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Andreasson, R., Alenljung, B., Billing, E. & Lowe, R. (2018). Affective Touch in Human–Robot Interaction: Conveying Emotion to the Nao Robot. International Journal of Social Robotics, 10(4), 473-491
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Affective Touch in Human–Robot Interaction: Conveying Emotion to the Nao Robot
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 473-491Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Affective touch has a fundamental role in human development, social bonding, and for providing emotional support in interpersonal relationships. We present, what is to our knowledge, the first HRI study of tactile conveyance of both positive and negative emotions (affective touch) on the Nao robot, and based on an experimental set-up from a study of human–human tactile communication. In the present work, participants conveyed eight emotions to a small humanoid robot via touch. We found that female participants conveyed emotions for a longer time, using more varied interaction and touching more regions on the robot’s body, compared to male participants. Several differences between emotions were found such that emotions could be classified by the valence of the emotion conveyed, by combining touch amount and duration. Overall, these results show high agreement with those reported for human–human affective tactile communication and could also have impact on the design and placement of tactile sensors on humanoid robots.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Tactile interaction, Affective touch, Human–robot interaction, Emotion encoding, Emotion decoding, Social emotions, Nao robot
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14563 (URN)10.1007/s12369-017-0446-3 (DOI)000445226600007 ()2-s2.0-85053554592 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Design, textil och hållbar utveckling
Funder
Region Västra Götaland
Available from: 2017-12-07 Created: 2017-12-07 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved
Alenljung, B., Andreasson, R., Lowe, R., Billing, E. & Lindblom, J. (2018). Conveying Emotions by Touch to the Nao Robot: A User Experience Perspective. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, 2(4), Article ID 82.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conveying Emotions by Touch to the Nao Robot: A User Experience Perspective
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2018 (English)In: Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, ISSN 2414-4088, Vol. 2, no 4, article id 82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Social robots are expected gradually to be used by more and more people in a widerrange of settings, domestic as well as professional. As a consequence, the features and qualityrequirements on human–robot interaction will increase, comprising possibilities to communicateemotions, establishing a positive user experience, e.g., using touch. In this paper, the focus is ondepicting how humans, as the users of robots, experience tactile emotional communication with theNao Robot, as well as identifying aspects affecting the experience and touch behavior. A qualitativeinvestigation was conducted as part of a larger experiment. The major findings consist of 15 differentaspects that vary along one or more dimensions and how those influence the four dimensions ofuser experience that are present in the study, as well as the different parts of touch behavior ofconveying emotions.

National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16507 (URN)10.3390/mti2040082 (DOI)
Funder
Region Västra GötalandKnowledge Foundation, 20140220
Available from: 2018-12-18 Created: 2018-12-18 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Lowe, R., Andreasson, R., Alenljung, B., Lund, A. & Billing, E. (2018). Designing for a Wearable Affective Interface for the NAO Robot: A Study of Emotion Conveyance by Touch. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, 2(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing for a Wearable Affective Interface for the NAO Robot: A Study of Emotion Conveyance by Touch
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2018 (English)In: Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, ISSN 2414-4088, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We here present results and analysis from a study of affective tactile communication between human and humanoid robot (the NAO robot). In the present work, participants conveyed eight emotions to the NAO via touch. In this study, we sought to understand the potential for using a wearable affective (tactile) interface, or WAffI. The aims of our study were to address the following: (i) how emotions and affective states can be conveyed (encoded) to such a humanoid robot, (ii) what are the effects of dressing the NAO in the WAffI on emotion conveyance and (iii) what is the potential for decoding emotion and affective states. We found that subjects conveyed touch for longer duration and over more locations on the robot when the NAO was dressed with WAffI than when it was not. Our analysis illuminates ways by which affective valence, and separate emotions, might be decoded by a humanoid robot according to the different features of touch: intensity, duration, location, type. Finally, we discuss the types of sensors and their distribution as they may be embedded within the WAffI and that would likely benefit Human-NAO (and Human-Humanoid) interaction along the affective tactile dimension.

Keywords
affective tactile interaction, emotions, human-robot interaction, touch, emotion classification
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14958 (URN)10.3390/mti2010002 (DOI)
Projects
Design, textil och hållbar utveckling
Funder
Region Västra Götaland
Available from: 2018-03-13 Created: 2018-03-13 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Rose, J. & Alenljung, B. (2018). Uppföljning: Utbildning på forskarnivå. Skövde: Högskolan i Skövde
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uppföljning: Utbildning på forskarnivå
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skövde: Högskolan i Skövde, 2018
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16696 (URN)
Available from: 2019-03-13 Created: 2019-03-13 Last updated: 2019-03-15
Alenljung, B., Lindblom, J., Andreasson, R. & Ziemke, T. (2017). User Experience in Social Human-Robot Interaction. International Journal of Ambient Computing and Intelligence (IJACI), 8(2), 12-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>User Experience in Social Human-Robot Interaction
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Ambient Computing and Intelligence (IJACI), ISSN 1941-6237, E-ISSN 1941-6245, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 12-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Socially interactive robots are expected to have an increasing importance in human society. For social robots to provide long-term added value to people’s lives, it is of major importance to stressthe need for positive user experience (UX) of such robots. The human-centered view emphasizes various aspects that emerge in the interaction between humans and robots. However, a positive UX does not appear by itself but has to be designed for and evaluated systematically. In this paper, the focus is on the role and relevance of UX in human-robot interaction (HRI) and four trends concerning the role and relevance of UX related to socially interactive robots are identified, and three challenges related to its evaluation are also presented. It is argued that current research efforts and directions are not sufficient in HRI research, and that future research needs to further address interdisciplinary research in order to achieve long-term success of socially interactive robots.

Keywords
Human-Centered HRI, Human-Robot Interaction, Human-Technology Interaction, Robotic Technology, Socially Interactive Technology, UX Design, UX Evaluation, UX Goals
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); Information Systems; INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13430 (URN)10.4018/IJACI.2017040102 (DOI)000396727500002 ()2-s2.0-85016032163 (Scopus ID)
Projects
the Knowledge Foundation, Stockholm, SIDUS grant agreement no. 20140220. (AIR, “Action and intention recognition in human interaction with autonomous systems").
Available from: 2017-03-13 Created: 2017-03-13 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved
Alenljung, B., Andreasson, R., Billing, E. A., Lindblom, J. & Lowe, R. (2017). User Experience of Conveying Emotions by Touch. In: Proceedings of the 26th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN): . Paper presented at IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN) Lisbon, Portugal, Aug 28 - Sept 1, 2017 (pp. 1240-1247). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>User Experience of Conveying Emotions by Touch
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 26th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), IEEE, 2017, p. 1240-1247Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the present study, 64 users were asked to convey eight distinct emotion to a humanoid Nao robot via touch, and were then asked to evaluate their experiences of performing that task. Large differences between emotions were revealed. Users perceived conveying of positive/pro-social emotions as significantly easier than negative emotions, with love and disgust as the two extremes. When asked whether they would act differently towards a human, compared to the robot, the users’ replies varied. A content analysis of interviews revealed a generally positive user experience (UX) while interacting with the robot, but users also found the task challenging in several ways. Three major themes with impact on the UX emerged; responsiveness, robustness, and trickiness. The results are discussed in relation to a study of human-human affective tactile interaction, with implications for human-robot interaction (HRI) and design of social and affective robotics in particular. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Series
International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, ISSN 1944-9445, E-ISSN 1944-9437
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14082 (URN)10.1109/ROMAN.2017.8172463 (DOI)000427262400193 ()2-s2.0-85034038084 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-3517-9 (ISBN)978-1-5386-3519-3 (ISBN)978-1-5386-3518-6 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN) Lisbon, Portugal, Aug 28 - Sept 1, 2017
Projects
Design, Textil och hållbar Utveckling (VGR)
Funder
Region Västra Götaland
Available from: 2017-09-04 Created: 2017-09-04 Last updated: 2018-11-16
Alenljung, B. & Maurin Söderholm, H. (2015). Designing Simulation-Based Training for Prehospital Emergency Care: Participation from a Participants Perspective. In: Masaaki Kurosu (Ed.), Human-Computer Interaction: Designing and Evaluation: 17th International Conference, HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings, Part I. Paper presented at 17th International Conference, HCI International 2015,Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015 (pp. 297-306). Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 9169
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing Simulation-Based Training for Prehospital Emergency Care: Participation from a Participants Perspective
2015 (English)In: Human-Computer Interaction: Designing and Evaluation: 17th International Conference, HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Masaaki Kurosu, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, Vol. 9169, p. 297-306Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Simulation-based training for prehospital emergency care is characterized by high degrees of complexity. Thorough knowledge of both the work and the setting is crucial and it is therefore important to involve both end-users and other stakeholders during the whole design process. This paper investigates a design process by focusing on how project participants experience the work process and participation of a multi-disciplinary, research-practitioner design team. This case study focuses on the work within a development project of a new prehospital emergency training facility. Open-ended interviews were conducted with the project participants halfway through the project. Strikingly, the results show that while there are problems and tensions that potentially could overturn the project, all participants express strong satisfaction with their participation in the project. This implies that the accumulated positive experiences are so strong that they overshadow tensions and problems that under other circumstances could have caused a project breakdown.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015
Series
Lecture Notes In Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 9169
Keywords
User participation, participatory design, simulation-based training, prehospital emergency care
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Technology; Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11329 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-20901-2_27 (DOI)000450926700027 ()2-s2.0-84947279552 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-20900-5 (ISBN)978-3-319-20901-2 (ISBN)
Conference
17th International Conference, HCI International 2015,Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015
Projects
Simulation, Ambulance, Research, Education, Kinship (SAREK)
Available from: 2015-08-10 Created: 2015-08-10 Last updated: 2019-03-04Bibliographically approved
Susi, T., Lindblom, J. & Alenljung, B. (2015). Promoting sustainability: Learning new practices through ICT. In: Oskar Lundwall, Päivi Häkkinen, Timothy Koschmann, Pierre Tchounikine & Sten Ludvigsen (Ed.), Exploring the Material Conditions of Learning: Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Conference 201: Volume 2. Paper presented at 11th International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning, June 7-11, 2015, Gothenburg, Sweden, The University of Gothenburg (pp. 743-744). Gothenburg, Sweden: Intenational Society of the Learning Sciences, 2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Promoting sustainability: Learning new practices through ICT
2015 (English)In: Exploring the Material Conditions of Learning: Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Conference 201: Volume 2 / [ed] Oskar Lundwall, Päivi Häkkinen, Timothy Koschmann, Pierre Tchounikine & Sten Ludvigsen, Gothenburg, Sweden: Intenational Society of the Learning Sciences , 2015, Vol. 2, p. 743-744Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to promote sustainability as an important research topic within the computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) community. CSCL can play a crucial role in the achievement of sustainability, which is paramount for the well-being of current and future generations. While CSCL brings formal educational settings to mind, computers and cooperative learning should be considered in a wider perspective since learning also takes place in and through people’s everyday practices. This paper considers two on-going research projects outside mainstream CSCL research, to illustrate ways that technology can lead to changed practices for the benefit of increased environmental and social sustainability. The projects concern children’s online practices and social sustainability, and information and communication technology (ICT) and practices in sustainable agriculture, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gothenburg, Sweden: Intenational Society of the Learning Sciences, 2015
Series
Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Conference, CSCL, ISSN 1573-4552
Keywords
CSCL, ICT, learning, practices, social sustainability, environmental sustainability
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Technology; Interaction Lab (ILAB); Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11104 (URN)978-0-9903550-7-6 (ISBN)
Conference
11th International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning, June 7-11, 2015, Gothenburg, Sweden, The University of Gothenburg
Projects
KidCog
Available from: 2015-06-12 Created: 2015-06-12 Last updated: 2018-08-01Bibliographically approved
Lindblom, J. & Alenljung, B. (2015). Socially Embodied Human-Robot Interaction: Addressing human Emotions with Theories of Embodied Cognition. In: Jordi Vallverdú (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Synthesizing Human Emotion in Intelligent Systems and Robotics: (pp. 169-190). Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA: IGI Global
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Socially Embodied Human-Robot Interaction: Addressing human Emotions with Theories of Embodied Cognition
2015 (English)In: Handbook of Research on Synthesizing Human Emotion in Intelligent Systems and Robotics / [ed] Jordi Vallverdú, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA: IGI Global, 2015, p. 169-190Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A fundamental challenge of human interaction with socially interactive robots, compared to other interactive products, comes from them being embodied. The embodied nature of social robots questions to what degree humans can interact ‘naturally' with robots, and what impact the interaction quality has on the user experience (UX). UX is fundamentally about emotions that arise and form in humans through the use of technology in a particular situation. This chapter aims to contribute to the field of human-robot interaction (HRI) by addressing, in further detail, the role and relevance of embodied cognition for human social interaction, and consequently what role embodiment can play in HRI, especially for socially interactive robots. Furthermore, some challenges for socially embodied interaction between humans and socially interactive robots are outlined and possible directions for future research are presented. It is concluded that the body is of crucial importance in understanding emotion and cognition in general, and, in particular, for a positive user experience to emerge when interacting with socially interactive robots.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA: IGI Global, 2015
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Technology; Interaction Lab (ILAB); Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10897 (URN)10.4018/978-1-4666-7278-9.ch007 (DOI)2-s2.0-84946232966 (Scopus ID)9781466672789 (ISBN)1466672781 (ISBN)9781466672796 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-05-05 Created: 2015-05-05 Last updated: 2018-08-01Bibliographically approved
Söderström, E., Holgersson, J., Alenljung, B., Göbel, H. & Hallqvist, C. (2015). The Conceptual Confusion Around “e-service”: Practitioners' Conceptions. In: Marijn Janssen, Matti Mäntymäki, Jan Hidders, Bram Klievink, Winfried Lamersdorf, Bastiaan van Loenen, Anneke Zuiderwijk (Ed.), Open and Big Data Management and Innovation: . Paper presented at 14th IFIP WG 6.11 Conference on e-Business, e-Services, and e-Society, I3E 2015, Delft, The Netherlands, October 13–15, 2015 (pp. 366-371). Cham, Switzerland: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Conceptual Confusion Around “e-service”: Practitioners' Conceptions
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2015 (English)In: Open and Big Data Management and Innovation / [ed] Marijn Janssen, Matti Mäntymäki, Jan Hidders, Bram Klievink, Winfried Lamersdorf, Bastiaan van Loenen, Anneke Zuiderwijk, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2015, p. 366-371Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The e-service concept has been a central concern in many researchand practitioner areas in recent years. There are expectations of citizens, customers,commercial companies and public organizations of what e-services are,their functionality and benefits. However, there is conceptual confusion thatmay hamper collaboration and research viability. This paper explores the conceptualvagueness and presents an empirical investigation of how the e-serviceconcept is treated in practice, along with its kindred concept “IT service”. Resultsshow that public and commercial organizations approach e-services differently,that translation problems can cause lack of comparability in research results,and that additional concepts may be introduced instead of e-service.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2015
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 9373
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Technology; Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11611 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-25013-7_29 (DOI)000366756600029 ()2-s2.0-84951869340 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-25012-0 (ISBN)978-3-319-25013-7 (ISBN)
Conference
14th IFIP WG 6.11 Conference on e-Business, e-Services, and e-Society, I3E 2015, Delft, The Netherlands, October 13–15, 2015
Available from: 2015-10-13 Created: 2015-10-13 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7554-2301

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