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van Laere, J., Johansson, B. J. E., Olsson, L. & Määttä, P. (2020). Mitigating Escalation of Cascading Effects of a Payment Disruption Across Other Critical Infrastructures: Lessons Learned in 15 Simulation-Games. In: Simin Nadjm-Tehrani (Ed.), Critical Information Infrastructures Security: 14th International Conference, CRITIS 2019, Linköping, Sweden, September 23–25, 2019, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 110-121). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mitigating Escalation of Cascading Effects of a Payment Disruption Across Other Critical Infrastructures: Lessons Learned in 15 Simulation-Games
2020 (English)In: Critical Information Infrastructures Security: 14th International Conference, CRITIS 2019, Linköping, Sweden, September 23–25, 2019, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Simin Nadjm-Tehrani, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 110-121Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A disruption in one critical infrastructure can quickly lead to cascading effects in several other ones. Much research has been done to analyze dependencies between different critical infrastructures, but little is known about how to mitigate escalation and cascading effects across several critical infrastructures, i.e. how to develop collective critical infrastructure resilience. This research presents the results of 15 simulation-games where groups of 6 to 8 field experts from different sectors were challenged to collaboratively manage a disruption in the payment system that quickly affected food distribution, fuel distribution, transport, health care et cetera. Teams discussed possible strategies, which next were implemented in a computer simulation. Teams could influence the sequence of events on 4 decision points during a 10 day scenario, and play the same scenario several times to test alternative solutions. Each simulation-game session lasted a full day. Data analysis involved the recorded team discussions as well as computer simulation logs of the implemented decisions and their impacts. The results show how escalation and the severity of cascading effects largely depends on the quality of the early crisis response and not so much on the initial disruption. Also, it is shown how cross sectorial collaboration is required. Responses where groups focus too much on cascading effects in one area lead too poor overall performance for society at large. Groups tend to overbalance their mitigating strategies initially, until they arrive at a more balanced strategy that covers challenges in several different critical infrastructures from an integral perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2020
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 11777
Keywords
Critical infrastructures, Resilience, Gaming-simulation, Cross-sectorial collaboration
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects Information Systems
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-18203 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-37670-3_9 (DOI)2-s2.0-85077503830 (Scopus ID)978-3-030-37669-7 (ISBN)978-3-030-37670-3 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, 2016-3046
Note

Also part of the Security and Cryptology book sub series (LNSC, volume 11777). This research was supported by Grant 2016-3046 of the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency.

Available from: 2020-02-13 Created: 2020-02-13 Last updated: 2020-02-13Bibliographically approved
Lennerholt, C., van Laere, J. & Söderström, E. (2020). User Related Challenges of Self-Service Business Intelligence. In: Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences: . Paper presented at The 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. HICSS 2020. Maui, United States, January 7-10, 2020 (pp. 188-197). Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences
Open this publication in new window or tab >>User Related Challenges of Self-Service Business Intelligence
2020 (English)In: Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences , 2020, p. 188-197Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Self-service Business Intelligence (SSBI) is an upcoming trend allowing non-technical casual users to use Business Intelligence (BI) in a self-reliant manner without the support of technical power users. Many organizations struggle to utilize the potential of SSBI and experience data-related and user-related SSBI implementations challenges. This study aimed at exploring user-related SSBI challenges by conducting and analyzing a total of 30 qualitative interviews with 5 BI consultants and 10 customer representatives involved in 2 SSBI implementation project teams. Analysis of the interviews revealed ten challenges related to “self-reliant users”, seven challenges related to “creating SSBI reports” and five challenges related to “SSBI education”, which differ considerably from SSBI challenges commonly discussed in literature. Awareness of these 22 challenges can help practitioners to avoid unnecessary obstacles when implementing and using SSBI, and guide SSBI researchers in simplifying the implementation process of SSBI.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2020
Series
Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), ISSN 1530-1605, E-ISSN 2572-6862
Keywords
Business Intelligence, Self Service Business Intelligence, Challenges, Users
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-18162 (URN)10.24251/HICSS.2020.024 (DOI)978-0-9981331-3-3 (ISBN)
Conference
The 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. HICSS 2020. Maui, United States, January 7-10, 2020
Available from: 2020-01-24 Created: 2020-01-24 Last updated: 2020-02-24Bibliographically approved
Berggren, P., Lundberg, M., van Laere, J. & Johansson, B. J. .. (2019). Community resilience towards disruptions in the payment system. In: Z Franco, J.J. González, J. H. Canós (Ed.), Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management: . Paper presented at 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019), Valencia, Spain, May 19-22, 2019 (pp. 1070-1076). Valencia, Spain: ISCRAM, 16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Community resilience towards disruptions in the payment system
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management / [ed] Z Franco, J.J. González, J. H. Canós, Valencia, Spain: ISCRAM, 2019, Vol. 16, p. 1070-1076Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a study where nine Swedish citizens were interviewed about their concerns and expectations, from a customer perspective, in relation to a 10 day disruption in the payment system. The purpose of the study was to understand the customer’s perspective in order to provide input to the development of a simulation environment. This simulation environment aims at allowing different stakeholders to experience how a disruption in the payment system affects the local community and thereby create understanding of how resilience is built and affected. The research questions were: What do customers expect to get access to? When? What are customers prepared for? How does this differ among different customer groups? The results indicate some understanding of how such a crisis affects the local community and what the informants expects to happen. The respondents represented a diversity of socio-economic backgrounds from rural and urban parts of the municipality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Valencia, Spain: ISCRAM, 2019
Series
Proceedings of ISCRAM the International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISSN 2411-3387 ; 16
Keywords
Community resilience, customer perspective, payment system, crisis management
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17047 (URN)2-s2.0-85077739703 (Scopus ID)978-84-09-10498-7 (ISBN)
Conference
16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019), Valencia, Spain, May 19-22, 2019
Projects
CCRAAAFFFTING
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, 2016-3046
Available from: 2019-06-12 Created: 2019-06-12 Last updated: 2020-01-23Bibliographically approved
van Laere, J. & Lindblom, J. (2019). Cultivating a longitudinal learning process through recurring crisis management training exercises in twelve Swedish municipalities. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 27(1), 38-49
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cultivating a longitudinal learning process through recurring crisis management training exercises in twelve Swedish municipalities
2019 (English)In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 38-49Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study illustrates how crisis management capability is developed in series ofrecurring exercises, rather than in one single exercise. Over one hundred table-topand role-playing exercises were performed and evaluated in a longitudinal cross-caseaction research study in 12 Swedish municipalities. By consciously adapting trainingformats, municipalities were lead through three learning phases: obtaining roleunderstanding (phase 1: knowing what to do), developing information managementskills (phase 2: knowing how to do it), and mastering self-reflection in regular time-outs (phase 3: knowing when and why to do something). This final learning out-come, being able to concurrently execute, evaluate, and reorganize an ongoing crisismanagement performance, may be the most valuable capability of a crisis manage-ment organization when crisis strikes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
crisis management, exercise, gaming, gaming simulation, learning, Sweden, training
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems; Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15893 (URN)10.1111/1468-5973.12230 (DOI)000459310900004 ()2-s2.0-85061907416 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, 0836/2005
Available from: 2018-06-30 Created: 2018-06-30 Last updated: 2019-03-08
Lennerholt, C. & van Laere, J. (2019). Data Access and Data Quality Challenges of Self Service Business Intelligence. In: Paul Johannesson, Pär Ågerfalk, Remko Helms (Ed.), Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS): . Paper presented at 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Stockholm & Uppsala, Sweden, June 8-14, 2019. Association for Information Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data Access and Data Quality Challenges of Self Service Business Intelligence
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) / [ed] Paul Johannesson, Pär Ågerfalk, Remko Helms, Association for Information Systems, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Self-service Business Intelligence (SSBI) is an upcoming trend that allows non-technical casual users to use BI in a self-reliant manner without the support of technical power users. Many organisations struggle to utilize the potential of SSBI and experience data-related and user-related SSBI implemen- tations challenges. This study aimed at exploring data-related SSBI challenges by conducting and analysing a total of 30 qualitative interviews with 5 BI consultants and 10 customer representatives involved in 2 SSBI implementation project teams. Analysis of the interviews revealed five challenges related to “Access and use of data” and four challenges related to “Data quality” that differ consid- erably from SSBI challenges commonly discussed in literature. Awareness of these challenges can help practitioners to avoid unnecessary obstacles when implementing and using SSBI. They can also guide SSBI researchers to simplify the implementation process of SSBI.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Information Systems, 2019
Keywords
Self-Service Business Intelligence, Challenges, Data Access, Data Quality
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16935 (URN)978-1-7336325-0-8 (ISBN)
Conference
27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Stockholm & Uppsala, Sweden, June 8-14, 2019
Note

Research paper

Available from: 2019-06-03 Created: 2019-06-03 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
Jaber, A., Johansson, B. .. .., Bergsten, L., van Laere, J. & Berggren, P. (2019). Evaluating the observation protocol of the Team Resilience Assessment Method for Simulation (TRAMS). In: Z Franco, J.J. González, J. H. Canós (Ed.), Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management: . Paper presented at 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019), Valencia, Spain, May 19-22, 2019 (pp. 218-229). Valencia, Spain: ISCRAM, 16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the observation protocol of the Team Resilience Assessment Method for Simulation (TRAMS)
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management / [ed] Z Franco, J.J. González, J. H. Canós, Valencia, Spain: ISCRAM, 2019, Vol. 16, p. 218-229Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This work in progress paper presents an initial evaluation of the observation protocol of the Team Resilience Assessment Method for Simulation (TRAMS) conducted in a crisis response simulation project. TRAMS isdesigned to assess the resilience of crisis response teams. The TRAMS observation protocol uses six coreresilience functions from the Systemic Resilience Model as its theoretical foundation. Three independentobservers used the protocol during a pilot study and six actual simulation games. Strategies relating to three outof six core resilience functions could be identified. The observations made were distributed similarly among theobservers, indicating that the components of the TRAMS protocol are stable enough to continue developing theprotocol. This study describes changes made to the protocol since the original design, and describes how thestrategies relating to the six core resilience functions can be identified in the simulation games.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Valencia, Spain: ISCRAM, 2019
Series
Proceedings of ISCRAM the International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISSN 2411-3387 ; 16
Keywords
Simulation games, training, Systemic Resilience Model, team resilience, assessment
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17044 (URN)2-s2.0-85077735136 (Scopus ID)978-84-09-10498-7 (ISBN)
Conference
16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019), Valencia, Spain, May 19-22, 2019
Projects
CCRAAAFFFTING
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, 2016-3046
Available from: 2019-06-12 Created: 2019-06-12 Last updated: 2020-01-23Bibliographically approved
van Laere, J., Ibrahim, O., Larsson, A., Berggren, P. & Davis, J. (2019). Iterative Game Design to develop collective critical infrastructure resilience. In: Marcin Wardaszko (Ed.), Simulation & gaming through times and across disciplines: past and future, heritage and progress: 50th ISAGA Anniversary Conference proceedings 2019. Paper presented at The International Simulation and Gaming Association's conference (ISAGA), Warsaw, Poland, 26-30 August 2019 (pp. 128-138). Warsaw: Kozminski University, Article ID 140.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Iterative Game Design to develop collective critical infrastructure resilience
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2019 (English)In: Simulation & gaming through times and across disciplines: past and future, heritage and progress: 50th ISAGA Anniversary Conference proceedings 2019 / [ed] Marcin Wardaszko, Warsaw: Kozminski University , 2019, p. 128-138, article id 140Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Resilience of interdependent infrastructures increasingly depends on collaborative responses from actors with diverse backgrounds that may not be familiar with cascade effects into areas beyond their own sector. A simulation-game can enable societal actors to obtain a deeper understanding of the interdependencies between their respective infrastructures and their respective crisis responses. Following a design science approach, a simulation-game has been developed that combines role-playing simulation and computer simulation. The simulation-game challenges participants to address the interaction between payment disruptions, food and fuel supply, security problems (riots, robberies) and communication challenges (preventing hoarding). The game has been played on 15 occasions with representatives from different sectors in society and the game design has been changed iteratively after each playing-session. The paper reflects on the impact of initial design choices and the effects on later modifications. Finally, it is discussed how the current version of the game serves multiple purposes: awareness raising, education of participants, model validation, identification of new mitigating actions, and development of collective critical infrastructure resilience in society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Warsaw: Kozminski University, 2019
Keywords
Design choices, Critical Infrastructures, Resilience, Gaming-Simulation, Validation
National Category
Information Systems Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17733 (URN)978-83-66502-01-7 (ISBN)
Conference
The International Simulation and Gaming Association's conference (ISAGA), Warsaw, Poland, 26-30 August 2019
Projects
CCRAAAFFFTING
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, 2016-3046
Available from: 2019-09-27 Created: 2019-09-27 Last updated: 2020-02-14Bibliographically approved
van Laere, J., Johansson, B. J. E., Olsson, L. & Määttä, P. (2019). Mitigating Escalation of Cascading Effects of a Payment Disruption across other Critical Infrastructures: Lessons Learned in 15 Simulation-Games. In: Proceedings of  the 14th International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security (CRITIS) 2019: . Paper presented at the 14th International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, Linköping, Sweden, 23-25 September 2019. Linköping: Linköping University, 4, Article ID 9.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mitigating Escalation of Cascading Effects of a Payment Disruption across other Critical Infrastructures: Lessons Learned in 15 Simulation-Games
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of  the 14th International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security (CRITIS) 2019, Linköping: Linköping University , 2019, Vol. 4, article id 9Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A disruption in one critical infrastructure can quickly lead to cascading effects in several other ones. Much research has been done to analyze dependencies between different critical infrastructures, but little is known about how to mitigate escalation and cascading effects across several critical infrastructures, i.e. how to develop collective critical infrastructure resilience. This research presents the results of 15 simulation-games where groups of 6 to 8 field experts from different sectors were challenged to collaboratively manage a disruption in the payment system that quickly affected food distribution, fuel distribution, transport, health care et cetera. Teams discussed possible strategies, which next were implemented in a computer simulation. Teams could influence the sequence of events on 4 decision points during a 10 day scenario, and play the same scenario several times to test alternative solutions. Each simulation-game session lasted a full day. Data analysis involved the recorded team discussions as well as computer simulation logs of the implemented decisions and their impacts. The results show how escalation and the severity of cascading effects largely depends on the quality of the early crisis response and not so much on the initial disruption. Also, it is shown how cross sectorial collaboration is required. Responses where groups focus too much on cascading effects in one area lead too poor overall performance for society at large. Groups tend to overbalance their mitigating strategies initially, until they arrive at a more balanced strategy that covers challenges in several different critical infrastructures from an integral perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University, 2019
Keywords
Critical Infrastructures, Cascading effects, Resilience, Gaming-simulation, Cross-sectorial collaboration
National Category
Information Systems Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17736 (URN)
Conference
the 14th International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, Linköping, Sweden, 23-25 September 2019
Projects
CCRAAAFFFTING
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, 2016-3046
Available from: 2019-09-27 Created: 2019-09-27 Last updated: 2020-02-13Bibliographically approved
van Laere, J., Berggren, P., Ibrahim, O., Larsson, A. & Kallin, S. (2018). A simulation-game to explore collective critical infrastructure resilience. In: S. Haugen, A. Barros, C. van Gulijk, T. Kongsvik, J. Vinnem (Ed.), Safety and Reliability – Safe Societies in a Changing World: Proceedings of ESREL 2018, June 17-21, 2018, Trondheim, Norway. Paper presented at 28th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018 in Trondheim, Norway, June 17-21, 2018 (pp. 1305-1312). London: CRC Press, Article ID 688.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A simulation-game to explore collective critical infrastructure resilience
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2018 (English)In: Safety and Reliability – Safe Societies in a Changing World: Proceedings of ESREL 2018, June 17-21, 2018, Trondheim, Norway / [ed] S. Haugen, A. Barros, C. van Gulijk, T. Kongsvik, J. Vinnem, London: CRC Press, 2018, p. 1305-1312, article id 688Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Resilience of interdependent infrastructures increasingly depends on collaborative responses from actors with diverse backgrounds that may not be familiar with cascade effects into areas beyond their own sector. A simulation-game can enable societal actors to obtain a deeper understanding of the interdependencies between their infrastructures and their respective crisis responses. Following a design science approach, a simulation-game has been developed that combines role-playing simulation and computer simulation. The simulation-game challenges participants to address the interaction between payment disruptions, food and fuel supply, security problems (riots, robberies) and communication challenges (preventing hoarding). A number of crucial design choices were handled while developing the simulation-game. The main design challenges were: How to validate an unthinkable escalation scenario?; How to give the simulation a sufficient level of detail on all aspects and keep the complexity graspable so it can be played instantly?; and How much time should each playing round take?

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: CRC Press, 2018
Keywords
simulation gaming critical infrastructure resilience
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15707 (URN)2-s2.0-85058096731 (Scopus ID)978-0-8153-8682-7 (ISBN)978-1-351-17465-7 (ISBN)978-1-351-17466-4 (ISBN)
Conference
28th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018 in Trondheim, Norway, June 17-21, 2018
Projects
CCRAAAFFFTING
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, 2016-3046
Available from: 2018-06-19 Created: 2018-06-19 Last updated: 2019-02-05Bibliographically approved
van Laere, J., Ibrahim, O., Larsson, A., Olsson, L., Johansson, B. & Gustavsson, P. (2018). Analyzing the Implications of Design Choices in Existing Simulation-Games for Critical Infrastructure Resilience. In: Heide Karen Lukosch, Geertje Bekebrede, Rens Kortmann (Ed.), Simulation Gaming: Applications for Sustainable Cities and Smart Infrastructures: 48th International Simulation and GamingAssociation Conference, ISAGA 2017Delft, The Netherlands, July 10–14, 2017Revised Selected Papers. Paper presented at 48th International Simulation and Gaming Association Conference, ISAGA 2017 Delft, The Netherlands, July 10–14, 2017 (pp. 15-23). Cham: Springer, 10825
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing the Implications of Design Choices in Existing Simulation-Games for Critical Infrastructure Resilience
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2018 (English)In: Simulation Gaming: Applications for Sustainable Cities and Smart Infrastructures: 48th International Simulation and GamingAssociation Conference, ISAGA 2017Delft, The Netherlands, July 10–14, 2017Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Heide Karen Lukosch, Geertje Bekebrede, Rens Kortmann, Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 10825, p. 15-23Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A literature study has identified the major impacts of importantdesign choices in simulation models and simulation-games that model criticalinfrastructure resilience. The four major groups of design choices discussed inthis article are: (1) the chosen learning goal (system understanding or collaborationtraining), (2) realism and time scale of the scenario, (3) design of playerroles and communication rules, (4) number of action alternatives, replay-abilityand richness of performance feedback while playing. Researchers and practitionerswho build simulation-games for studying critical infrastructure resiliencecan use the accumulated insights on these four aspects to improve the quality oftheir game design and the quality of the simulation models the game participantsinteract with.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2018
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science 10825, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 10825
Keywords
Design choices, Critical infrastructures, Resilience, Gaming-simulation, Simulation
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15759 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-91902-7_2 (DOI)000465823100002 ()2-s2.0-85048038239 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-91901-0 (ISBN)978-3-319-91902-7 (ISBN)
Conference
48th International Simulation and Gaming Association Conference, ISAGA 2017 Delft, The Netherlands, July 10–14, 2017
Projects
CCRAAAFFFTING
Available from: 2018-06-21 Created: 2018-06-21 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0488-6841

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