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Su, Y., Backlund, P. & Engström, H. (2020). Business Intelligence Challenges for Independent Game Publishing. International Journal of Computer Games Technology, 2020, 1-8, Article ID 5395187.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business Intelligence Challenges for Independent Game Publishing
2020 (English)In: International Journal of Computer Games Technology, ISSN 1687-7047, E-ISSN 1687-7055, Vol. 2020, p. 1-8, article id 5395187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the continuous development of the game industry, research in the game field is also deepening. Many interdisciplinary areas of knowledge and theory have been used to promote the development of the game industry. Business intelligence technologies have been applied to game development for game design and game optimization. However, few systematic research efforts have focused on the field of game publishing, particularly with regard to independent (indie) game publishing. In this paper, we analyse data collected from a set of interviews with small indie game developers. The results indicate that most of the indie game developers have already used business intelligence for game self-publishing, although three main challenges have been identified: first, how to conduct marketing promotion and improve the return on investment (ROI); second, how to collect game publishing data; and third, how to analyse the data in order to guide game self-publishing. Our interviews also reveal that the business model applied to a game significantly impacts the role of game analytics. The study expands and advances the research on how game analytics can be used for game publishing, particularly for indie game self-publishing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2020
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-18185 (URN)10.1155/2020/5395187 (DOI)000510887600001 ()2-s2.0-85079138803 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-02-04 Created: 2020-02-04 Last updated: 2020-04-22Bibliographically approved
Wilhelmsson, U. & Backlund, P. (2020). Everyone Is not a Gamer!: Developing Cultural Heritage Experiences for Diverse Audiences. In: Fotis Liarokapis, Athanasios Voulodimos, Nikolaos Doulamis, Anastasios Doulamis (Ed.), Visual Computing for Cultural Heritage: (pp. 263-281). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Everyone Is not a Gamer!: Developing Cultural Heritage Experiences for Diverse Audiences
2020 (English)In: Visual Computing for Cultural Heritage / [ed] Fotis Liarokapis, Athanasios Voulodimos, Nikolaos Doulamis, Anastasios Doulamis, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 263-281Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Serious games and gamification have been proposed as approaches to solve problems in various areas by utilizing game technologies, game design components and even fully fledged games. However, when games are applied in a context outside the gaming sphere where users are not used to game interfaces and game culture, this may cause problems. In the case of cultural heritage applications this may create confusion or even put people off if they don’t understand what to do to take part in the experience. This chapter contributes a synthesized retrospective overview of three successive research and development projects conducted at the University of Skövde since 2007 and will present theoretical frameworks, conceptual studies, and production models for cultural heritage experiences for diverse audiences. In particular, we present a detailed case of a cultural heritage site which has been enhanced by game design concepts and visualizations to provide a richer experience for visitors. The chapter will also show the importance of user experience testing as an integral part of the production cycle in order to ensure a pleasant and understandable visit for visitors with different backgrounds and experiences of video games.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2020
Series
Springer Series on Cultural Computing, ISSN 2195-9056, E-ISSN 2195-9064
National Category
Interaction Technologies Media Engineering
Research subject
Media, Technology and Culture (MTEC); Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-18440 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-37191-3_14 (DOI)978-3-030-37190-6 (ISBN)978-3-030-37191-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-05-12 Created: 2020-05-12 Last updated: 2020-05-12Bibliographically approved
Engström, H., Lyu, R., Backlund, P., Toftedahl, M. & Rosendahl Ehmsen, P. (2020). Shared learning objectives in interdisciplinary projects: Game design in a Sino-Scandinavian context. Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, 17(1), 1-22, Article ID 4.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shared learning objectives in interdisciplinary projects: Game design in a Sino-Scandinavian context
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2020 (English)In: Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, ISSN 1449-9789, E-ISSN 1449-9789, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 1-22, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The learning goals of project-based courses are typically specific for each involved discipline. Game development is deeply interdisciplinary and some of its core principles are shared across disciplines, from art to programming. This article presents a project-based approach where students majoring in arts and students majoring in technology share learning objectives. The course has been developed in a Sino- Scandinavian collaboration. Experiences from well-established Scandinavian game development programmes have been transferred to a Chinese university context.

This article presents an explorative mixed method evaluation of this course. The research design had two phases with an initial qualitative analysis resulting in a set of observations that were tested in the second, quantitative phase. A total of 34 students from a range of disciplines participated in a two week course. The quantitative analysis shows that art (n=13) and technology (n=14) students' reported very similar experiences and similar insights into core learning objectives. This study shows that deeply interdisciplinary project-based courses, with shared learning objectives can successfully be conducted even in a context with no prior experience of such approaches.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wollongong, NSW, Australia: University of Wollongong, 2020
Keywords
project-based learning, interdisciplinary, sino-scandinavian, digital games, game design
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-18208 (URN)000514818800004 ()2-s2.0-85079623196 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Game Hub Scandinavia 2.0
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), NYPS 20201849
Available from: 2020-02-18 Created: 2020-02-18 Last updated: 2020-04-22Bibliographically approved
Ye, X., Backlund, P., Ding, J. & Ning, H. (2019). Fidelity in Simulation-based Serious Games. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fidelity in Simulation-based Serious Games
2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, ISSN 1939-1382, E-ISSN 1939-1382Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The extensive use of Simulation-based Serious Games (SSGs) has made a revolution in educational techniques. As a potentially significant feature for SSG design and evaluation, the term fidelity (the similarity between an SSG and its real reference) emerges and attracts increasing attention. The study of fidelity not only benefits the design, development, and analysis of an SSG with the consideration of improving the learning effect but also contributes to the investment reduction of an SSG. However, the term fidelity is used inconsistently in current literature. The introduction of new technologies (e.g. virtual reality) and the blend of multiform SSGs also facilitate the extension of fidelity with new connotations. All lead to confusing concepts and vague measure metrics. Besides, the relationship between fidelity and learning effect is still uncertain. A new vision and a comprehensive conceptual framework of fidelity for more general applications are in need. In this paper, further exploration and discussion of these issues in relation to fidelity of SSGs are presented through a systematic review. A general conceptual framework considering both aspects of the SSG system itself and the learners is developed and applied to analyze fidelity in SSGs. Based on that, a discussion on fidelity related issues of SSG design and development is presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
fidelity, simulation, serious games, learning, educational games, virtual reality
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); Distributed Real-Time Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17735 (URN)10.1109/TLT.2019.2913408 (DOI)
Funder
Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak, NYPS 20200428
Available from: 2019-09-27 Created: 2019-09-27 Last updated: 2019-11-08Bibliographically approved
Bevilacqua, F., Engström, H. & Backlund, P. (2019). Game-Calibrated and User-Tailored Remote Detection of Stress and Boredom in Games. Sensors, 19(13), 1-43, Article ID 2877.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Game-Calibrated and User-Tailored Remote Detection of Stress and Boredom in Games
2019 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 13, p. 1-43, article id 2877Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Emotion detection based on computer vision and remote extraction of user signals commonly rely on stimuli where users have a passive role with limited possibilities for interaction or emotional involvement, e.g., images and videos. Predictive models are also trained on a group level, which potentially excludes or dilutes key individualities of users. We present a non-obtrusive, multifactorial, user-tailored emotion detection method based on remotely estimated psychophysiological signals. A neural network learns the emotional profile of a user during the interaction with calibration games, a novel game-based emotion elicitation material designed to induce emotions while accounting for particularities of individuals. We evaluate our method in two experiments (n = 20 and n = 62) with mean classification accuracy of 61.6%, which is statistically significantly better than chance-level classification. Our approach and its evaluation present unique circumstances: our model is trained on one dataset (calibration games) and tested on another (evaluation game), while preserving the natural behavior of subjects and using remote acquisition of signals. Results of this study suggest our method is feasible and an initiative to move away from questionnaires and physical sensors into a non-obtrusive, remote-based solution for detecting emotions in a context involving more naturalistic user behavior and games.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
human–computer interaction, games, affective computing, remote photoplethysmography
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17485 (URN)10.3390/s19132877 (DOI)000477045000038 ()31261716 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85069267193 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-07-29 Created: 2019-07-29 Last updated: 2019-11-08Bibliographically approved
Maurin Söderholm, H., Andersson, H., Andersson Hagiwara, M., Backlund, P., Bergman, J., Lundberg, L. & Sjöqvist, B. A. (2019). Research challenges in prehospital care: the need for a simulation-based prehospital research laboratory. Advances in Simulation, 4(3), 1-6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Research challenges in prehospital care: the need for a simulation-based prehospital research laboratory
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2019 (English)In: Advances in Simulation, ISSN 2059-0628, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a need for improved research in the field of prehospital care. At the same time, there are many barriers in prehospital research due to the complex context, posing unique challenges for research, development, and evaluation. The present paper argues for the potential of simulation for prehospital research, e.g., through the development of an advanced simulation-based prehospital research laboratory. However, the prehospital context is different from other healthcare areas, which implies special requirements for the design of this type of laboratory, in terms of simulation width (including the entire prehospital work process) and depth (level of scenario detail). A set of features pertaining to simulation width, scenario depth, equipment, and personnel and competence are proposed. Close tailoring between these features and the prehospital research problems and context presents great potential to improve and further prehospital research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2019
Keywords
laboratory, prehospital, simulation
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Interaction Technologies Information Systems Other Computer and Information Science
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16655 (URN)10.1186/s41077-019-0090-0 (DOI)30783539 (PubMedID)
Note

Commentary

Available from: 2019-02-22 Created: 2019-02-22 Last updated: 2019-06-07Bibliographically approved
Su, Y., Backlund, P., Engström, H. & Strand, M. (2019). The Fish Tank Model for Mobile Game Publishing Business Performance Evaluation. In: A Siarheyeva, C Barry, M Lang, H Linger, C Schneider (Ed.), Information Systems Development: Information Systems Beyond 2020: ISD2019 Proceedings. Paper presented at The 28th International Conference on Information Systems Development (ISD2019), Toulon, France, August 28-30, 2019. Toulon, France: ISEN Yncréa Méditerranée
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Fish Tank Model for Mobile Game Publishing Business Performance Evaluation
2019 (English)In: Information Systems Development: Information Systems Beyond 2020: ISD2019 Proceedings / [ed] A Siarheyeva, C Barry, M Lang, H Linger, C Schneider, Toulon, France: ISEN Yncréa Méditerranée , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Business intelligence has been applied in the area of game development research for many years. However, few systematic research efforts are focusing on the game publishing side, especially for the mobile game publishing business. We aim to identify and remedy the shortcomings of the existing ARM funnel model for free-to-play mobile game analytics by introducing a new model, the Fish Tank Model, which combines the analysis of players’ behavior with in-game system data to drive the whole process of mobile game publishing. Based on the new model, we also bring and create relevant metrics for effectively measuring the business performance of mobile game publishing. Our main contributions are a survey of business intelligence used in game research and an analysis to reveal the insufficiency of an existing model for game publishing. Finally, we discuss business requirements for mobile game publishing and propose a brand-new model which better suits the free-to-play mobile game publishing business performance evaluation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Toulon, France: ISEN Yncréa Méditerranée, 2019
Keywords
Business Intelligence, Game Analytics, Game Publishing, Game Metrics, Model-driven.
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); Production and Automation Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17729 (URN)978-2-9571876-0-7 (ISBN)
Conference
The 28th International Conference on Information Systems Development (ISD2019), Toulon, France, August 28-30, 2019
Available from: 2019-09-27 Created: 2019-09-27 Last updated: 2020-04-16Bibliographically approved
Berg Marklund, B., Engström, H., Hellkvist, M. & Backlund, P. (2019). What Empirically Based Research Tells Us About Game Development. The Computer Games Journal, 8(3-4), 179-198
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What Empirically Based Research Tells Us About Game Development
2019 (English)In: The Computer Games Journal, E-ISSN 2052-773X, Vol. 8, no 3-4, p. 179-198Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reviews empirically grounded research on practices in game development with the intent to give a comprehensive overview of contemporary development practices used in the video game industry. While there are many intangible elements that inform game development processes, this review specifically covers the more immediate practical challenges. The review covers a total of 48 papers published between 2006 and 2016, which were all subjected to thematic analysis by three reviewers. The results of the review show that an almost universal characteristic of game development is that it is almost impossible to accurately plan a development project in detail, largely due to the soft requirements inherent in game production which emerge mid-process during development projects, during when testing is coupled with continuous ideation and refinement. Practicing game developers have created their own frameworks that accommodate for this lack of planning. They include flat hierarchies, democratic decision-making, creative autonomy, and informal communication, which are designed to create an environment that maintains creativity and openness to product changes long into the production process. These frameworks vary significantly between studios and often between individual projects. This review also shows that the term ‘Agile’, while often used by both researchers and developers to characterize the process of game development, is not an apt descriptor of how game developers actually work. Agile is used as shorthand for unstructured and flexible development, rather than serving as a descriptor of a definable or unified work method. Finally, as companies develop more complicated hierarchies of stakeholders and staff, the desired flexibility and autonomy of game development becomes increasingly complicated to maintain, and often necessitates more formalized management processes and company structures. In these cases, inherent tensions of game development become more pronounced, and continuous creativity is hard to maintain due to a growing need to formalize processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Game development, Empirics, Management, Development processes, Game industry, Literature review
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17732 (URN)10.1007/s40869-019-00085-1 (DOI)
Projects
Game Hub Scandinavia
Funder
Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak, NYPS 20200428
Available from: 2019-09-27 Created: 2019-09-27 Last updated: 2019-11-21Bibliographically approved
Bevilacqua, F., Engström, H. & Backlund, P. (2018). Accuracy Evaluation of Remote Photoplethysmography Estimations of Heart Rate in Gaming Sessions with Natural Behavior (1ed.). In: Adrian David Cheok, Masahiko Inami,Teresa Romão (Ed.), Adrian David Cheok, Masahiko Inami, Teresa Romão (Ed.), Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology: 14th International Conference, ACE 2017, London, UK, December 14-16, 2017, Proceedings. Paper presented at 14th International Conference, ACE 2017, London, UK, December 14-16, 2017 (pp. 508-530). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accuracy Evaluation of Remote Photoplethysmography Estimations of Heart Rate in Gaming Sessions with Natural Behavior
2018 (English)In: Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology: 14th International Conference, ACE 2017, London, UK, December 14-16, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Adrian David Cheok, Masahiko Inami, Teresa Romão, Springer, 2018, 1, p. 508-530Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) can be used to remotely estimate heart rate (HR) of users to infer their emotional state. However natural body movement and facial actions of users significantly impact such techniques, so their reliability within contexts involving natural behavior must be checked. We present an experiment focused on the accuracy evaluation of an established rPPG technique in a gaming context. The technique was applied to estimate the HR of subjects behaving naturally in gaming sessions whose games were carefully designed to be casual-themed, similar to off-the-shelf games and have a difficulty level that linearly progresses from a boring to a stressful state. Estimations presented mean error of 2.99 bpm and Pearson correlationr = 0.43, p < 0.001, however with significant variations among subjects. Our experiment is the first to measure the accuracy of an rPPG techniqueusing boredom/stress-inducing casual games with subjects behaving naturally.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018 Edition: 1
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 10714
Keywords
Games, Emotion assessment, Remote photoplethysmography, Computer vision, Affective computing
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14772 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-76270-8_35 (DOI)000432607700035 ()2-s2.0-85043535153 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-76269-2 (ISBN)978-3-319-76270-8 (ISBN)
Conference
14th International Conference, ACE 2017, London, UK, December 14-16, 2017
Funder
EU, European Research Council, Project Gamehub Scandinavia
Note

Also part of the Information Systems and Applications, incl. Internet/Web, and HCI book sub series (LNISA, volume 10714)

Available from: 2018-02-23 Created: 2018-02-23 Last updated: 2019-08-23Bibliographically approved
Bevilacqua, F., Engström, H. & Backlund, P. (2018). Automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential method for differentiating stress and boredom of players in games. International Journal of Computer Games Technology, Article ID 8734540.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential method for differentiating stress and boredom of players in games
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Computer Games Technology, ISSN 1687-7047, E-ISSN 1687-7055, article id 8734540Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Facial analysis is a promising approach to detect emotions of players unobtrusively, however approaches are commonly evaluated in contexts not related to games, or facial cues are derived from models not designed for analysis of emotions during interactions with games. We present a method for automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential tool for detecting stress and boredom of players behaving naturally while playing games. Computer vision is used to automatically and unobtrusively extract 7 facial features aimed to detect the activity of a set of facial muscles. Features are mainly based on the Euclidean distance of facial landmarks and do not rely on pre-dened facial expressions, training of a model or the use of facial standards. An empirical evaluation was conducted on video recordings of an experiment involving games as emotion elicitation sources. Results show statistically signicant dierences in the values of facial features during boring and stressful periods of gameplay for 5 of the 7 features. We believe our approach is more user-tailored, convenient and better suited for contexts involving games.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2018
Keywords
games, boredom, stress, facial expression, affective computing, computer vision
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14771 (URN)10.1155/2018/8734540 (DOI)000427897600001 ()2-s2.0-85046279378 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, Project Game Hub Scandinavia
Available from: 2018-02-23 Created: 2018-02-23 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9287-9507

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