his.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (10 of 84) Show all publications
Ye, X., Backlund, P., Ding, J. & Ning, H. (2019). Fidelity in Simulation-based Serious Games. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fidelity in Simulation-based Serious Games
2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, ISSN 1939-1382, E-ISSN 1939-1382Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The extensive use of Simulation-based Serious Games (SSGs) has made a revolution in educational techniques. As a potentially significant feature for SSG design and evaluation, the term fidelity (the similarity between an SSG and its real reference) emerges and attracts increasing attention. The study of fidelity not only benefits the design, development, and analysis of an SSG with the consideration of improving the learning effect but also contributes to the investment reduction of an SSG. However, the term fidelity is used inconsistently in current literature. The introduction of new technologies (e.g. virtual reality) and the blend of multiform SSGs also facilitate the extension of fidelity with new connotations. All lead to confusing concepts and vague measure metrics. Besides, the relationship between fidelity and learning effect is still uncertain. A new vision and a comprehensive conceptual framework of fidelity for more general applications are in need. In this paper, further exploration and discussion of these issues in relation to fidelity of SSGs are presented through a systematic review. A general conceptual framework considering both aspects of the SSG system itself and the learners is developed and applied to analyze fidelity in SSGs. Based on that, a discussion on fidelity related issues of SSG design and development is presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
fidelity, simulation, serious games, learning, educational games, virtual reality
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); Distributed Real-Time Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17735 (URN)10.1109/TLT.2019.2913408 (DOI)
Funder
Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak, NYPS 20200428
Available from: 2019-09-27 Created: 2019-09-27 Last updated: 2019-09-30
Bevilacqua, F., Engström, H. & Backlund, P. (2019). Game-Calibrated and User-Tailored Remote Detection of Stress and Boredom in Games. Sensors, 19(13), 1-43, Article ID 2877.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Game-Calibrated and User-Tailored Remote Detection of Stress and Boredom in Games
2019 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 13, p. 1-43, article id 2877Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Emotion detection based on computer vision and remote extraction of user signals commonly rely on stimuli where users have a passive role with limited possibilities for interaction or emotional involvement, e.g., images and videos. Predictive models are also trained on a group level, which potentially excludes or dilutes key individualities of users. We present a non-obtrusive, multifactorial, user-tailored emotion detection method based on remotely estimated psychophysiological signals. A neural network learns the emotional profile of a user during the interaction with calibration games, a novel game-based emotion elicitation material designed to induce emotions while accounting for particularities of individuals. We evaluate our method in two experiments (n = 20 and n = 62) with mean classification accuracy of 61.6%, which is statistically significantly better than chance-level classification. Our approach and its evaluation present unique circumstances: our model is trained on one dataset (calibration games) and tested on another (evaluation game), while preserving the natural behavior of subjects and using remote acquisition of signals. Results of this study suggest our method is feasible and an initiative to move away from questionnaires and physical sensors into a non-obtrusive, remote-based solution for detecting emotions in a context involving more naturalistic user behavior and games.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
human–computer interaction, games, affective computing, remote photoplethysmography
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17485 (URN)10.3390/s19132877 (DOI)000477045000038 ()31261716 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85069267193 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-07-29 Created: 2019-07-29 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
Maurin Söderholm, H., Andersson, H., Andersson Hagiwara, M., Backlund, P., Bergman, J., Lundberg, L. & Sjöqvist, B. A. (2019). Research challenges in prehospital care: the need for a simulation-based prehospital research laboratory. Advances in Simulation, 4(3), 1-6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Research challenges in prehospital care: the need for a simulation-based prehospital research laboratory
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Advances in Simulation, ISSN 2059-0628, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a need for improved research in the field of prehospital care. At the same time, there are many barriers in prehospital research due to the complex context, posing unique challenges for research, development, and evaluation. The present paper argues for the potential of simulation for prehospital research, e.g., through the development of an advanced simulation-based prehospital research laboratory. However, the prehospital context is different from other healthcare areas, which implies special requirements for the design of this type of laboratory, in terms of simulation width (including the entire prehospital work process) and depth (level of scenario detail). A set of features pertaining to simulation width, scenario depth, equipment, and personnel and competence are proposed. Close tailoring between these features and the prehospital research problems and context presents great potential to improve and further prehospital research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2019
Keywords
laboratory, prehospital, simulation
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Interaction Technologies Information Systems Other Computer and Information Science
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16655 (URN)10.1186/s41077-019-0090-0 (DOI)30783539 (PubMedID)
Note

Commentary

Available from: 2019-02-22 Created: 2019-02-22 Last updated: 2019-06-07Bibliographically approved
Su, Y., Backlund, P., Engström, H. & Strand, M. (2019). The Fish Tank Model for Mobile Game Publishing Business Performance Evaluation. In: : . Paper presented at The 28th International Conference on Information Systems Development (ISD2019), Toulon, France, August 28-30, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Fish Tank Model for Mobile Game Publishing Business Performance Evaluation
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Business intelligence has been applied in the area of game development research for many years. However, few systematic research efforts are focusing on the game publishing side, especially for the mobile game publishing business. We aim to identify and remedy the shortcomings of the existing ARM funnel model for free-to-play mobile game analytics by introducing a new model, the Fish Tank Model, which combines the analysis of players’ behavior with in-game system data to drive the whole process of mobile game publishing. Based on the new model, we also bring and create relevant metrics for effectively measuring the business performance of mobile game publishing. Our main contributions are a survey of business intelligence used in game research and an analysis to reveal the insufficiency of an existing model for game publishing. Finally, we discuss business requirements for mobile game publishing and propose a brand-new model which better suits the free-to-play mobile game publishing business performance evaluation.

Keywords
Business Intelligence, Game Analytics, Game Publishing, Game Metrics, Model-driven.
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17729 (URN)
Conference
The 28th International Conference on Information Systems Development (ISD2019), Toulon, France, August 28-30, 2019
Available from: 2019-09-27 Created: 2019-09-27 Last updated: 2019-09-27
Berg Marklund, B., Engström, H., Hellkvist, M. & Backlund, P. (2019). What Empirically Based Research Tells Us About Game Development. The Computer Games Journal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What Empirically Based Research Tells Us About Game Development
2019 (English)In: The Computer Games Journal, E-ISSN 2052-773XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This paper reviews empirically grounded research on practices in game development with the intent to give a comprehensive overview of contemporary development practices used in the video game industry. While there are many intangible elements that inform game development processes, this review specifically covers the more immediate practical challenges. The review covers a total of 48 papers published between 2006 and 2016, which were all subjected to thematic analysis by three reviewers. The results of the review show that an almost universal characteristic of game development is that it is almost impossible to accurately plan a development project in detail, largely due to the soft requirements inherent in game production which emerge mid-process during development projects, during when testing is coupled with continuous ideation and refinement. Practicing game developers have created their own frameworks that accommodate for this lack of planning. They include flat hierarchies, democratic decision-making, creative autonomy, and informal communication, which are designed to create an environment that maintains creativity and openness to product changes long into the production process. These frameworks vary significantly between studios and often between individual projects. This review also shows that the term ‘Agile’, while often used by both researchers and developers to characterize the process of game development, is not an apt descriptor of how game developers actually work. Agile is used as shorthand for unstructured and flexible development, rather than serving as a descriptor of a definable or unified work method. Finally, as companies develop more complicated hierarchies of stakeholders and staff, the desired flexibility and autonomy of game development becomes increasingly complicated to maintain, and often necessitates more formalized management processes and company structures. In these cases, inherent tensions of game development become more pronounced, and continuous creativity is hard to maintain due to a growing need to formalize processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Game development, Empirics, Management, Development processes, Game industry, Literature review
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17732 (URN)10.1007/s40869-019-00085-1 (DOI)
Projects
Game Hub Scandinavia
Funder
Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak, NYPS 20200428
Available from: 2019-09-27 Created: 2019-09-27 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
Bevilacqua, F., Engström, H. & Backlund, P. (2018). Accuracy Evaluation of Remote Photoplethysmography Estimations of Heart Rate in Gaming Sessions with Natural Behavior (1ed.). In: Adrian David Cheok, Masahiko Inami,Teresa Romão (Ed.), Adrian David Cheok, Masahiko Inami, Teresa Romão (Ed.), Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology: 14th International Conference, ACE 2017, London, UK, December 14-16, 2017, Proceedings. Paper presented at 14th International Conference, ACE 2017, London, UK, December 14-16, 2017 (pp. 508-530). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accuracy Evaluation of Remote Photoplethysmography Estimations of Heart Rate in Gaming Sessions with Natural Behavior
2018 (English)In: Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology: 14th International Conference, ACE 2017, London, UK, December 14-16, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Adrian David Cheok, Masahiko Inami, Teresa Romão, Springer, 2018, 1, p. 508-530Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) can be used to remotely estimate heart rate (HR) of users to infer their emotional state. However natural body movement and facial actions of users significantly impact such techniques, so their reliability within contexts involving natural behavior must be checked. We present an experiment focused on the accuracy evaluation of an established rPPG technique in a gaming context. The technique was applied to estimate the HR of subjects behaving naturally in gaming sessions whose games were carefully designed to be casual-themed, similar to off-the-shelf games and have a difficulty level that linearly progresses from a boring to a stressful state. Estimations presented mean error of 2.99 bpm and Pearson correlationr = 0.43, p < 0.001, however with significant variations among subjects. Our experiment is the first to measure the accuracy of an rPPG techniqueusing boredom/stress-inducing casual games with subjects behaving naturally.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018 Edition: 1
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 10714
Keywords
Games, Emotion assessment, Remote photoplethysmography, Computer vision, Affective computing
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14772 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-76270-8_35 (DOI)000432607700035 ()2-s2.0-85043535153 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-76269-2 (ISBN)978-3-319-76270-8 (ISBN)
Conference
14th International Conference, ACE 2017, London, UK, December 14-16, 2017
Funder
EU, European Research Council, Project Gamehub Scandinavia
Note

Also part of the Information Systems and Applications, incl. Internet/Web, and HCI book sub series (LNISA, volume 10714)

Available from: 2018-02-23 Created: 2018-02-23 Last updated: 2019-08-23Bibliographically approved
Bevilacqua, F., Engström, H. & Backlund, P. (2018). Automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential method for differentiating stress and boredom of players in games. International Journal of Computer Games Technology, Article ID 8734540.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential method for differentiating stress and boredom of players in games
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Computer Games Technology, ISSN 1687-7047, E-ISSN 1687-7055, article id 8734540Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Facial analysis is a promising approach to detect emotions of players unobtrusively, however approaches are commonly evaluated in contexts not related to games, or facial cues are derived from models not designed for analysis of emotions during interactions with games. We present a method for automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential tool for detecting stress and boredom of players behaving naturally while playing games. Computer vision is used to automatically and unobtrusively extract 7 facial features aimed to detect the activity of a set of facial muscles. Features are mainly based on the Euclidean distance of facial landmarks and do not rely on pre-dened facial expressions, training of a model or the use of facial standards. An empirical evaluation was conducted on video recordings of an experiment involving games as emotion elicitation sources. Results show statistically signicant dierences in the values of facial features during boring and stressful periods of gameplay for 5 of the 7 features. We believe our approach is more user-tailored, convenient and better suited for contexts involving games.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2018
Keywords
games, boredom, stress, facial expression, affective computing, computer vision
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14771 (URN)10.1155/2018/8734540 (DOI)000427897600001 ()2-s2.0-85046279378 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, Project Game Hub Scandinavia
Available from: 2018-02-23 Created: 2018-02-23 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
Backlund, P., Maurin Söderholm, H., Engström, H., Andersson Hagiwara, M. & Lebram, M. (2018). Breaking Out of the Bubble Putting Simulation Into Context to Increase Immersion and Performance. Journal Simulation & Gaming, 49(6), 642-660
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Breaking Out of the Bubble Putting Simulation Into Context to Increase Immersion and Performance
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 642-660Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective. Simulation based training with full-size mannequins is a prominent means of training within the healthcare sector. Prehospital missions include all parts of the healthcare process which take place before a patient is handed over to the receiving hospital. This implies that the context for prehospital care is varied and potentially challenging or dangerous in several ways. In this article we present a study which explores immersion and performance by emergency medical services (EMS) professionals in in a training situation which takes the specifics of prehospital interventions into account.

Methods. The study was carried out as a field experiment at an ambulance unit. The experiment was designed to compare the differences between two types of medical scenarios: basic and contextualized. We analyzed the levels of immersion throughout the scenarios and then team performance was evaluated by independent experts. Both analyses were made by observing video recordings from multiple camera angles with a custom made analysis tool.

Results. Our results show that the contextualization of a medical scenario increases both immersion as measured by the Immersion Score Rating Instrument (ISRI) and team performance as measured by the Global Rating Scale (GRS). The overall ISRI score was higher in the contextualized condition as compared to the basic condition, with an average team wise difference of 2.94 (sd = 1.45). This difference is significant using a paired, two-tailed t-test (p<.001). The GRS score was higher for overall clinical performance in the contextualized scenario with an average team wise difference of 0.83 (sd = 0.83, p=.005).

Conclusions. Full-size mannequin simulation based training for EMS professionals may be enhanced by contextualizing the medical scenarios. The main benefits are that the contextualized scenarios better take prehospital medical challenges into account and allow participants to perform better.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
immersion, prehospital medicine, simulation-based training
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15165 (URN)10.1177/1046878118772612 (DOI)000453535000004 ()2-s2.0-85047428895 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-24 Created: 2018-05-24 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Bevilacqua, F., Engström, H. & Backlund, P. (2018). Changes in heart rate and facial actions during a gaming session with provoked boredom and stress. Entertainment Computing, 24, 10-20
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in heart rate and facial actions during a gaming session with provoked boredom and stress
2018 (English)In: Entertainment Computing, ISSN 1875-9521, E-ISSN 1875-953X, Vol. 24, p. 10-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an experiment aimed at exploring the relation between facial actions (FA), heart rate (HR) and emotional states, particularly stress and boredom, during the interaction with games. Subjects played three custom-made games with a linear and constant progression from a boring to a stressful state, without pre-defined levels, modes or stopping conditions. Such configuration gives our experiment a novel approach for the exploration of FA and HR regarding their connection to emotional states, since we can categorize information according to the induced (and theoretically known) emotional states on a user level. The HR data was divided into segments, whose HR mean was calculated and compared in periods (boring/stressful part of the games). Additionally the 6 h of recordings were manually analyzed and FA were annotated and categorized in the same periods. Findings show that variations of HR and FA on a group and on an individual level are different when comparing boring and stressful parts of the gaming sessions. This paper contributes information regarding variations of HR and FA in the context of games, which can potentially be used as input candidates to create user-tailored models for emotion detection with game-based emotion elicitation sources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Games, Boredom, Stress, Facial expression, Multifactorial, Heart rate
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14267 (URN)10.1016/j.entcom.2017.10.004 (DOI)000418497800002 ()2-s2.0-85032270414 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak, project Game Hub Scandinavia
Available from: 2017-10-30 Created: 2017-10-30 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Engström, H., Berg Marklund, B., Backlund, P. & Toftedahl, M. (2018). Game development from a software and creative product perspective: A quantitative literature review approach. Entertainment Computing, 27, 10-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Game development from a software and creative product perspective: A quantitative literature review approach
2018 (English)In: Entertainment Computing, ISSN 1875-9521, E-ISSN 1875-953X, Vol. 27, p. 10-22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents the methodology and initial analysis of a systematic literature review that aims to explore how the craft and processes of game development have been studied in previous research. In particular, the review focuses on how previous research treats the inherent duality of video game development, since it both involves computer software development and creative production. Researchers are often in a position where they need to emphasize game development’s relation to one of these disciplines, and it is not unusual for game development to be treated as a direct offspring of one field with some mild influences from another. Employing a more all-encompassing review approach, that includes research conducted from the perspectives of both com- puter science and the arts and humanities equally, makes the presented study different from previous literature reviews. The results show that there is a tendency that the management of software development has a negative correlation with the management of creativity in the studied material. The heterogenity of the fields and the limited amount of studies that focus on the duality of game development suggest that there is a need for a deeper analysis of the individual components and to synthesize results from disparate fields. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Video game, Creative product, Software development, Creativity management, Systematic literature review
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14980 (URN)10.1016/j.entcom.2018.02.008 (DOI)000440594100002 ()2-s2.0-85044109809 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Game Hub Scandinavia
Funder
Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak, NYPS 20200428
Available from: 2018-03-23 Created: 2018-03-23 Last updated: 2018-08-31Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9287-9507

Search in DiVA

Show all publications