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Engström, H. (2019). ‘I have a different kind of brain’: a script-centric approach to interactive narratives in games. Digital Creativity, 30(1), 1-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>‘I have a different kind of brain’: a script-centric approach to interactive narratives in games
2019 (English)In: Digital Creativity, ISSN 1462-6268, E-ISSN 1744-3806, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In a computer game narrative, a user influences the ordering of events. To model this behaviour, game designers and writers need to use some kind of programming primitives. A computer game script will hence differ from, for instance, a movie screenplay in that traditional dialogue text is complemented with some textual or visual logic formalism. Not all groups involved in production of a game have a programming background and may therefore be unable to easily comprehend such formalisms. This paper presents a novel approach to game dialogue writing where traces from play-throughs are used as the core of the script. Alternative branches are identified and presented in relation to the main trace. The approach has been implemented in a tool that has been used successfully by three professional writers in mobile game production. The results indicate that this is a promising approach to enable non-programmers to work with interactive narratives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ENGLAND: , 2019
Keywords
Computer game, interactive narrative, interdisciplinary, writing tool
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16582 (URN)10.1080/14626268.2019.1570942 (DOI)000460163600001 ()2-s2.0-85060635694 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Inkluderande julkalender
Funder
The Swedish Post and Telecom Authority (PTS)
Available from: 2019-01-24 Created: 2019-01-24 Last updated: 2019-03-21Bibliographically approved
Bevilacqua, F., Engström, H. & Backlund, P. (2018). Accuracy Evaluation of Remote Photoplethysmography Estimations of Heart Rate in Gaming Sessions with Natural Behavior (1ed.). In: Adrian David Cheok, Masahiko Inami,Teresa Romão (Ed.), Adrian David Cheok, Masahiko Inami, Teresa Romão (Ed.), Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology: 14th International Conference, ACE 2017, London, UK, December 14-16, 2017, Proceedings. Paper presented at 14th International Conference, ACE 2017, London, UK, December 14-16, 2017 (pp. 508-530). Springer Publishing Company
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accuracy Evaluation of Remote Photoplethysmography Estimations of Heart Rate in Gaming Sessions with Natural Behavior
2018 (English)In: Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology: 14th International Conference, ACE 2017, London, UK, December 14-16, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Adrian David Cheok, Masahiko Inami, Teresa Romão, Springer Publishing Company, 2018, 1, p. 508-530Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) can be used to remotely estimate heart rate (HR) of users to infer their emotional state. However natural body movement and facial actions of users significantly impact such techniques, so their reliability within contexts involving natural behavior must be checked. We present an experiment focused on the accuracy evaluation of an established rPPG technique in a gaming context. The technique was applied to estimate the HR of subjects behaving naturally in gaming sessions whose games were carefully designed to be casual-themed, similar to off-the-shelf games and have a difficulty level that linearly progresses from a boring to a stressful state. Estimations presented mean error of 2.99 bpm and Pearson correlationr = 0.43, p < 0.001, however with significant variations among subjects. Our experiment is the first to measure the accuracy of an rPPG techniqueusing boredom/stress-inducing casual games with subjects behaving naturally.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Publishing Company, 2018 Edition: 1
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 10714
Keywords
Games, Emotion assessment, Remote photoplethysmography, Computer vision, Affective computing
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14772 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-76270-8_35 (DOI)000432607700035 ()2-s2.0-85043535153 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-76269-2 (ISBN)978-3-319-76270-8 (ISBN)
Conference
14th International Conference, ACE 2017, London, UK, December 14-16, 2017
Funder
EU, European Research Council, Project Gamehub Scandinavia
Note

Also part of the Information Systems and Applications, incl. Internet/Web, and HCI book sub series (LNISA, volume 10714)

Available from: 2018-02-23 Created: 2018-02-23 Last updated: 2019-03-19
Bevilacqua, F., Engström, H. & Backlund, P. (2018). Automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential method for differentiating stress and boredom of players in games. International Journal of Computer Games Technology, Article ID 8734540.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential method for differentiating stress and boredom of players in games
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Computer Games Technology, ISSN 1687-7047, E-ISSN 1687-7055, article id 8734540Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Facial analysis is a promising approach to detect emotions of players unobtrusively, however approaches are commonly evaluated in contexts not related to games, or facial cues are derived from models not designed for analysis of emotions during interactions with games. We present a method for automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential tool for detecting stress and boredom of players behaving naturally while playing games. Computer vision is used to automatically and unobtrusively extract 7 facial features aimed to detect the activity of a set of facial muscles. Features are mainly based on the Euclidean distance of facial landmarks and do not rely on pre-dened facial expressions, training of a model or the use of facial standards. An empirical evaluation was conducted on video recordings of an experiment involving games as emotion elicitation sources. Results show statistically signicant dierences in the values of facial features during boring and stressful periods of gameplay for 5 of the 7 features. We believe our approach is more user-tailored, convenient and better suited for contexts involving games.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2018
Keywords
games, boredom, stress, facial expression, affective computing, computer vision
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14771 (URN)10.1155/2018/8734540 (DOI)000427897600001 ()2-s2.0-85046279378 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, Project Game Hub Scandinavia
Available from: 2018-02-23 Created: 2018-02-23 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
Backlund, P., Maurin Söderholm, H., Engström, H., Andersson Hagiwara, M. & Lebram, M. (2018). Breaking Out of the Bubble Putting Simulation Into Context to Increase Immersion and Performance. Journal Simulation & Gaming, 49(6), 642-660
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Breaking Out of the Bubble Putting Simulation Into Context to Increase Immersion and Performance
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 642-660Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective. Simulation based training with full-size mannequins is a prominent means of training within the healthcare sector. Prehospital missions include all parts of the healthcare process which take place before a patient is handed over to the receiving hospital. This implies that the context for prehospital care is varied and potentially challenging or dangerous in several ways. In this article we present a study which explores immersion and performance by emergency medical services (EMS) professionals in in a training situation which takes the specifics of prehospital interventions into account.

Methods. The study was carried out as a field experiment at an ambulance unit. The experiment was designed to compare the differences between two types of medical scenarios: basic and contextualized. We analyzed the levels of immersion throughout the scenarios and then team performance was evaluated by independent experts. Both analyses were made by observing video recordings from multiple camera angles with a custom made analysis tool.

Results. Our results show that the contextualization of a medical scenario increases both immersion as measured by the Immersion Score Rating Instrument (ISRI) and team performance as measured by the Global Rating Scale (GRS). The overall ISRI score was higher in the contextualized condition as compared to the basic condition, with an average team wise difference of 2.94 (sd = 1.45). This difference is significant using a paired, two-tailed t-test (p<.001). The GRS score was higher for overall clinical performance in the contextualized scenario with an average team wise difference of 0.83 (sd = 0.83, p=.005).

Conclusions. Full-size mannequin simulation based training for EMS professionals may be enhanced by contextualizing the medical scenarios. The main benefits are that the contextualized scenarios better take prehospital medical challenges into account and allow participants to perform better.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
immersion, prehospital medicine, simulation-based training
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15165 (URN)10.1177/1046878118772612 (DOI)000453535000004 ()2-s2.0-85047428895 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-24 Created: 2018-05-24 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Bevilacqua, F., Engström, H. & Backlund, P. (2018). Changes in heart rate and facial actions during a gaming session with provoked boredom and stress. Entertainment Computing, 24, 10-20
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in heart rate and facial actions during a gaming session with provoked boredom and stress
2018 (English)In: Entertainment Computing, ISSN 1875-9521, E-ISSN 1875-953X, Vol. 24, p. 10-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an experiment aimed at exploring the relation between facial actions (FA), heart rate (HR) and emotional states, particularly stress and boredom, during the interaction with games. Subjects played three custom-made games with a linear and constant progression from a boring to a stressful state, without pre-defined levels, modes or stopping conditions. Such configuration gives our experiment a novel approach for the exploration of FA and HR regarding their connection to emotional states, since we can categorize information according to the induced (and theoretically known) emotional states on a user level. The HR data was divided into segments, whose HR mean was calculated and compared in periods (boring/stressful part of the games). Additionally the 6 h of recordings were manually analyzed and FA were annotated and categorized in the same periods. Findings show that variations of HR and FA on a group and on an individual level are different when comparing boring and stressful parts of the gaming sessions. This paper contributes information regarding variations of HR and FA in the context of games, which can potentially be used as input candidates to create user-tailored models for emotion detection with game-based emotion elicitation sources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Games, Boredom, Stress, Facial expression, Multifactorial, Heart rate
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14267 (URN)10.1016/j.entcom.2017.10.004 (DOI)000418497800002 ()2-s2.0-85032270414 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak, project Game Hub Scandinavia
Available from: 2017-10-30 Created: 2017-10-30 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Engström, H., Berg Marklund, B., Backlund, P. & Toftedahl, M. (2018). Game development from a software and creative product perspective: A quantitative literature review approach. Entertainment Computing, 27, 10-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Game development from a software and creative product perspective: A quantitative literature review approach
2018 (English)In: Entertainment Computing, ISSN 1875-9521, E-ISSN 1875-953X, Vol. 27, p. 10-22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents the methodology and initial analysis of a systematic literature review that aims to explore how the craft and processes of game development have been studied in previous research. In particular, the review focuses on how previous research treats the inherent duality of video game development, since it both involves computer software development and creative production. Researchers are often in a position where they need to emphasize game development’s relation to one of these disciplines, and it is not unusual for game development to be treated as a direct offspring of one field with some mild influences from another. Employing a more all-encompassing review approach, that includes research conducted from the perspectives of both com- puter science and the arts and humanities equally, makes the presented study different from previous literature reviews. The results show that there is a tendency that the management of software development has a negative correlation with the management of creativity in the studied material. The heterogenity of the fields and the limited amount of studies that focus on the duality of game development suggest that there is a need for a deeper analysis of the individual components and to synthesize results from disparate fields. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Video game, Creative product, Software development, Creativity management, Systematic literature review
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14980 (URN)10.1016/j.entcom.2018.02.008 (DOI)000440594100002 ()2-s2.0-85044109809 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Game Hub Scandinavia
Funder
Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak, NYPS 20200428
Available from: 2018-03-23 Created: 2018-03-23 Last updated: 2018-08-31Bibliographically approved
Toftedahl, M., Backlund, P. & Engström, H. (2018). Localization from an Indie Game Production Perspective: Why, When and How?. In: DiGRA '18 - Proceedings of the 2018 DiGRA International Conference: The Game is the Message. Paper presented at DIGRA 2018: The 11th Digital Games Research Association Conference, Turin, Italy, July 25-28, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Localization from an Indie Game Production Perspective: Why, When and How?
2018 (English)In: DiGRA '18 - Proceedings of the 2018 DiGRA International Conference: The Game is the Message, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates the process of game localization from an indie development perspective. The global nature of the digitally distributed game industry gives opportunities for game studios of all sizes to develop and distribute games on a global market. This poses a challenge for small independent developers with limited resources in funding and personnel, seeking to get as wide spread of their game as possible. To reach the players in other regions of the world localization needs to be done, taking language and other regional differences in mind. In an AAA or big-budget game production, these questions are handled by separate entities focusing solely on the localization process – but how do small independent game developers handle this? Indie game developers in Sweden, China and India have been interviewed to investigate the research question of how do indie game developers handle localization in the development process. The results points to a widespread use of community- and fan translation, and that only basic localization is done i.e. culturalization aspects are not considered. The results also show that the reason for localizing can be both business decisions but also to spread a specific message using games.

Keywords
game development, indie game, localization, game production
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16133 (URN)
Conference
DIGRA 2018: The 11th Digital Games Research Association Conference, Turin, Italy, July 25-28, 2018
Funder
Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak
Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2018-11-21
Toftedahl, M., Backlund, P. & Engström, H. (2018). Missing: Understanding the Reception of a Serious Game by Analyzing App Store Data. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SERIOUS GAMES, 5(4), 3-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Missing: Understanding the Reception of a Serious Game by Analyzing App Store Data
2018 (English)In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SERIOUS GAMES, E-ISSN 2384-8766, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 3-22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The focus of this paper is the design and player reception of a serious game called Missing released on Google Play with the intention of spreading awareness of trafficking and its impact on individuals and society. The aim of the paper is to investigate how the game has been received by its players, focusing on its trafficking theme, by analyzing player metrics and app store data available from the Google Play digital distribution system. The paper presents results focusing on three main knowledge contributions: the identification and characterization of the tension between the designer’s intention with a game’s mechanics and how they help to convey the message of the game, the identification of the complexity of finding relevant reviews relating to the serious theme of the game and the identification and characterization of the tension between the star rating and the content of the reviews. One of the conclusions is that even a negative review can mirror a positive result in terms of fulfillment of the purpose.

Keywords
Serious games, Games for change, Metrics, App store, Smartphone, Trafficking
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16533 (URN)10.17083/ijsg.v5i4.251 (DOI)000457988700001 ()
Projects
Game Hub Scandinavia
Funder
Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak, NYPS 20200428
Available from: 2018-12-27 Created: 2018-12-27 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Engström, H., Brusk, J. & Erlandsson, P. (2018). Prototyping Tools for Game Writers. The Computer Games Journal, 7(3), 153-172
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prototyping Tools for Game Writers
2018 (English)In: The Computer Games Journal, E-ISSN 2052-773X, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 153-172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A game is best evaluated by playing it and prototyping is therefore an important activity in game development. Game writers and narrative designers are responsible for the narrative structure of a game, which may have a varying degree of interactivity to it. The aim of this paper is to analyse the role of prototyping tools for game writers. There is a limited range of such tools available, of which Twine is one of the most established. Most of these tools have a text-based programming interface for modelling of game mechanics. This paper presents Deig—a proto- typing tool for creating point-and-click adventure games. In Deig, game mechanics is modelled graphically using nodes from a set of primitives. We present an interview study where game writing students reflect on their experience of using Deig and Twine as prototyping tools. The result shows that both tools have their merits and complement each other. Deig was found to be intuitive for modelling of game mechanics, which lead students to create interactive narratives. Twine was found to be more useful for experimental writing. The conclusion of this work is that there is a need for a diverse set of prototyping tools to support game writing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Computer game, Game writing, Narrative design, Prototyping, Tools
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); Media, Technology and Culture (MTEC)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15376 (URN)10.1007/s40869-018-0062-y (DOI)
Projects
Inkluderande julkalender
Funder
The Swedish Post and Telecom Authority (PTS)
Available from: 2018-06-07 Created: 2018-06-07 Last updated: 2018-09-03Bibliographically approved
Engström, H. & Östblad, P. A. (2018). Using Text-to-Speech to Prototype Game Dialog. Computers in Entertainment, 16(4), 2:1-2:16, Article ID 2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Text-to-Speech to Prototype Game Dialog
2018 (English)In: Computers in Entertainment, ISSN 1544-3574, E-ISSN 1544-3981, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 2:1-2:16, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Voice acting is common in computer games in many genres. The recording and processing of voice acting is a time-consuming process that involves, for instance, voice actors, directors, audio engineers, and game writers. Changes to the script of a game after the voice acting has been recorded are expensive. At the same time, playtests of games without voice acting may give different results than testing where it is present. This creates a situation where improvements identified from play testing are either ignored or leads to extensive re-recording of voice acting. This article presents a design science research project where text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis is used as a substitute for recorded voice acting in the early stages of game production. We propose a set of design principles that have been evaluated in a sharp game production. Our results indicate several benefits of using TTS as a prototyping tool: It can be a source of inspiration for game writers, it gives good estimations on timing and pacing of the game, and it allows for early tests of how the dialog will be perceived by players. The quality and characteristics of the voices provided by the TTS system play an important role in this process. The rapid development in the speech technology field opens many future possibilities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018
Keywords
game development, game writing, game audio, speech technology, text- to-speech, design science research
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); Media, Technology and Culture (MTEC)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16407 (URN)10.1145/3276321 (DOI)000450600300002 ()2-s2.0-85056796671 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Inkluderande julkalender
Funder
The Swedish Post and Telecom Authority (PTS), Dnr: 16-462
Available from: 2018-11-18 Created: 2018-11-18 Last updated: 2019-02-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9972-4716

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