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Bergman, M., MacGregor, O., Olkoniemi, H., Redgård, R., Revonsuo, A. & Valli, K. (2023). Dangerous Waters: The Impact of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami on Survivor Dream Content. Dreaming (New York, N.Y.), 33(4), 369-387
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dangerous Waters: The Impact of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami on Survivor Dream Content
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2023 (English)In: Dreaming (New York, N.Y.), ISSN 1053-0797, E-ISSN 1573-3351, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 369-387Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Episodic memories of emotionally salient and personally significant events are often incorporated into dreams, although rarely replayed identically to the original waking event except in replicative posttraumatic nightmares. We investigated, in five Swedish female 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami survivors, how episodic memories of the catastrophe were reflected in their dreams after trauma, both in retrospectively recalled nightmares and bad dreams, and in prospective dream diaries completed several months after the catastrophe. We also assessed whether the emotional and threatening dream content differed between the trauma and a matched control group. Based on the threat simulation theory, we predicted that the trauma group dreams would portray notable similarities with elements related to the original tsunami trauma, and that the trauma group would demonstrate a higher prevalence of negative emotional states, and a higher frequency of threatening dream events as well as more severe threats in their dreams. Only the first hypothesis was partially supported, with retrospective nightmares bearing higher similarity to the trauma experience than the prospective dream diary dreams. However, we observed no statistically significant differences in emotional or threatening dream content between the groups, suggesting that the trauma group participants were not suffering from significant posttraumatic dreaming at the time of systematic dream data collection. Yet, specific features of the trauma group dreams might be interpreted as remnants of episodic tsunami-related memories: Their dreams had a higher percentage of life-threatening events depicting realistic but improbable threats, and an analysis of water-related themes evidenced stressful themes related to waves.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association (APA), 2023
Keywords
dreaming, episodic memory, Indian Ocean tsunami, nightmare, threat simulation theory
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23474 (URN)10.1037/drm0000254 (DOI)001108547500001 ()
Note

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Monica Bergman, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, P.O. Box 408, 54128 Skövde, Sweden. Email: monica.bergman@his.se

Available from: 2023-12-15 Created: 2023-12-15 Last updated: 2024-02-14Bibliographically approved
MacGregor, O. (2023). Svensk etikprövning har mycket att lära av EU. Curie (13 november)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Svensk etikprövning har mycket att lära av EU
2023 (Swedish)In: Curie, no 13 novemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [en]

Sverige behöver utveckla en etikprövning som hanterar olika discipliner på olika sätt. Och som inte bygger på en svartvit legalistisk syn på etik. Det skriver Oskar MacGregor, etikexpert inom Horisont Europa

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Vetenskapsrådet, 2023
National Category
Ethics
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23516 (URN)
Available from: 2024-01-08 Created: 2024-01-08 Last updated: 2024-01-08Bibliographically approved
MacGregor, O. (2022). Zapped!: Why Brain Stimulation Does Not Equal Performance Enhancement. In: Is Neurodoping Different?: . Paper presented at International Workshop: “Is Neurodoping different?”, 9 June 2022 at Roma Tre University in Rome, Italy. Co-organized by Roma Tre University, Roskilde University, Centro Universitario Internazionale, and the Italian Society for Neuroethics (SINe).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Zapped!: Why Brain Stimulation Does Not Equal Performance Enhancement
2022 (English)In: Is Neurodoping Different?, 2022Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

If a technology being used by elite athletes to gain a competitive edge marks some sort of coming of age for said technology, then I suppose electrical and magnetic brain stimulation has now, it would seem, finally come of age. Gone are the days of debilitating One-Flew-Over-The-Cuckoo's-Nest-style electroshock jolts, replaced by sleek and sexy marketing for low-current "cognitive enhancement" devices, promising everything from improved focus to - as revealed by a quick traipse through Google and Reddit - increased creativity and intelligence, as well as helping you both win competitions and quit smoking while you're at it! And with this development, an attendant fear of its misuse, for creating unfair advantages - not least among elite athletes, with their federations' obsessive focus on (certain specific forms of) fairness - to the point that the journal Neuroethics recently dedicated a special issue to this topic of "neurodoping". But, perhaps not too surprisingly, reality doesn't really live up to the hype. While various individual studies can be found to support the view that brain stimulation might enhance performance, this takes place against a broad backdrop of serious issues within empirical neuroscience and psychology more generally, relating to all manner of problems with sample sizes, methods, assumptions, etc., along with some plain old ignorance about how to properly deal with all of these. In this talk, I will therefore give the briefest of introductions as to why essentially all existing claims about the purportedly performance-enhancing effects of transcranial electric stimulation (TES) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are claiming far too much, far too soon. As far as we really know, based on what robust evidence actually exists today, "neurodoping" of this sort gives no more a competitive advantage than does rubbing your lucky rabbit's foot.

Keywords
neurodoping, performance enhancement, transcranial electric stimulation, TES, transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS, transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS, cheating
National Category
Ethics Neurosciences Sport and Fitness Sciences Medical Ethics
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-21747 (URN)
Conference
International Workshop: “Is Neurodoping different?”, 9 June 2022 at Roma Tre University in Rome, Italy. Co-organized by Roma Tre University, Roskilde University, Centro Universitario Internazionale, and the Italian Society for Neuroethics (SINe)
Note

Funding to attend the conference was kindly provided by Roskilde University, one of the co-organizers.

Available from: 2022-09-01 Created: 2022-09-01 Last updated: 2022-09-01Bibliographically approved
Rose, J. & MacGregor, O. (2021). The Architecture Of Algorithm-Driven Persuasion. Journal of Information Architecture, 6(1), 7-40
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Architecture Of Algorithm-Driven Persuasion
2021 (English)In: Journal of Information Architecture, E-ISSN 1903-7260, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 7-40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Persuasion is a process that aims to utilize (true or false) information to change people’s attitudes in relation to something, usually as a precursor to behavioural change. Its use is prevalent in democratic societies, which do not, in principle, permit censorship of information or the use of force to enact power. The transition of information to the internet, particularly with the rise of social media, together with the capacity to capture, store and process big data, and advances in machine learning, have transformed the way modern persuasion is conducted. This has led to new opportunities for persuaders, but also to well-documented instances of abuse: fake news, Cambridge Analytica, foreign interference in elections, etc. We investigate large-scale technology-based persuasion, with the help of three case studies derived from secondary sources, in order to identify and describe the underlying technology architecture and propose issues for future research, including a number of ethical concerns.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copenhagen Business School Press, 2021
Keywords
big data, AI, algorithms, persuasion, Facebook, Pokemon Go, Cambridge Analytica
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT
Research subject
Information Systems; Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-19637 (URN)
Note

CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

All content © 2009-2021 - Journal of Information Architecture and individual authors

Available from: 2021-04-16 Created: 2021-04-16 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Rischer, K. M., Savallampi, M., Akwaththage, A., Salinas Thunell, N., Lindersson, C. & MacGregor, O. (2020). In context: emotional intent and temporal immediacy of contextual descriptions modulate affective ERP components to facial expressions. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 15(5), 551-560
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In context: emotional intent and temporal immediacy of contextual descriptions modulate affective ERP components to facial expressions
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2020 (English)In: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 551-560Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we explored how contextual information about threat dynamics affected the electrophysiological correlates of face perception. Forty-six healthy native Swedish speakers read verbal descriptions signaling an immediate vs delayed intent to escalate or deescalate an interpersonal conflict. Each verbal description was followed by a face with an angry or neutral expression, for which participants rated valence and arousal. Affective ratings confirmed that the emotional intent expressed in the descriptions modulated emotional reactivity to the facial stimuli in the expected direction. The electrophysiological data showed that compared to neutral faces, angry faces resulted in enhanced early and late event-related potentials (VPP, P300 and LPP). Additionally, emotional intent and temporal immediacy modulated the VPP and P300 similarly across angry and neutral faces, suggesting that they influence early face perception independently of facial affect. By contrast, the LPP amplitude to faces revealed an interaction between facial expression and emotional intent. Deescalating descriptions eliminated the LPP differences between angry and neutral faces. Together, our results suggest that information about a person's intentions modulates the processing of facial expressions. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2020
Keywords
context, face processing, LPP, P300, VPP, adult, arousal, article, clinical article, conflict, controlled study, event related potential, evoked response, facial recognition, female, human, human experiment, male, signal transduction
National Category
Neurosciences Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Other Natural Sciences
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-18903 (URN)10.1093/scan/nsaa071 (DOI)000562476300004 ()32440673 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85087468490 (Scopus ID)
Note

CC BY 4.0

Correspondence should be addressed to Katharina Rischer, University of Luxembourg, Maison des Sciences Humaines, 11, Porte des Sciences, L-4366Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg. E-mail: katharina.rischer@uni.lu

Available from: 2020-08-12 Created: 2020-08-12 Last updated: 2021-03-26Bibliographically approved
Bergman, M., MacGregor, O., Olkoniemi, H., Owczarski, W., Revonsuo, A. & Valli, K. (2020). The Holocaust as a Lifelong Nightmare: Posttraumatic Symptoms and Dream Content in Polish Auschwitz Survivors 30 Years After World War II. American Journal of Psychology, 133(2), 143-167
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Holocaust as a Lifelong Nightmare: Posttraumatic Symptoms and Dream Content in Polish Auschwitz Survivors 30 Years After World War II
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2020 (English)In: American Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0002-9556, E-ISSN 1939-8298, Vol. 133, no 2, p. 143-167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Posttraumatic symptoms, including nightmares, are more prevalent in World War II survivors than in the general population, but how war experiences have affected subsequent dream content in specific survivor populations remains less explored. In the present study, we used self -reports collected in 1973 from Polish Auschwitz survivors (N = 150; 45 women) to investigate the prevalence of posttraumatic symptoms, classified according to the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Furthermore, we classified main themes, central emotions, and threatening events in the dreams (N = 632) of the survivors, comparing dreams recalled from before, during, and after the war. Of the respondents, 12.7% described experiencing all diagnostic criteria for PTSD. War-related themes were less common in dreams dreamt before than during the war but were most common after the war. Themes related to family and freedom were most likely to appear in dreams dreamt during than before or after the war. The most often occurring emotion was fear, and dreams from after the war were likely to contain more negative and less positive emotions than dreams dreamt during the war. The likelihoods of reporting threatening events and threats involving aggression were higher in dreams dreamt during than before the war and in dreams dreamt after than during the war. In conclusion, PTSD symptoms were common in Polish Auschwitz survivors 30 years after World War II, and the themes, emotions, and threatening events in their dreams seem to reflect lifelong posttraumatic dreaming. We interpret the results as lending support for the threat simulation theory of dreaming.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Illinois Press, 2020
Keywords
World War II, posttraumatic stress disorder, Auschwitz, dream content analysis, threat simulation theory
National Category
Psychiatry Psychology
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-18465 (URN)10.5406/amerjpsyc.133.2.0143 (DOI)000532679300001 ()2-s2.0-85087361905 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-05-29 Created: 2020-05-29 Last updated: 2020-08-27Bibliographically approved
MacGregor, O. (2015). Trivial Love. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 24(4), 497-500
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trivial Love
2015 (English)In: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 497-500Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2015
Keywords
love, medicalization, pharmaceuticalization
National Category
Ethics
Research subject
Humanities and Social sciences; Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11539 (URN)10.1017/S0963180115000171 (DOI)000361569300014 ()26364785 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84941619813 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-09-23 Created: 2015-09-23 Last updated: 2023-01-30Bibliographically approved
MacGregor, O. (2015). WADA's Whereabouts Requirements and Privacy. In: Verner Møller, Ivan Waddington, John M. Hoberman (Ed.), Routledge Handbook of Drugs and Sport: (pp. 310-321). London: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>WADA's Whereabouts Requirements and Privacy
2015 (English)In: Routledge Handbook of Drugs and Sport / [ed] Verner Møller, Ivan Waddington, John M. Hoberman, London: Routledge, 2015, p. 310-321Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2015
Series
Routledge International Handbooks
Keywords
WADA, doping, anti-doping, whereabouts, privacy
National Category
Medical Ethics Ethics
Research subject
Humanities and Social sciences; Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11425 (URN)2-s2.0-84941312469 (Scopus ID)978-0-415-70278-2 (ISBN)9781134464128 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-08-26 Created: 2015-08-26 Last updated: 2020-07-01Bibliographically approved
MacGregor, O., Griffith, R., Ruggiu, D. & McNamee, M. (2013). Anti-doping, purported rights to privacy and WADA’s whereabouts requirements: A legal analysis. Fair Play, 1(2), 13-38
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anti-doping, purported rights to privacy and WADA’s whereabouts requirements: A legal analysis
2013 (English)In: Fair Play, ISSN 2014-9255, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 13-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent discussions among lawyers, philosophers, policy researchers and athletes have focused on the potential threat to privacy posed by the World Anti-Doping Agency’s (WADA) whereabouts requirements. These requirements demand, among other things, that all elite athletes file their whereabouts information for the subsequent quarter on a quarterly basis and comprise data for one hour of each day when the athlete will be available and accessible for no advance notice testing at a specified location of their choosing. Failure to file one’s whereabouts, or the non-availability for testing at said location on three occasions within any 18-month period constitutes an anti-doping rule violation that is equivalent to testing positive to a banned substance, and may lead to a suspension of the athlete for a time period of between one and two years. We critically explore the extent to which WADA’s whereabouts requirements are in tension with existing legislation on privacy, with respect to UK athletes, who are simultaneously protected by UK domestic and EU law. Both UK domestic and EU law are subject to the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) Article 8, which establishes a right to “respect for private and family life, home and correspondence”. We critically discuss the centrality of the whereabouts requirements in relation to WADA’s aims, and the adoption and implementation of its whereabouts rules. We conclude that as WADA’s whereabouts requirements appear to be in breach of an elite athlete’s rights under European workers’ rights, health & safety and data protection law they are also, therefore, in conflict with Article 8 of the ECHR and the UK Human Rights Act 1998. We call for specific amendments that cater for the exceptional case of elite sports labour if the WADA requirements are to be considered legitimate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 2013
Keywords
doping, privacy, data protection, human rights, dopaje, intimidad, protección de datos, derechos humanos
National Category
Law and Society
Research subject
Humanities and Social sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-8598 (URN)
Available from: 2013-10-30 Created: 2013-10-30 Last updated: 2023-03-27Bibliographically approved
MacGregor, O. & McNamee, M. (2011). Harm, risk, and doping analogies: A counter-response to Kious. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, 32(3), 201-7
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Harm, risk, and doping analogies: A counter-response to Kious
2011 (English)In: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, ISSN 1386-7415, E-ISSN 1573-0980, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 201-7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Brent Kious has objected to our previous criticism of his views on doping, maintaining that we, by and large, misrepresented his position. In this response, we strengthen our original misgivings, arguing that (1) his views on risk of harm in sport are either uncontroversially true (not inconsistent with the views of many doping opponents) or demonstrably false (attribute to doping opponents an overly simplistic view), (2) his use of analogies (still) indicates an oversimplification of many issues surrounding the question of doping in sports, and (3) his doping analogies are insufficiently precise to support his conclusions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2011
Keywords
Sports ethics, doping, moral methodology, sports, performance enhancement
National Category
Medical Ethics
Research subject
Humanities and Social sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-8908 (URN)10.1007/s11017-011-9178-9 (DOI)21472395 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-02-27 Created: 2014-02-27 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5665-8029

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