his.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (10 of 73) Show all publications
Bevilacqua, F., Engström, H. & Backlund, P. (2018). Changes in heart rate and facial actions during a gaming session with provoked boredom and stress. Entertainment Computing, 24, 10-20.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in heart rate and facial actions during a gaming session with provoked boredom and stress
2018 (English)In: Entertainment Computing, ISSN 1875-9521, E-ISSN 1875-953X, Vol. 24, p. 10-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an experiment aimed at exploring the relation between facial actions (FA), heart rate (HR) and emotional states, particularly stress and boredom, during the interaction with games. Subjects played three custom-made games with a linear and constant progression from a boring to a stressful state, without pre-defined levels, modes or stopping conditions. Such configuration gives our experiment a novel approach for the exploration of FA and HR regarding their connection to emotional states, since we can categorize information according to the induced (and theoretically known) emotional states on a user level. The HR data was divided into segments, whose HR mean was calculated and compared in periods (boring/stressful part of the games). Additionally the 6 h of recordings were manually analyzed and FA were annotated and categorized in the same periods. Findings show that variations of HR and FA on a group and on an individual level are different when comparing boring and stressful parts of the gaming sessions. This paper contributes information regarding variations of HR and FA in the context of games, which can potentially be used as input candidates to create user-tailored models for emotion detection with game-based emotion elicitation sources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keyword
Games, Boredom, Stress, Facial expression, Multifactorial, Heart rate
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14267 (URN)10.1016/j.entcom.2017.10.004 (DOI)000418497800002 ()2-s2.0-85032270414 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak, project Game Hub Scandinavia
Available from: 2017-10-30 Created: 2017-10-30 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Backlund, P., Engström, H., Berg Marklund, B. & Toftedahl, M. (2017). Developing games for non-leisure contexts: Identification of challenges and research gaps. In: F. Liarokapis et al. (Ed.), 2017 9th International Conference on Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications (VS-Games): Proceedings. Paper presented at 9th International Conference on Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications (VS-Games), 6-8 September 2017, Athens, Greece (pp. 15-22). IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, Article ID 8055806.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing games for non-leisure contexts: Identification of challenges and research gaps
2017 (English)In: 2017 9th International Conference on Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications (VS-Games): Proceedings / [ed] F. Liarokapis et al., IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, 2017, p. 15-22, article id 8055806Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The use of games in non-leisure contexts is referred to as serious games. The tradition of using games for purposes beyond entertainment goes back a long time before digital games. However, with the advent of digital games, serious games development has become an issue of both game design and technology development in various combinations. This paper presents a literature review of what types of topics are studied in the realm of serious games development, and contrasts the results with challenges and problems expressed by a panel of developers and researchers in serious games and gamification to identify research gaps. Our findings indicate a lack of research on the actual usage situations of serious games. It seems that the phase of organizational deployment and use is most often overseen. Furthermore, we identified a lack of client/customer perspective in most research on the development of gamified solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, 2017
Series
Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications (VS-Games), E-ISSN 2474-0489
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14587 (URN)10.1109/VS-GAMES.2017.8055806 (DOI)2-s2.0-85034633168 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-5812-9 (ISBN)978-1-5090-5811-2 (ISBN)
Conference
9th International Conference on Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications (VS-Games), 6-8 September 2017, Athens, Greece
Projects
Game Hub Scandinavia
Available from: 2017-12-15 Created: 2017-12-15 Last updated: 2018-02-01Bibliographically approved
Backlund, P., Engström, H., Johannesson, M., Lebram, M., Danielsson, M., Andersson Hagiwara, M., . . . Maurin Söderholm, H. (2017). The S.A.R.E.K Simulation Environment: Technical description of a flexible training environment for prehospital care.. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The S.A.R.E.K Simulation Environment: Technical description of a flexible training environment for prehospital care.
Show others...
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report contains a technical description of the result of the S.A.R.E.K (Simulation – Ambulance – Research – Education - Kinship) collaboration project and the Sim2020 project. The projects are collaborations between researchers in healthcare and IT, and prehospital care practitioners, with the aim to design, develop and test a contextualized simulation environment for prehospital care. We built a simulation environment representing the full depth and width of a prehospital care process. Breadth refers to including all phases of a prehospital mission, from dispatch to handover; while depth refers to detailed representations and recreation of artefacts, information and context for each of these phases. This report outlines the details of the overall design, all equipment and practical solutions used to create this.  

Apart from the installation which is described in this report we have also developed methods and carried out a variety of tests and experiments which are reported elsewhere. The focus of this report is the system and its components.

Publisher
p. 12
Series
IIT Technical Reports ; HS-IIT-TR-17-001
Keyword
prehospital simulation
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13558 (URN)
Projects
Sim2020SAREK
Funder
Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional GrowthRegion Västra Götaland
Available from: 2017-05-12 Created: 2017-05-12 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Toftedahl, M., Berg Marklund, B., Engström, H. & Backlund, P. (2016). Global Influences on Regional Industries: Game development in Nordic countries, China and India. In: Decoding the Academic-Industrial-Gameplay Complex: Digital Game Practice, Research and Study in China, Taiwan and Chinese-Speaking Regions. Paper presented at Chinese DiGRA 2016, The 3rd Annual Chinese DiGRA Conference, Taichung City, Taiwan, July 1-2, 2016. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Global Influences on Regional Industries: Game development in Nordic countries, China and India
2016 (English)In: Decoding the Academic-Industrial-Gameplay Complex: Digital Game Practice, Research and Study in China, Taiwan and Chinese-Speaking Regions, 2016Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The game development industry has historically been strongly associated with a few particularly dominant actors, namely Japan and the US. As a result, video game development processes and game content that have originated from these actors are often used as a benchmark for what game development is and can be. Discussing the games industry from these perspectives can, however, gloss over important nuances that make other game development regions unique. With this in mind, this paper intends to discuss the ways in which different cultural and regional contexts are reflected in the structure of local game development industries and, to some extent, in produced game content. To inform this discussion, the authors use the foundation and growth of game development practices in three different regions: the Nordic region, India, and China. These three regions serve as specific exemplifying cases of how video game industries and praxis can take different shapes depending on what resources and components they have available. The paper concludes that all regional games industries and game development practices are heavily influenced by the precedent set by historically dominant actors. This results in game content and development practices that often mimics pre-established standards. But, over time, the conditions surrounding the formation of regional industries manifest themselves in more locally unique content and development processes.

Keyword
Game development, regional practices, Nordic region, India, China, game industry
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13427 (URN)
Conference
Chinese DiGRA 2016, The 3rd Annual Chinese DiGRA Conference, Taichung City, Taiwan, July 1-2, 2016
Projects
Game Hub Scandinavia
Available from: 2017-03-13 Created: 2017-03-13 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Andersson Hagiwara, M., Backlund, P., Maurin Söderholm, H., Lundberg, L., Lebram, M. & Engström, H. (2016). Measuring participants’ immersion in healthcare simulation: the development of an instrument. Advances in Simulation, 2016(1), Article ID 17.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring participants’ immersion in healthcare simulation: the development of an instrument
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Advances in Simulation, ISSN 2059-0628, Vol. 2016, no 1, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Immersion is important for simulation-based education; however, questionnaire-based instruments to measure immersion have some limitations. The aim of the present work is to develop a new instrument to measure immersion among participants in healthcare simulation scenarios.

Methods

The instrument was developed in four phases: trigger identification, content validity scores, inter-rater reliability analysis and comparison with an existing immersion measure instrument. A modified Delphi process was used to develop the instrument and to establish validity and reliability. The expert panel consisted of 10 researchers. All the researchers in the team had previous experience of simulation in the health and/or fire and rescue services as researchers and/or educators and simulation designers. To identify triggers, the panel members independently screened video recordings from simulation scenarios. Here, a trigger is an event in a simulation that is considered a sign of reduced or enhanced immersion among simulation participants.

Results

The result consists of the Immersion Score Rating Instrument (ISRI). It contains 10 triggers, of which seven indicate reduced and three enhanced immersion. When using ISRI, a rater identifies trigger occurrences and assigns them strength between 1 and 3. The content validity analysis shows that all the 10 triggers meet an acceptable content validity index for items (I-CVI) standard. The inter-rater reliability (IRR) among raters was assessed using a two-way mixed, consistency, average-measures intra-class correlation (ICC). The ICC for the difference between weighted positive and negative triggers was 0.92, which indicates that the raters are in agreement. Comparison with results from an immersion questionnaire mirrors the ISRI results.

Conclusions

In conclusion, we present a novel and non-intrusive instrument for identifying and rating the level of immersion among participants in healthcare simulation scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2016
Keyword
Healthcare simulation, Immersion, Measure, Instrument
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12293 (URN)10.1186/s41077-016-0018-x (DOI)
Projects
Sarek
Funder
Region Västra Götaland
Available from: 2016-05-24 Created: 2016-05-24 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Engström, H., Andersson Hagiwara, M., Backlund, P., Lebram, M., Lundberg, L., Johannesson, M., . . . Maurin Söderholm, H. (2016). The impact of contextualization on immersion in healthcare simulation. Advances in Simulation, 1, Article ID 8.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of contextualization on immersion in healthcare simulation
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Advances in Simulation, ISSN 2059-0628, Vol. 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

The aim of this paper is to explore how contextualization of a healthcare simulation scenarios impacts immersion, by using a novel objective instrument, the Immersion Score Rating Instrument. This instrument consists of 10 triggers that indicate reduced or enhanced immersion among participants in a simulation scenario. Triggers refer to events such as jumps in time or space (sign of reduced immersion) and natural interaction with the manikin (sign of enhanced immersion) and can be used to calculate an immersion score.

Methods

An experiment using a randomized controlled crossover design was conducted to compare immersion between two simulation training conditions for prehospital care: one basic and one contextualized. The Immersion Score Rating Instrument was used to compare the total immersion score for the whole scenario, the immersion score for individual mission phases, and to analyze differences in trigger occurrences. A paired t test was used to test for significance.

Results

The comparison shows that the overall immersion score for the simulation was higher in the contextualized condition. The average immersion score was 2.17 (sd = 1.67) in the contextualized condition and −0.77 (sd = 2.01) in the basic condition (p < .001). The immersion score was significantly higher in the contextualized condition in five out of six mission phases. Events that might be disruptive for the simulation participants’ immersion, such as interventions of the instructor and illogical jumps in time or space, are present to a higher degree in the basic scenario condition; while events that signal enhanced immersion, such as natural interaction with the manikin, are more frequently observed in the contextualized condition.

ConclusionsThe results suggest that contextualization of simulation training with respect to increased equipment and environmental fidelity as well as functional task alignment might affect immersion positively and thus contribute to an improved training experience.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2016
Keyword
Medical simulation, Immersion, Fidelity, Contextualized
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12024 (URN)10.1186/s41077-016-0009-y (DOI)
Projects
TIKT (ambulans)
Available from: 2016-03-09 Created: 2016-03-09 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Bevilacqua, F., Backlund, P. & Engström, H. (2016). Variations of Facial Actions While Playing Games with Inducing Boredom and Stress. In: 2016 8th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games): . Paper presented at International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games), Barcelona, Spain, September 7-9, 2016. IEEE.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variations of Facial Actions While Playing Games with Inducing Boredom and Stress
2016 (English)In: 2016 8th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games), IEEE, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an experiment aimed at empirically exploring the variations of facial actions (FA) during gaming sessions with induced boredom and stress. Twenty adults with different ages and gaming experiences played three games while being recorded by a video camera and monitored by a heart rate sensor. The games were carefully designed to have a linear progression from a boring to a stressful state. Self-reported answers indicate participants perceived the games as being boring at the beginning and stressful at the end. The 6 hours of recordings of all subjects were manually analyzed and FA were annotated. We annotated FA that appeared in the recordings at least twice; annotations were categorized by the period when they happened (boring/stressful part of the games) and analysed on a group and on an individual level. Group level analysis revealed that FA patterns were related to no more than 25% of the subjects. The individual level analysis revealed particular patterns for 50% of the subjects. More FA annotations were made during the stressful part of the games. We conclude that, for the context of our experiment, FA provide an unclear foundation for detection of boredom/stressful states when observed from a group level perspective, while the individual level perspective might produce more information.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
Series
International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications, ISSN 2474-0470
Keyword
Games, Stress, Heart rate, Context, Physiology, Cameras, Predictive models
National Category
Computer Engineering
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13071 (URN)10.1109/VS-GAMES.2016.7590374 (DOI)000386980000041 ()978-1-5090-2722-4 (ISBN)978-1-5090-2723-1 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games), Barcelona, Spain, September 7-9, 2016
Available from: 2016-11-03 Created: 2016-11-03 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Backlund, P., Engström, H., Johannesson, M., Lebram, M., Andersson Hagiwara, M. & Maurin Söderholm, H. (2015). Enhancing Immersion with Contextualized Scenarios: Role-playing in prehospital care training. In: Per Backlund, Henrik Engström & Fotis Liarokapis (Ed.), VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications. Paper presented at IEEE 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games), Skövde, September 16-18, 2015 (pp. 167-170). IEEE Computer Society.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancing Immersion with Contextualized Scenarios: Role-playing in prehospital care training
Show others...
2015 (English)In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications / [ed] Per Backlund, Henrik Engström & Fotis Liarokapis, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 167-170Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2015
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11563 (URN)10.1109/VS-GAMES.2015.7295772 (DOI)000380426500015 ()2-s2.0-84954554458 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-8102-1 (ISBN)978-1-4799-8101-4 (ISBN)
External cooperation:
Conference
IEEE 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games), Skövde, September 16-18, 2015
Available from: 2015-09-25 Created: 2015-09-25 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Bevilacqua, F., Backlund, P. & Engström, H. (2015). Proposal for Non-contact Analysis of Multimodal Inputs to Measure Stress Level in Serious Games. In: Per Backlund, Henrik Engström & Fotis Liarokapis (Ed.), VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications. Paper presented at IEEE 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games), Skövde, September 16-18, 2015 (pp. 171-174). Red Hook, NY: IEEE Computer Society.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proposal for Non-contact Analysis of Multimodal Inputs to Measure Stress Level in Serious Games
2015 (English)In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications / [ed] Per Backlund, Henrik Engström & Fotis Liarokapis, Red Hook, NY: IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 171-174Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The process of monitoring user emotions in serious games or human-computer interaction is usually obtrusive. The work-flow is typically based on sensors that are physically attached to the user. Sometimes those sensors completely disturb the user experience, such as finger sensors that prevent the use of keyboard/mouse. This short paper presents techniques used to remotely measure different signals produced by a person, e.g. heart rate, through the use of a camera and computer vision techniques. The analysis of a combination of such signals (multimodal input) can be used in a variety of applications such as emotion assessment and measurement of cognitive stress. We present a research proposal for measurement of player’s stress level based on a non-contact analysis of multimodal user inputs. Our main contribution is a survey of commonly used methods to remotely measure user input signals related to stress assessment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Red Hook, NY: IEEE Computer Society, 2015
Keyword
Serious Games, Emotion Assessment, Remote Sensing, Computer Vision, Multimodal Input, Affective Computing
National Category
Computer Sciences Human Computer Interaction Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11588 (URN)10.1109/VS-GAMES.2015.7295783 (DOI)000380426500026 ()2-s2.0-84954479671 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-8102-1 (ISBN)978-1-4799-8101-4 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games), Skövde, September 16-18, 2015
Available from: 2015-10-08 Created: 2015-10-08 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Backlund, P., Engström, H. & Liarokapis, F. (Eds.). (2015). VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications. Paper presented at IEEE 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games), Skövde, September 16-18, 2015. Red Hook, NY: IEEE Computer Society.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications
2015 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Red Hook, NY: IEEE Computer Society, 2015
Keyword
serious games
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11562 (URN)978-1-4799-8102-1 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games), Skövde, September 16-18, 2015
Available from: 2015-09-25 Created: 2015-09-25 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9287-9507

Search in DiVA

Show all publications