

Conclusions Across Europe, unfavourable parental consumer attitudes are associated with a lower diet quality of their children. Parental consumer attitudes in turn were associated with their own level of education. This has implications for policy makers, interventions and health promotion programmes that aim to promote healthy eating.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2018
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Individual and Society VIDSOC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16187 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0200413 (DOI)000440415500027 ()30067786 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85050922609 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
Zaqout, M., Michels, N., Ahrens, W., Börnhorst, C., Molnár, D., Moreno, L. A., . . . De Henauw, S. (2018). Associations between exclusive breastfeeding and physical fitness during childhood. European Journal of Nutrition, 57(2), 545-555
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between exclusive breastfeeding and physical fitness during childhood
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2018 (English)In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 545-555Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: Exposure to breastfeeding improves the survival, health, and development of children; therefore, breast milk is recommended as the exclusive nutrient source for feeding term infants during the first 6 months. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the possible association between exposure to exclusive breastfeeding and physical fitness performance in children and, if so, whether this association is influenced by the breastfeeding duration.

METHODS: A total of 2853 (52.3 % girls) European children from the IDEFICS study aged 6-11 years with complete data on physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, flexibility, balance, speed) and exclusive breastfeeding duration (never, 1-3, 4-6, 7-12 months) were included in the present study. Multivariate and mixed linear regression models were estimated and adjusted for sex, age, birth weight, diet, physical activity, body mass index, and parental factors (age, body mass index, educational attainment).

RESULTS: We found a positive association between exclusive breastfeeding and lower-body explosive strength (β = 0.034) as well as flexibility (β = 0.028). We also found a positive association between breastfeeding and balance in boys (β = 0.039), while this association was negative in girls (β = -0.029). To improve lower-body explosive strength, 1-3 months of exclusive breastfeeding were enough; a longer duration did not lead to increasing benefit. In contrast, 4-6 months of breastfeeding were necessary to have any benefit on flexibility or balance, although this became nonsignificant after adjustment for body mass index and physical activity.

CONCLUSIONS: Exclusive breastfeeding seems a natural way of slightly improving some physical fitness components (mainly lower-body muscle strength) and thus future health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Balance, Children, Exclusive breastfeeding, Flexibility, Muscle strength, Physical fitness
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14495 (URN)10.1007/s00394-016-1337-3 (DOI)000427285000012 ()27771770 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84992109349 (Scopus ID)
Note

IDEFICS consortium

Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-11-17 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4397-3721

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