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Westin, T., Brusk, J. & Engström, H. (2020). Activities to Support Sustainable Inclusive Game Design Processes. EAI Endorsed Transactions on Creative Technologies, 6(20), Article ID e4.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Activities to Support Sustainable Inclusive Game Design Processes
2020 (English)In: EAI Endorsed Transactions on Creative Technologies, ISSN 2409-9708, Vol. 6, no 20, article id e4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: The problem addressed in this work is the lack of knowledge of what inclusive game design would mean in practice within existing design processes of game companies. A pilot project was devised to involve both the game industry and disabled people.

OBJECTIVES: The goal in this study was to identify activities that constitute the biggest obstacles to realising sustainable design processes for inclusive game design.

METHODS: The study is mainly based on two full-day workshops with the game industry and three game studios, three organisations of disabled youth and authorities.

RESULTS: Five activities were identified in the analysis of the workshops: 1) Find opportunities for inclusive game design; 2) Raise awareness about inclusive game design; 3) Handle integrity and security; 4) Recruit the right competence; and 5) Adapt workplaces and tools.

CONCLUSION: The five main activities should be considered to achieve sustainable inclusive game design processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EAI, 2020
Keywords
Game industry, Game design processes, Inclusion, Disabled people
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); Media, Technology and Culture (MTEC)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-18186 (URN)10.4108/eai.30-7-2019.162948 (DOI)
Projects
PowerUpGame Hub Scandinavia 2
Note

This work was funded by the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (Vinnova) and Game Hub Scandinavia 2.0, Projektid: NYPS20201849, EU Interreg Öresuns-Kattegat-Skagerrak.

Available from: 2020-02-04 Created: 2020-02-04 Last updated: 2020-04-22Bibliographically approved
Su, Y., Backlund, P. & Engström, H. (2020). Business Intelligence Challenges for Independent Game Publishing. International Journal of Computer Games Technology, 2020, 1-8, Article ID 5395187.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business Intelligence Challenges for Independent Game Publishing
2020 (English)In: International Journal of Computer Games Technology, ISSN 1687-7047, E-ISSN 1687-7055, Vol. 2020, p. 1-8, article id 5395187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the continuous development of the game industry, research in the game field is also deepening. Many interdisciplinary areas of knowledge and theory have been used to promote the development of the game industry. Business intelligence technologies have been applied to game development for game design and game optimization. However, few systematic research efforts have focused on the field of game publishing, particularly with regard to independent (indie) game publishing. In this paper, we analyse data collected from a set of interviews with small indie game developers. The results indicate that most of the indie game developers have already used business intelligence for game self-publishing, although three main challenges have been identified: first, how to conduct marketing promotion and improve the return on investment (ROI); second, how to collect game publishing data; and third, how to analyse the data in order to guide game self-publishing. Our interviews also reveal that the business model applied to a game significantly impacts the role of game analytics. The study expands and advances the research on how game analytics can be used for game publishing, particularly for indie game self-publishing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2020
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-18185 (URN)10.1155/2020/5395187 (DOI)000510887600001 ()2-s2.0-85079138803 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-02-04 Created: 2020-02-04 Last updated: 2020-04-22Bibliographically approved
Areizaga Blanco, A. & Engström, H. (2020). Patterns in Mainstream Programming Games. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SERIOUS GAMES, 7(1), 97-126
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patterns in Mainstream Programming Games
2020 (English)In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SERIOUS GAMES, E-ISSN 2384-8766, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 97-126Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studies have found serious games to be good tools for programming education. As anoutcome from such research, several game solutions for learning computer programming have appeared. Most of these games are only used in the research field where only a few are published and made available for the public. There are however numerous examples of programming games in commercial stores that have reached a large audience.This article presents a systematic review of publicly available and popular programming games. It analyses which fundamental software development concepts, as defined by theACM/IEEE Computer Science Curricula, are represented in these games and identifies game design patterns used to represent these concepts.This study shows that fundamental programming concepts and programming methods have a good representation in mainstream games. There is however a lack of games addressing data structures, algorithms and design. There is a strong domination of puzzle games. Only two of the 20 studied games belong to a different genre. The eleven game design patterns identified in this study have potential to contribute to future efforts in creating engaging serious games for programming education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Serious Games Society, 2020
Keywords
serious games, programming, learning, game design patterns
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-18315 (URN)10.17083/ijsg.v7i1.335 (DOI)000520488100006 ()
Available from: 2020-03-16 Created: 2020-03-16 Last updated: 2020-04-22Bibliographically approved
Engström, H., Lyu, R., Backlund, P., Toftedahl, M. & Rosendahl Ehmsen, P. (2020). Shared learning objectives in interdisciplinary projects: Game design in a Sino-Scandinavian context. Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, 17(1), 1-22, Article ID 4.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shared learning objectives in interdisciplinary projects: Game design in a Sino-Scandinavian context
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2020 (English)In: Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, ISSN 1449-9789, E-ISSN 1449-9789, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 1-22, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The learning goals of project-based courses are typically specific for each involved discipline. Game development is deeply interdisciplinary and some of its core principles are shared across disciplines, from art to programming. This article presents a project-based approach where students majoring in arts and students majoring in technology share learning objectives. The course has been developed in a Sino- Scandinavian collaboration. Experiences from well-established Scandinavian game development programmes have been transferred to a Chinese university context.

This article presents an explorative mixed method evaluation of this course. The research design had two phases with an initial qualitative analysis resulting in a set of observations that were tested in the second, quantitative phase. A total of 34 students from a range of disciplines participated in a two week course. The quantitative analysis shows that art (n=13) and technology (n=14) students' reported very similar experiences and similar insights into core learning objectives. This study shows that deeply interdisciplinary project-based courses, with shared learning objectives can successfully be conducted even in a context with no prior experience of such approaches.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wollongong, NSW, Australia: University of Wollongong, 2020
Keywords
project-based learning, interdisciplinary, sino-scandinavian, digital games, game design
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-18208 (URN)000514818800004 ()2-s2.0-85079623196 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Game Hub Scandinavia 2.0
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), NYPS 20201849
Available from: 2020-02-18 Created: 2020-02-18 Last updated: 2020-04-22Bibliographically approved
Toftedahl, M. & Engström, H. (2019). A Taxonomy of Game Engines and the Tools that Drive the Industry. In: Akinori Nakamura (Ed.), DiGRA '19 - Proceedings of the 2019 DiGRA International Conference: Game, Play and the Emerging Ludo-Mix. Paper presented at DiGRA 2019, The 12th Digital Games Research Association Conference, Kyoto, Japan, August, 6-10, 2019. Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Taxonomy of Game Engines and the Tools that Drive the Industry
2019 (English)In: DiGRA '19 - Proceedings of the 2019 DiGRA International Conference: Game, Play and the Emerging Ludo-Mix / [ed] Akinori Nakamura, Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Game engines are a vital part of a game production pipeline, but there is a vagueness of definitions regarding the boundaries of components in a game engine and the rest of the production tools used in a game development pipeline. The aim of this paper is to nuance the use of the term game engine and to put it into the context of a game development pipeline. Based on data from the current state of game production, a proposed taxonomy for tools in game development is presented. A distinction is made between user facing tools and product facing tools. A defining characteristic of the production pipeline and game engines is their plasticity. One of the conclusions is that a “game engine” as a single entity containing the whole game production pipeline is not desirable due to the large number of competences and needs involved in a game development project.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA), 2019
Series
Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA), E-ISSN 2342-9666
Keywords
Game production, Game research, Game industry, Game engines, Game production tools
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17706 (URN)
Conference
DiGRA 2019, The 12th Digital Games Research Association Conference, Kyoto, Japan, August, 6-10, 2019
Projects
Game Hub Scandinavia 2.0
Funder
Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak, NYPS 20200428
Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2020-03-02Bibliographically approved
Bevilacqua, F., Engström, H. & Backlund, P. (2019). Game-Calibrated and User-Tailored Remote Detection of Stress and Boredom in Games. Sensors, 19(13), 1-43, Article ID 2877.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Game-Calibrated and User-Tailored Remote Detection of Stress and Boredom in Games
2019 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 13, p. 1-43, article id 2877Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Emotion detection based on computer vision and remote extraction of user signals commonly rely on stimuli where users have a passive role with limited possibilities for interaction or emotional involvement, e.g., images and videos. Predictive models are also trained on a group level, which potentially excludes or dilutes key individualities of users. We present a non-obtrusive, multifactorial, user-tailored emotion detection method based on remotely estimated psychophysiological signals. A neural network learns the emotional profile of a user during the interaction with calibration games, a novel game-based emotion elicitation material designed to induce emotions while accounting for particularities of individuals. We evaluate our method in two experiments (n = 20 and n = 62) with mean classification accuracy of 61.6%, which is statistically significantly better than chance-level classification. Our approach and its evaluation present unique circumstances: our model is trained on one dataset (calibration games) and tested on another (evaluation game), while preserving the natural behavior of subjects and using remote acquisition of signals. Results of this study suggest our method is feasible and an initiative to move away from questionnaires and physical sensors into a non-obtrusive, remote-based solution for detecting emotions in a context involving more naturalistic user behavior and games.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
human–computer interaction, games, affective computing, remote photoplethysmography
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17485 (URN)10.3390/s19132877 (DOI)000477045000038 ()31261716 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85069267193 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-07-29 Created: 2019-07-29 Last updated: 2019-11-08Bibliographically approved
Engström, H. (2019). GDC vs. DiGRA: Gaps in Game Production Research. In: Akinori Nakamura (Ed.), DiGRA '19 - Proceedings of the 2019 DiGRA International Conference: Game, Play and the Emerging Ludo-Mix. Paper presented at DiGRA 2019, The 12th Digital Games Research Association Conference, Kyoto, Japan, August, 6-10, 2019. Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>GDC vs. DiGRA: Gaps in Game Production Research
2019 (English)In: DiGRA '19 - Proceedings of the 2019 DiGRA International Conference: Game, Play and the Emerging Ludo-Mix / [ed] Akinori Nakamura, Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Previous studies have revealed a gap between game research and industry game production. This article presents an analysis of this research gap using the tracks and summits at the Game Developers Conference (GDC) as a point of reference. The result shows that there are several areas where there exists very little research. The DiGRA conference is no exception – since 2006, only a handful of papers present empirics from game production. Studies are in particular rare for content producing areas, such as audio, visual arts, and narrative. There are plenty of opportunities for researchers to extract experiences and knowledge from game professionals and to identify problems to be addressed. To do this, collaboration models need to be established that endure non-disclosure agreements and crunch cultures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA), 2019
Series
Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA), E-ISSN 2342-9666
Keywords
Game production, Game research, Literature review, Game industry, Game developers conference
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17559 (URN)
Conference
DiGRA 2019, The 12th Digital Games Research Association Conference, Kyoto, Japan, August, 6-10, 2019
Projects
Game Hub Scandinavia 2.0
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), NYPS20201849
Note

Akinori Nakamura (conference chair)

Available from: 2019-08-21 Created: 2019-08-21 Last updated: 2020-01-29
Engström, H. (2019). ‘I have a different kind of brain’: a script-centric approach to interactive narratives in games. Digital Creativity, 30(1), 1-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>‘I have a different kind of brain’: a script-centric approach to interactive narratives in games
2019 (English)In: Digital Creativity, ISSN 1462-6268, E-ISSN 1744-3806, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a computer game narrative, a user influences the ordering of events. To model this behaviour, game designers and writers need to use some kind of programming primitives. A computer game script will hence differ from, for instance, a movie screenplay in that traditional dialogue text is complemented with some textual or visual logic formalism. Not all groups involved in production of a game have a programming background and may therefore be unable to easily comprehend such formalisms. This paper presents a novel approach to game dialogue writing where traces from play-throughs are used as the core of the script. Alternative branches are identified and presented in relation to the main trace. The approach has been implemented in a tool that has been used successfully by three professional writers in mobile game production. The results indicate that this is a promising approach to enable non-programmers to work with interactive narratives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Keywords
Computer game, interactive narrative, interdisciplinary, writing tool
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16582 (URN)10.1080/14626268.2019.1570942 (DOI)000460163600001 ()2-s2.0-85060635694 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Inkluderande julkalender
Funder
The Swedish Post and Telecom Authority (PTS)
Available from: 2019-01-24 Created: 2019-01-24 Last updated: 2020-03-11Bibliographically approved
Su, Y., Backlund, P., Engström, H. & Strand, M. (2019). The Fish Tank Model for Mobile Game Publishing Business Performance Evaluation. In: A Siarheyeva, C Barry, M Lang, H Linger, C Schneider (Ed.), Information Systems Development: Information Systems Beyond 2020: ISD2019 Proceedings. Paper presented at The 28th International Conference on Information Systems Development (ISD2019), Toulon, France, August 28-30, 2019. Toulon, France: ISEN Yncréa Méditerranée
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Fish Tank Model for Mobile Game Publishing Business Performance Evaluation
2019 (English)In: Information Systems Development: Information Systems Beyond 2020: ISD2019 Proceedings / [ed] A Siarheyeva, C Barry, M Lang, H Linger, C Schneider, Toulon, France: ISEN Yncréa Méditerranée , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Business intelligence has been applied in the area of game development research for many years. However, few systematic research efforts are focusing on the game publishing side, especially for the mobile game publishing business. We aim to identify and remedy the shortcomings of the existing ARM funnel model for free-to-play mobile game analytics by introducing a new model, the Fish Tank Model, which combines the analysis of players’ behavior with in-game system data to drive the whole process of mobile game publishing. Based on the new model, we also bring and create relevant metrics for effectively measuring the business performance of mobile game publishing. Our main contributions are a survey of business intelligence used in game research and an analysis to reveal the insufficiency of an existing model for game publishing. Finally, we discuss business requirements for mobile game publishing and propose a brand-new model which better suits the free-to-play mobile game publishing business performance evaluation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Toulon, France: ISEN Yncréa Méditerranée, 2019
Keywords
Business Intelligence, Game Analytics, Game Publishing, Game Metrics, Model-driven.
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); Production and Automation Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17729 (URN)978-2-9571876-0-7 (ISBN)
Conference
The 28th International Conference on Information Systems Development (ISD2019), Toulon, France, August 28-30, 2019
Available from: 2019-09-27 Created: 2019-09-27 Last updated: 2020-04-16Bibliographically approved
Westin, T., Engström, H. & Brusk, J. (2019). Towards Sustainable Inclusive Game Design Processes. In: : . Paper presented at ArtsIT 2019 – 8th EAI International Conference: ArtsIT, Interactivity & Game Creation, November 6-8, 2019, Aalborg, Denmark.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Sustainable Inclusive Game Design Processes
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

While many studies have been done about creation of accessible games, they have mainly been conducted in an academic context and represents a gap between game research and the game industry. The pilot project presented in this paper (PowerUp) addresses inclusive design by involving both the game industry and disabled people. The goal is to identify activities that constitute the biggest obstacles to realising sustainable design processes for inclusive game de- sign (IGD). Four activities were identified through two full-day workshops with the game industry and game studios, disabled people and authorities: 1) Find op- portunities for IGD with disabled people; 2) Handle integrity and security of dis- abled people; 3) Recruit the right competence among disabled people; and 4) Adapt workplaces and tools for IGD processes. These activities are tentative and will hopefully be subject to discussion and further development to achieve sus- tainable inclusive game design.

Keywords
Game industry, Game design processes, Inclusion, Disabled people
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); Media, Technology and Culture (MTEC)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17891 (URN)
Conference
ArtsIT 2019 – 8th EAI International Conference: ArtsIT, Interactivity & Game Creation, November 6-8, 2019, Aalborg, Denmark
Projects
PowerUpGame Hub Scandinavia 2
Note

This work was funded by the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (Vinnova) and Game Hub Scandinavia 2.0, Projektid: NYPS20201849, EU Interreg Öresuns-Kattegat-Skagerrak.

Available from: 2019-11-19 Created: 2019-11-19 Last updated: 2019-12-03
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9972-4716

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