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Jilani, H. S., Pohlabeln, H., Buchecker, K., Gwozdz, W., De Henauw, S., Eiben, G., . . . Hebestreit, A. (2018). Association between parental consumer attitudes with their children's sensory taste preferences as well as their food choice. PLoS ONE, 13(8), Article ID e0200413.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association between parental consumer attitudes with their children's sensory taste preferences as well as their food choice
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2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 8, article id e0200413Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background We investigated the association between the consumer attitudes of European parents and their children's taste preferences and food choice. Furthermore, we studied whether the parental consumer attitudes were related to education level.

Methods This analysis included 1,407 IDEFICS study children aged 6.0 to 11.8 years and from 7 European countries, who participated in the sensory taste perception module between 2007 and 2010. Parental consumer attitude was operationalized as 'trusting in foods known from advertisements' (trusting advertisements) and as 'not avoiding additives in food' (not avoiding additives). Parents reported their educational attainment and completed a food frequency questionnaire for their children. Consumption frequencies of sweet, fatty and processed foods as well as a healthy diet adherence score were calculated. Children performed fat, sweet and umami taste preference tests. Multivariable logistic models were used to analyse the association between parental consumer attitudes and their children's taste preference frequencies as well as parental education. Linear regression models were used to analyse the association between parental consumer attitudes and their children's food consumption.

Results Parental consumer attitudes were not associated with children's fat, sweet and umami taste preferences. Children of parents trusting advertisements consumed more frequently processed foods (beta = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.49; 1.93). Children of parents not avoiding additives consumed more often sweet, fatty and processed foods and had a lower healthy diet adherence score (beta = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.03; 3.70; beta = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.12; 3.43; beta = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.22; 1.59; beta = -2.87, 95% CI: -3.89; -1.85, respectively). Unfavourable parental consumer attitudes were associated with a lower parental education level across Europe (Compared to high education: Odds Ratio (OR) of trusting advertisements with medium education: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.77; 1.40; OR with low education: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.15; 3.54; OR of not avoiding additives with medium education: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.44; 2.54; OR with low education: 1.76, 95% CI: 0.96; 3.24).

Conclusions Across Europe, unfavourable parental consumer attitudes are associated with a lower diet quality of their children. Parental consumer attitudes in turn were associated with their own level of education. This has implications for policy makers, interventions and health promotion programmes that aim to promote healthy eating.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Individual and Society VIDSOC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16187 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0200413 (DOI)000440415500027 ()30067786 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85050922609 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-10-23Bibliographically approved
Zaqout, M., Michels, N., Ahrens, W., Börnhorst, C., Molnár, D., Moreno, L. A., . . . De Henauw, S. (2018). Associations between exclusive breastfeeding and physical fitness during childhood. European Journal of Nutrition, 57(2), 545-555
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between exclusive breastfeeding and physical fitness during childhood
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2018 (English)In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 545-555Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: Exposure to breastfeeding improves the survival, health, and development of children; therefore, breast milk is recommended as the exclusive nutrient source for feeding term infants during the first 6 months. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the possible association between exposure to exclusive breastfeeding and physical fitness performance in children and, if so, whether this association is influenced by the breastfeeding duration.

METHODS: A total of 2853 (52.3 % girls) European children from the IDEFICS study aged 6-11 years with complete data on physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, flexibility, balance, speed) and exclusive breastfeeding duration (never, 1-3, 4-6, 7-12 months) were included in the present study. Multivariate and mixed linear regression models were estimated and adjusted for sex, age, birth weight, diet, physical activity, body mass index, and parental factors (age, body mass index, educational attainment).

RESULTS: We found a positive association between exclusive breastfeeding and lower-body explosive strength (β = 0.034) as well as flexibility (β = 0.028). We also found a positive association between breastfeeding and balance in boys (β = 0.039), while this association was negative in girls (β = -0.029). To improve lower-body explosive strength, 1-3 months of exclusive breastfeeding were enough; a longer duration did not lead to increasing benefit. In contrast, 4-6 months of breastfeeding were necessary to have any benefit on flexibility or balance, although this became nonsignificant after adjustment for body mass index and physical activity.

CONCLUSIONS: Exclusive breastfeeding seems a natural way of slightly improving some physical fitness components (mainly lower-body muscle strength) and thus future health.

Keywords
Balance, Children, Exclusive breastfeeding, Flexibility, Muscle strength, Physical fitness
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14495 (URN)10.1007/s00394-016-1337-3 (DOI)000427285000012 ()27771770 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84992109349 (Scopus ID)
Note

IDEFICS consortium

Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-11-17 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Langeheine, M., Pohlabeln, H., Lauria, F., Veidebaum, T., Tornaritis, M., Molnar, D., . . . Rach, S. (2018). Attrition in the European Child Cohort IDEFICS/I. Family: Exploring Associations Between Attrition and Body Mass Index. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 6, Article ID 212.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attrition in the European Child Cohort IDEFICS/I. Family: Exploring Associations Between Attrition and Body Mass Index
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Pediatrics, ISSN 2296-2360, Vol. 6, article id 212Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Attrition may lead to bias in epidemiological cohorts, since participants who are healthier and have a higher social position are less likely to drop out. We investigated possible selection effects regarding key exposures and outcomes in the IDEFICS/I.Family study, a large European cohort on the etiology of overweight, obesity and related disorders during childhood and adulthood. We applied multilevel logistic regression to investigate associations of attrition with sociodemographic variables, weight status, and study compliance and assessed attrition across time regarding children's weight status and variations of attrition across participating countries. We investigated selection effects with regard to social position, adherence to key messages concerning a healthy lifestyle, and children's weight status. Attrition was associated with a higher weight status of children, lower children's study compliance, older age, lower parental education, and parent's migration background, consistent across time and participating countries. Although overweight (odds ratio 1.17, 99% confidence interval 1.05–1.29) or obese children (odds ratio 1.18, 99% confidence interval 1.03–1.36) were more prone to drop-out, attrition only seemed to slightly distort the distribution of children's BMI at the upper tail. Restricting the sample to subgroups with different attrition characteristics only marginally affected exposure-outcome associations. Our results suggest that IDEFICS/I.Family provides valid estimates of relations between socio-economic position, health-related behaviors, and weight status.

Keywords
cohort attrition, child health, BMI, selection effects, cross country differences
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Individual and Society VIDSOC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16183 (URN)10.3389/fped.2018.00212 (DOI)000441612200001 ()30159304 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052862035 (Scopus ID)
Note

on behalf of the IDEFICS and I.Family Consortia

Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-10-23Bibliographically approved
Santaliestra-Pasías, A. M., Dios, J. E. L., Sprengeler, O., Hebestreit, A., De Henauw, S., Eiben, G., . . . Moreno, L. A. (2018). Food and beverage intakes according to physical activity levels in European children: the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary and lifestyle induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) study. Public Health Nutrition, 21(9), 1717-1725
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Food and beverage intakes according to physical activity levels in European children: the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary and lifestyle induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) study
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2018 (English)In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 1717-1725Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: Physical activity (PA) levels and dietary habits are considered some of the most important factors associated with obesity. The present study aimed to examine the association between PA level and food and beverage consumption in European children (2-10 years old).Design/Setting/SubjectsA sample of 7229 children (49·0 % girls) from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary and lifestyle induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) study was included. Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was assessed objectively with accelerometers. FFQ was used to register dietary habits. ANCOVA and binary logistic regression were applied.

RESULTS: Boys who spent less time in MVPA reported lower consumption of vegetables, fruits, cereals, yoghurt, milk, bread, pasta, candies and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) than boys who spent more time in MVPA (P<0·05). Moreover, boys who spent less time in MVPA were more likely to consume fast foods and water than those in the highest MVPA tertile (P<0·05). Girls who spent less time in MVPA reported lower consumption frequencies of vegetables, pasta, bread, yoghurt, candies, jam/honey and SSB than girls in the highest MVPA tertile (P<0·05). Also, girls in the lowest MVPA tertile were more likely to consume fast foods and water than those with high levels of MVPA (P<0·05).

CONCLUSIONS: Food intake among European children varied with different levels of daily MVPA. Low time spent in MVPA was associated with lowest consumption of both high- and low-energy-dense foods and high fast-food consumption.

Keywords
Beverages intake, Food intake, IDEFICS study, Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, Physical activity
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16111 (URN)10.1017/S1368980018000046 (DOI)000434292000016 ()29457580 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85042184359 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-31 Created: 2018-08-31 Last updated: 2018-10-01Bibliographically approved
Oli, N., Vaidya, A., Pahkala, K., Eiben, G. & Krettek, A. (2018). Knowledge, attitude and practice on diet and physical activity among mothers with young children in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Nepal. PLoS ONE, 13(7), Article ID e0200329.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Knowledge, attitude and practice on diet and physical activity among mothers with young children in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Nepal
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2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 7, article id e0200329Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is increasing in low and middle-income countries; Nepal's population shows a high prevalence of behavioral risk factors. Our cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS), located near the capital Kathmandu, explored knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of mothers with young children regarding diet and physical activity and mothers' perception of their children's attitude and behavior toward the same issues. The purpose of our study was to assess needs of the mothers concerning cardiovascular health in general and more specifically regarding diet and physical activity, and to establish a baseline for future intervention in the community by comparing two villages of JD-HDSS. In August-November 2014, nine trained enumerators interviewed all mothers of children aged 1-7 years (N = 962). We scored responses on dietary and physical activity KAP, then categorized the scores based on the percentage obtained out of the maximum possible scores into "poor," "fair," and "good." More highly educated mothers scored higher for KAP (all p<0.001); the children's behavior score reflected their mother's education level (p = 0.007). Most respondents were unfamiliar with the concept of healthy and unhealthy food. Overall, 57% of respondents in JD-HDSS had "good" knowledge, 44.6% had "good" attitude, and most (90%) had "poor" practice. We observed no significant differences between the villages regarding mothers' knowledge and attitude or children's behavior. Practice score of mothers in Jhaukhel was higher than those in Duwakot regarding diet and physical activity (p<0.001). Mothers' perceived barriers for improving lifestyle were high cost of healthy food, taste preference of other family members, and lack of knowledge regarding healthy food. Barriers for physical activity were lack of leisure time, absence of parks and playgrounds, busy caring for children and old people, feeling lazy, and embarrassed to be physically active in front of others. Our findings suggest that a health education intervention promoting a healthy lifestyle for mothers and children might improve KAP and also improve cardiovascular health. To address mothers' gap between knowledge and practice, a future intervention should consider perceived barriers.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Individual and Society VIDSOC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15959 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0200329 (DOI)000438035500034 ()29985946 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85049622566 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-11 Created: 2018-07-11 Last updated: 2018-10-23Bibliographically approved
Iguacel, I., Michels, N., Ahrens, W., Bammann, K., Eiben, G., Fernández-Alvira, J. M., . . . Börnhorst, C. (2018). Prospective associations between socioeconomically disadvantaged groups and metabolic syndrome risk in European children: Results from the IDEFICS study. International Journal of Cardiology, 272, 333-340
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prospective associations between socioeconomically disadvantaged groups and metabolic syndrome risk in European children: Results from the IDEFICS study
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 272, p. 333-340Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: Socioeconomic disadvantages during childhood are hypothesised to have negative implications for health. We aimed to investigate the association between socioeconomic disadvantages and children's total metabolic syndrome (MetS) score at baseline and follow-up and the extent to which socioeconomic disadvantages over time and the accumulation of these socioeconomic disadvantages can affect children's MetS risk.

METHODS: The two-year longitudinal IDEFICS study included 2401 European children (aged 2.0-9.9) with complete information of the 16,229 participating at baseline. Sociodemographic variables, psychosocial factors and lifestyle were proxy-reported via questionnaires. Socioeconomically disadvantaged groups included children from families with low income, low education, migrant origin, unemployed parents, parents who lacked a social network, and from non-traditional families. MetS risk score was calculated as the sum of z-scores of waist circumference, blood pressure, lipids and insulin resistance. Linear mixed-effects models were used to study the association between social disadvantages and MetS risk. Models were adjusted for sex, age, well-being and lifestyle (fruit and vegetables consumption, physical activity, screen time).

RESULTS: At both time points, children from low-income families (0.20 [0.03-0.37]); (β estimate and 99% confidence interval), children from non-traditional families (0.14 [0.02-0.26]), children whose parents were unemployed (0.31 [0.05-0.57]) and children who accumulated >3 disadvantages (0.21 [0.04-0.37]) showed a higher MetS score compared to non-socioeconomically disadvantaged groups.

CONCLUSION: Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families are at high metabolic risk independently of diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviours and well-being. Interventions focusing on these socioeconomically disadvantaged groups should be developed to tackle health disparities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Children, Family structure, Lack of social support, Metabolic syndrome, Migrants, Modifiable lifestyle indicators, Obesity, Social vulnerabilities, Socioeconomic disadvantages, Socioeconomic status
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Individual and Society VIDSOC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16108 (URN)10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.07.053 (DOI)000446025200070 ()30017513 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85049724656 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-31 Created: 2018-08-31 Last updated: 2018-10-23Bibliographically approved
Intemann, T., Pigeot, I., De Henauw, S., Eiben, G., Lissner, L., Krogh, V., . . . Pala, V. (2018). Urinary sucrose and fructose to validate self-reported sugar intake in children and adolescents: results from the I.Family study. European Journal of Nutrition
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urinary sucrose and fructose to validate self-reported sugar intake in children and adolescents: results from the I.Family study
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2018 (English)In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: Excessive consumption of free sugar increases the risk for non-communicable diseases where a proper assessment of this intake is necessary to correctly estimate its association with certain diseases. Urinary sugars have been suggested as objective biomarkers for total and free sugar intake in adults but less is known about this marker in children and adolescents. Therefore, the aim of this exploratory study is to evaluate the relative validity of self-reported intake using urinary sugars in children and adolescents.

METHODS: The study was conducted in a convenience subsample of 228 participants aged 5-18 years of the I.Family study that investigates the determinants of food choices, lifestyle and health in European families. Total, free and intrinsic sugar intake (g/day) and sugar density (g/1000 kcal) were assessed using 24-h dietary recalls (24HDRs). Urinary sucrose (USUC) and urinary fructose (UFRU) were measured in morning urine samples and corrected for creatinine excretion (USUC/Cr, UFRU/Cr). Correlation coefficients, the method of triads and linear regression models were used to investigate the relationship between intake of different types of sugar and urinary sugars.

RESULTS: The correlation between usual sugar density calculated from multiple 24HDRs and the sum of USUC/Cr and UFRU/Cr (USUC/Cr + UFRU/Cr) was 0.38 (p < 0.001). The method of triads revealed validity coefficients for the 24HDR from 0.64 to 0.87. Linear regression models showed statistically significant positive associations between USUC/Cr + UFRU/Cr and the intake of total and free sugar.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the relative validity of total and free sugar intake assessed by self-reported 24HDRs in children and adolescents.

Keywords
24-h dietary recall, Dietary sugar, Sugar biomarker, Urine sugars, Validity coefficient
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Individual and Society VIDSOC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16110 (URN)10.1007/s00394-018-1649-6 (DOI)29511828 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-31 Created: 2018-08-31 Last updated: 2018-10-23Bibliographically approved
Wolters, M., Boernhorst, C., Schwarz, H., Rise, P., Galli, C., Moreno, L. A., . . . Ahrens, W. (2017). Association of desaturase activity and C-reactive protein in European children. Pediatric Research, 81(1), 27-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association of desaturase activity and C-reactive protein in European children
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2017 (English)In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 27-32Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Desaturase enzymes influence the fatty acid (FA) composition of body tissues and their activity affects the conversion rate of saturated to monounsaturated FA and of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) to long-chain PUFA. Desaturase activity has further been shown to be associated with inflammation. We investigate the association between delta-9 (D9D), delta-6 (D6D) and delta-5 desaturase (D5D) activity and high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) in young children. METHODS: In the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) cohort study children were examined at baseline (TO) and after 2 y (T1). D9D, D6D, and D5D activities were estimated from TO product-precursor FA ratios. CRP was measured at TO and T1. In a subsample of 1,943 children with available information on FA, CRP, and covariates, the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of desaturase activity and CRP were analyzed. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, a D9D increase of 0.01 units was associated with a 11% higher risk of having a serum CRP Percentile 75 (P75) (OR, 99% CI: 1.11 (1.01; 1.22)) whereas D6D and D5D were not associated with CRP. No significant associations were observed between baseline desaturase activity and CRP 2 y later. CONCLUSION: Cross-sectionally, our results indicate a positive association of D9D and CRP independent of weight status. High D9D activity may increase the risk of subclinical inflammation which is associated with metabolic disorders. As D9D expression increases with higher intake of saturated FA and carbohydrates, dietary changes may influence D9D activity and thus CRP. However, it remains to be investigated whether there is a causal relationship between D9D activity and CRP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2017
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14410 (URN)10.1038/pr.2016.186 (DOI)000391906800005 ()27653088 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85009815582 (Scopus ID)
Note

Group Author(s): IDEFICS Consortium

Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Mikkelsen, A., Galli, C., Eiben, G., Ahrens, W., Iacoviello, L., Molnar, D., . . . Mehlig, K. (2017). Blood fatty acid composition in relation to allergy in children aged 2-9 years: results from the European IDEFICS study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(1), 39-44
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blood fatty acid composition in relation to allergy in children aged 2-9 years: results from the European IDEFICS study
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2017 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 39-44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Blood polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are involved in allergy development, but the etiological role of n-6 and n-3 PUFA is still controversial. A European multicenter study of children (IDEFICS) provided the opportunity to explore the cross-sectional association between fatty acids (FA) and allergy. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Blood FA levels were measured in 2600 children aged 2-9 years and were recorded as the percentage of weight of all FA detected. Logistic regression of allergy status on FA components was adjusted for age, sex, country, body mass index, family history of allergic disease, breast-feeding, and number of siblings. The results were given as odds ratios (OR) for current vs no allergy ever and an increase in FA by 1 s.d. RESULTS: Overall, higher proportions of n-6 PUFA were associated with higher odds of allergy (OR = 1.21 (1.05, 1.40)). Monounsaturated FA (MUFA) were associated with reduced risk for allergy (OR = 0.75 (0.65, 0.87)), whereas saturated FA did not differ by allergy status. The strongest associations were observed in children < 4 years old, with ORs of allergy given as 1.62 (1.15, 2.29) for n-3 PUFA and 0.63 (0.42, 0.95) for MUFA. With regard to individual FA, these associations were independently observed for docosapentaenoic acid (22: 5 n-3) and oleic acid (18: 1 n-9). CONCLUSIONS: Both PUFA subtypes were positively associated with allergy in an age-dependent manner, whereas MUFA was associated with less allergy. The observation of high proportions of n-3 PUFA in allergic children younger than 4 years might help to understand the nature of early onset of atopic disease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2017
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14408 (URN)10.1038/ejcn.2016.158 (DOI)000394023900007 ()27650873 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84988557194 (Scopus ID)
Note

Group Author(s): IDEFICS Consortium

Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Ahrens, W., Siani, A., Adan, R., De Henauw, S., Eiben, G., Gwozdz, W., . . . Pigeot, I. (2017). Cohort Profile: The transition from childhood to adolescence in European children-how I.Family extends the IDEFICS cohort. International Journal of Epidemiology, 46(5), 1394-1395
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cohort Profile: The transition from childhood to adolescence in European children-how I.Family extends the IDEFICS cohort
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2017 (English)In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 1394-1395Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14492 (URN)10.1093/ije/dyw317 (DOI)28040744 (PubMedID)
Note

on behalf of the I.Family consortium

Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-11-17 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4397-3721

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