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Westin, T., Brusk, J. & Engström, H. (2020). Activities to Support Sustainable Inclusive Game Design Processes. EAI Endorsed Transactions on Creative Technologies, 6(20), Article ID e4.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Activities to Support Sustainable Inclusive Game Design Processes
2020 (English)In: EAI Endorsed Transactions on Creative Technologies, ISSN 2409-9708, Vol. 6, no 20, article id e4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: The problem addressed in this work is the lack of knowledge of what inclusive game design would mean in practice within existing design processes of game companies. A pilot project was devised to involve both the game industry and disabled people.

OBJECTIVES: The goal in this study was to identify activities that constitute the biggest obstacles to realising sustainable design processes for inclusive game design.

METHODS: The study is mainly based on two full-day workshops with the game industry and three game studios, three organisations of disabled youth and authorities.

RESULTS: Five activities were identified in the analysis of the workshops: 1) Find opportunities for inclusive game design; 2) Raise awareness about inclusive game design; 3) Handle integrity and security; 4) Recruit the right competence; and 5) Adapt workplaces and tools.

CONCLUSION: The five main activities should be considered to achieve sustainable inclusive game design processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EAI, 2020
Keywords
Game industry, Game design processes, Inclusion, Disabled people
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); Media, Technology and Culture (MTEC)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-18186 (URN)10.4108/eai.30-7-2019.162948 (DOI)
Projects
PowerUpGame Hub Scandinavia 2
Note

This work was funded by the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (Vinnova) and Game Hub Scandinavia 2.0, Projektid: NYPS20201849, EU Interreg Öresuns-Kattegat-Skagerrak.

Available from: 2020-02-04 Created: 2020-02-04 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
Westin, T., Engström, H. & Brusk, J. (2019). Towards Sustainable Inclusive Game Design Processes. In: : . Paper presented at ArtsIT 2019 – 8th EAI International Conference: ArtsIT, Interactivity & Game Creation, November 6-8, 2019, Aalborg, Denmark.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Sustainable Inclusive Game Design Processes
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

While many studies have been done about creation of accessible games, they have mainly been conducted in an academic context and represents a gap between game research and the game industry. The pilot project presented in this paper (PowerUp) addresses inclusive design by involving both the game industry and disabled people. The goal is to identify activities that constitute the biggest obstacles to realising sustainable design processes for inclusive game de- sign (IGD). Four activities were identified through two full-day workshops with the game industry and game studios, disabled people and authorities: 1) Find op- portunities for IGD with disabled people; 2) Handle integrity and security of dis- abled people; 3) Recruit the right competence among disabled people; and 4) Adapt workplaces and tools for IGD processes. These activities are tentative and will hopefully be subject to discussion and further development to achieve sus- tainable inclusive game design.

Keywords
Game industry, Game design processes, Inclusion, Disabled people
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); Media, Technology and Culture (MTEC)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17891 (URN)
Conference
ArtsIT 2019 – 8th EAI International Conference: ArtsIT, Interactivity & Game Creation, November 6-8, 2019, Aalborg, Denmark
Projects
PowerUpGame Hub Scandinavia 2
Note

This work was funded by the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (Vinnova) and Game Hub Scandinavia 2.0, Projektid: NYPS20201849, EU Interreg Öresuns-Kattegat-Skagerrak.

Available from: 2019-11-19 Created: 2019-11-19 Last updated: 2019-12-03
Engström, H., Brusk, J. & Erlandsson, P. (2018). Prototyping Tools for Game Writers. The Computer Games Journal, 7(3), 153-172
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prototyping Tools for Game Writers
2018 (English)In: The Computer Games Journal, E-ISSN 2052-773X, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 153-172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A game is best evaluated by playing it and prototyping is therefore an important activity in game development. Game writers and narrative designers are responsible for the narrative structure of a game, which may have a varying degree of interactivity to it. The aim of this paper is to analyse the role of prototyping tools for game writers. There is a limited range of such tools available, of which Twine is one of the most established. Most of these tools have a text-based programming interface for modelling of game mechanics. This paper presents Deig—a proto- typing tool for creating point-and-click adventure games. In Deig, game mechanics is modelled graphically using nodes from a set of primitives. We present an interview study where game writing students reflect on their experience of using Deig and Twine as prototyping tools. The result shows that both tools have their merits and complement each other. Deig was found to be intuitive for modelling of game mechanics, which lead students to create interactive narratives. Twine was found to be more useful for experimental writing. The conclusion of this work is that there is a need for a diverse set of prototyping tools to support game writing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Computer game, Game writing, Narrative design, Prototyping, Tools
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); Media, Technology and Culture (MTEC)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15376 (URN)10.1007/s40869-018-0062-y (DOI)
Projects
Inkluderande julkalender
Funder
The Swedish Post and Telecom Authority (PTS)
Available from: 2018-06-07 Created: 2018-06-07 Last updated: 2018-09-03Bibliographically approved
Wilhelmsson, U., Engström, H., Brusk, J. & Östblad, P. A. (2017). Inclusive game design facilitating shared gaming experience. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 29(3), 574-598
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inclusive game design facilitating shared gaming experience
2017 (English)In: Journal of Computing in Higher Education, ISSN 1042-1726, E-ISSN 1867-1233, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 574-598Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents the result from a study comparing the perception and understanding of a game story between sighted and visually impaired players playing the same game. In particular, whether sighted and visually impaired players could experience and recount the same story construed from the plot elements that are either manifested by audio and graphics in the case of sighted players or pri- marily by audio in the case of visually impaired players. To this end, we have developed a graphical point-and-click adventure game for iOS and Android devices that aims to show how inclusive game design may be used to facilitate a shared gaming experience between sighted and visually impaired players. The game pro- vides players with audio feedback that enables visually impaired players to interact with and experience the game, but in a manner that does not interfere with the overall appearance and functionality of the game. Thus, it has been designed to be fully inclusive to both groups of players and to give the same gaming experience when it comes to story content. The game has been evaluated through formal user tests where subjects have been asked to play the first chapter of the game followed by an interview. The study shows that the perception of the story was almost identical between the two groups. Generally it took visually impaired players a little longer to play the game but they also seem to listen more carefully to the dialogue and hence also build a slightly deeper understanding of the characters. The study also shows that the sighted players did not respond negatively towards the inclusive game design employed in the game. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Inclusive game design, Narrative, Story, Plot elements, Visually impaired players, Sighted players
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Media, Technology and Culture (MTEC); Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13473 (URN)10.1007/s12528-017-9146-0 (DOI)000415756100010 ()2-s2.0-85035145381 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Inkluderande Speldesign
Funder
The Swedish Post and Telecom Authority (PTS)
Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Brusk, J. (2016). Computer Game Development: Diversity and Inclusiveness. In: Lars Kristensen (Ed.), Art and Game Obstruction: (pp. 47-52). Göteborg: Rojal Förlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computer Game Development: Diversity and Inclusiveness
2016 (English)In: Art and Game Obstruction / [ed] Lars Kristensen, Göteborg: Rojal Förlag , 2016, p. 47-52Chapter in book (Refereed) [Artistic work]
Abstract [en]

Computer games combine various artistic disciplines, such as visual art, sound, music and storytelling, with low-level data representations and algorithms in order to create an interactive experience for one or more players. This essay discusses the implications of exploring the design space at the intersection of games and art from a game design perspective. In particular, this essay argues that exploring and treating games as art is a step towards inclusive game development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Rojal Förlag, 2016
Keywords
Art, Game design, Video games, MDA, Gender
National Category
Visual Arts
Research subject
Media, Technology and Culture (MTEC)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13423 (URN)978-91-982113-0-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-03-10 Created: 2017-03-10 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Engström, H., Brusk, J. & Östblad, P. A. (2015). A comparison of immersion between players playing the same game with and without graphics. In: Katherine Blashki & Yingcai Xiao (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conferences on Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction 2015, Game and Entertainment Technologies 2015 and Computer Graphics, Visualization, Computer Vision and Image Processing : . Paper presented at International Conference on Game and Entertainment Technologies (pp. 84-92). IADIS Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparison of immersion between players playing the same game with and without graphics
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Conferences on Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction 2015, Game and Entertainment Technologies 2015 and Computer Graphics, Visualization, Computer Vision and Image Processing / [ed] Katherine Blashki & Yingcai Xiao, IADIS Press, 2015, p. 84-92Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of the project presented in this paper is that visually impaired and sighted players should be able to play the same game and share a gaming experience. The goal is that the game should be accessible to visually impaired players without any additional tools, such as text-to-speech, that may reduce the immersion. At the same time, sighted players should perceive the game as a regular game. This paper presents an evaluation of the game where the player immersion has been evaluated through a post test immersion questionnaire. The study was conducted with three independent groups: sighted players using graphics (n=10), blindfolded sighted players (n=10) and visually impaired players (n=9). Although progress in the game and the reported sense of control differed between groups, player immersion was very high in all groups. There were differences between the three groups only in one out of five immersion factors. The result shows that it has been possible to provide an immersive experience irrespective of whether the players are playing the game with graphics or using audio only. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IADIS Press, 2015
Keywords
Inclusive game design, immersion, questionnaire, audio games
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Technology; Interaction Lab (ILAB); Media, Technology and Culture (MTEC)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11398 (URN)000384141800010 ()2-s2.0-84969185774 (Scopus ID)978-989-8533-38-8 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Game and Entertainment Technologies
Projects
Inkluderande speldesign
Funder
The Swedish Post and Telecom Authority (PTS)
Available from: 2015-08-21 Created: 2015-08-21 Last updated: 2018-08-01Bibliographically approved
Wilhelmsson, U., Engström, H., Brusk, J. & Östblad, P.-A. (2015). Accessible Game Culture using Inclusive Game Design: Participating in a visual culture that you cannot see. In: Per Backlund (Ed.), VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications. Paper presented at IEEE 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games), Skövde, September 16-18, 2015 (pp. 147-154). Red Hook, NY: IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accessible Game Culture using Inclusive Game Design: Participating in a visual culture that you cannot see
2015 (English)In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications / [ed] Per Backlund, Red Hook, NY: IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 147-154Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present the result of an experiment, in which we compare the gaming experience between sighted players and visually impaired players playing the same game. Specifically we discuss whether they experience the same story construed from the plot elements that are either manifested by audio and graphics in the case of sighted players or primarily by audio in the case of visually impaired players. To this end, we have developed a graphical point-and-click adventure game for iOS and Android devices. The game has been designed to provide players with audio feedback that enables visually impaired players to interact with and experience the game, but in a manner that does not interfere with the overall appearance and functionality of the game, i.e. a design that is fully inclusive to both groups of players and that is as invisible for sighted players as possible without hindering visually impaired players to share the same gaming experience when it comes to story content. The study shows that the perception of the story were almost identical between the two groups. Generally it took visually impaired players a little longer to play the game but they also seem to listen more carefully to the dialogue and hence also build a slightly deeper understanding of the characters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Red Hook, NY: IEEE Computer Society, 2015
Keywords
inclusive game design, narrative, story, plot elements, visually impaired players, sighted players
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Technology; Technology; Media, Technology and Culture (MTEC); Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11538 (URN)10.1109/VS-GAMES.2015.7295764 (DOI)000380426500007 ()2-s2.0-84954564285 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-8102-1 (ISBN)978-1-4799-8101-4 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games), Skövde, September 16-18, 2015
Funder
The Swedish Post and Telecom Authority (PTS)
Note

978-1-4799-8102-1 (Xplore)

978-1-4799-8101-4 (USB)

Catalog Number: CFP1538G-ART (Xplore)

Available from: 2015-09-23 Created: 2015-09-23 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Engström, H., Brusk, J. & Östblad, P. A. (2015). Including Visually Impaired Players in a Graphical Adventure Game: A Study of Immersion. IADIS International Journal on Computer Science and Information System, 10(2), 95-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Including Visually Impaired Players in a Graphical Adventure Game: A Study of Immersion
2015 (English)In: IADIS International Journal on Computer Science and Information System, ISSN 1646-3692, E-ISSN 1646-3692, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 95-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the project presented in this paper is that visually impaired and sighted players should be able to play the same game and share a gaming experience. The goal is that the game should be accessible to visually impaired players without any additional tools, such as text-to-speech, that may reduce the immersion. At the same time, sighted players should perceive the game as a regular game. This paper presents an evaluation of the game where the player immersion has been evaluated through a post test immersion questionnaire. The study was conducted with three independent groups: sighted players using graphics (n=10), blindfolded sighted players (n=10) and visually impaired players (n=9). Although progress in the game and the reported sense of control differed between groups, player immersion was very high in all groups. There were differences between the three groups only in one out of five immersion factors. The result shows that it has been possible to provide an immersive experience irrespective of whether the players are playing the game with graphics or using audio only.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lisbon, Portugal: IADIS Press, 2015
Keywords
Inclusive game design, immersion, questionnaire, audio games
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Technology; Interaction Lab (ILAB); Media, Technology and Culture (MTEC)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11845 (URN)000366817800008 ()
Projects
Inkluderande speldesign
Funder
The Swedish Post and Telecom Authority (PTS)
Available from: 2016-01-21 Created: 2016-01-21 Last updated: 2018-08-31Bibliographically approved
Billgren, I., Bjarnehed, M. & Brusk, J. (2014). Donna - inclusive game development by example. In: Maria Edström & Ragnhild Mølster (Ed.), Making Change: Nordic Examples of Working Towards Gender Equality in the Media (pp. 85-87). Göteborg: Nordicom
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Donna - inclusive game development by example
2014 (English)In: Making Change: Nordic Examples of Working Towards Gender Equality in the Media / [ed] Maria Edström & Ragnhild Mølster, Göteborg: Nordicom, 2014, p. 85-87Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Nordicom, 2014
National Category
Humanities
Research subject
Humanities and Social sciences; Media, Technology and Culture (MTEC)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10486 (URN)978-91-87957-00-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-12-29 Created: 2014-12-29 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved
Östblad, P. A., Engström, H., Brusk, J., Backlund, P. & Wilhelmsson, U. (2014). Inclusive game design: audio interface in a graphical adventure game. In: 9th Audio Mostly: A Conference on Interaction With Sound (AM '14). ACM, New York, NY, USA: . Paper presented at 9th Audio Mostly: A Conference on Interaction With Sound (AM '14). ACM, New York, NY, USA (pp. 8). New York, USA: ACM Digital Library
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inclusive game design: audio interface in a graphical adventure game
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2014 (English)In: 9th Audio Mostly: A Conference on Interaction With Sound (AM '14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, New York, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2014, p. 8-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A lot of video games on the market are inaccessible to players with visual impairments because they rely heavily on use of graphical elements. This paper presents a project aimed at developing a point-and-click adventure game for smart phones and tablets that is equally functional and enjoyable by blind and sighted players. This will be achieved by utilizing audio to give blind players all necessary information and enjoyment without graphics. In addition to creating the game, the aim of the project is to identify design aspects that can be applied to more types of games to include more players. This paper also presents a pilot study that has been conducted on an early version of the game and the preliminary findings are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2014
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Technology; Media, Technology and Culture (MTEC); Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10081 (URN)10.1145/2636879.2636909 (DOI)2-s2.0-84937688414 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-3032-9 (ISBN)
Conference
9th Audio Mostly: A Conference on Interaction With Sound (AM '14). ACM, New York, NY, USA
Funder
The Swedish Post and Telecom Authority (PTS)
Available from: 2014-10-09 Created: 2014-10-09 Last updated: 2018-09-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9251-6554

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