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Bevilacqua, F., Engström, H. & Backlund, P. (2018). Accuracy Evaluation of Remote Photoplethysmography Estimations of Heart Rate in Gaming Sessions with Natural Behavior (1ed.). In: Adrian David Cheok, Masahiko Inami,Teresa Romão (Ed.), Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology: 14th International Conference, ACE 2017, London, UK, December 14-16, 2017, Proceedings. Springer Publishing Company
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accuracy Evaluation of Remote Photoplethysmography Estimations of Heart Rate in Gaming Sessions with Natural Behavior
2018 (English)In: Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology: 14th International Conference, ACE 2017, London, UK, December 14-16, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Adrian David Cheok, Masahiko Inami,Teresa Romão, Springer Publishing Company, 2018, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) can be used to remotely estimate heart rate (HR) of users to infer their emotional state. However natural body movement and facial actions of users significantly impact such techniques, so their reliability within contexts involving natural behavior must be checked. We present an experiment focused on the accuracy evaluation of an established rPPG technique in a gaming context. The technique was applied to estimate the HR of subjects behaving naturally in gaming sessions whose games were carefully designed to be casual-themed, similar to off-the-shelf games and have a difficulty level that linearly progresses from a boring to a stressful state. Estimations presented mean error of 2.99 bpm and Pearson correlationr = 0.43, p < 0.001, however with significant variations among subjects. Our experiment is the first to measure the accuracy of an rPPG techniqueusing boredom/stress-inducing casual games with subjects behaving naturally.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Publishing Company, 2018 Edition: 1
Series
Information Systems and Applications, incl. Internet/Web, and HCI
Keywords
Games, Emotion assessment, Remote photoplethysmography, Computer vision, Affective computing
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14772 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-76270-8 (DOI)000432607700035 ()2-s2.0-85043535153 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-76269-2 (ISBN)978-3-319-76270-8 (ISBN)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, Project Gamehub Scandinavia
Available from: 2018-02-23 Created: 2018-02-23 Last updated: 2018-06-14
Bevilacqua, F., Engström, H. & Backlund, P. (2018). Automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential method for differentiating stress and boredom of players in games. International Journal of Computer Games Technology, Article ID 8734540.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential method for differentiating stress and boredom of players in games
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Computer Games Technology, ISSN 1687-7047, E-ISSN 1687-7055, article id 8734540Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Facial analysis is a promising approach to detect emotions of players unobtrusively, however approaches are commonly evaluated in contexts not related to games, or facial cues are derived from models not designed for analysis of emotions during interactions with games. We present a method for automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential tool for detecting stress and boredom of players behaving naturally while playing games. Computer vision is used to automatically and unobtrusively extract 7 facial features aimed to detect the activity of a set of facial muscles. Features are mainly based on the Euclidean distance of facial landmarks and do not rely on pre-dened facial expressions, training of a model or the use of facial standards. An empirical evaluation was conducted on video recordings of an experiment involving games as emotion elicitation sources. Results show statistically signicant dierences in the values of facial features during boring and stressful periods of gameplay for 5 of the 7 features. We believe our approach is more user-tailored, convenient and better suited for contexts involving games.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2018
Keywords
games, boredom, stress, facial expression, affective computing, computer vision
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14771 (URN)10.1155/2018/8734540 (DOI)000427897600001 ()2-s2.0-85046279378 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, Project Game Hub Scandinavia
Available from: 2018-02-23 Created: 2018-02-23 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
Backlund, P., Maurin Söderström, H., Engström, H., Andersson Hagiwara, M. & Lebram, M. (2018). Breaking Out of the Bubble Putting Simulation Into Context to Increase Immersion and Performance. Journal Simulation & Gaming
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Breaking Out of the Bubble Putting Simulation Into Context to Increase Immersion and Performance
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2018 (English)In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Objective. Simulation based training with full-size mannequins is a prominent means of training within the healthcare sector. Prehospital missions include all parts of the healthcare process which take place before a patient is handed over to the receiving hospital. This implies that the context for prehospital care is varied and potentially challenging or dangerous in several ways. In this article we present a study which explores immersion and performance by emergency medical services (EMS) professionals in in a training situation which takes the specifics of prehospital interventions into account.

Methods. The study was carried out as a field experiment at an ambulance unit. The experiment was designed to compare the differences between two types of medical scenarios: basic and contextualized. We analyzed the levels of immersion throughout the scenarios and then team performance was evaluated by independent experts. Both analyses were made by observing video recordings from multiple camera angles with a custom made analysis tool.

Results. Our results show that the contextualization of a medical scenario increases both immersion as measured by the Immersion Score Rating Instrument (ISRI) and team performance as measured by the Global Rating Scale (GRS). The overall ISRI score was higher in the contextualized condition as compared to the basic condition, with an average team wise difference of 2.94 (sd = 1.45). This difference is significant using a paired, two-tailed t-test (p<.001). The GRS score was higher for overall clinical performance in the contextualized scenario with an average team wise difference of 0.83 (sd = 0.83, p=.005).

Conclusions. Full-size mannequin simulation based training for EMS professionals may be enhanced by contextualizing the medical scenarios. The main benefits are that the contextualized scenarios better take prehospital medical challenges into account and allow participants to perform better.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
immersion, prehospital medicine, simulation-based training
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15165 (URN)10.1177/1046878118772612 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-05-24 Created: 2018-05-24 Last updated: 2018-10-11Bibliographically approved
Bevilacqua, F., Engström, H. & Backlund, P. (2018). Changes in heart rate and facial actions during a gaming session with provoked boredom and stress. Entertainment Computing, 24, 10-20
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in heart rate and facial actions during a gaming session with provoked boredom and stress
2018 (English)In: Entertainment Computing, ISSN 1875-9521, E-ISSN 1875-953X, Vol. 24, p. 10-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an experiment aimed at exploring the relation between facial actions (FA), heart rate (HR) and emotional states, particularly stress and boredom, during the interaction with games. Subjects played three custom-made games with a linear and constant progression from a boring to a stressful state, without pre-defined levels, modes or stopping conditions. Such configuration gives our experiment a novel approach for the exploration of FA and HR regarding their connection to emotional states, since we can categorize information according to the induced (and theoretically known) emotional states on a user level. The HR data was divided into segments, whose HR mean was calculated and compared in periods (boring/stressful part of the games). Additionally the 6 h of recordings were manually analyzed and FA were annotated and categorized in the same periods. Findings show that variations of HR and FA on a group and on an individual level are different when comparing boring and stressful parts of the gaming sessions. This paper contributes information regarding variations of HR and FA in the context of games, which can potentially be used as input candidates to create user-tailored models for emotion detection with game-based emotion elicitation sources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Games, Boredom, Stress, Facial expression, Multifactorial, Heart rate
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14267 (URN)10.1016/j.entcom.2017.10.004 (DOI)000418497800002 ()2-s2.0-85032270414 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak, project Game Hub Scandinavia
Available from: 2017-10-30 Created: 2017-10-30 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Engström, H., Berg Marklund, B., Backlund, P. & Toftedahl, M. (2018). Game development from a software and creative product perspective: A quantitative literature review approach. Entertainment Computing, 27, 10-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Game development from a software and creative product perspective: A quantitative literature review approach
2018 (English)In: Entertainment Computing, ISSN 1875-9521, E-ISSN 1875-953X, Vol. 27, p. 10-22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents the methodology and initial analysis of a systematic literature review that aims to explore how the craft and processes of game development have been studied in previous research. In particular, the review focuses on how previous research treats the inherent duality of video game development, since it both involves computer software development and creative production. Researchers are often in a position where they need to emphasize game development’s relation to one of these disciplines, and it is not unusual for game development to be treated as a direct offspring of one field with some mild influences from another. Employing a more all-encompassing review approach, that includes research conducted from the perspectives of both com- puter science and the arts and humanities equally, makes the presented study different from previous literature reviews. The results show that there is a tendency that the management of software development has a negative correlation with the management of creativity in the studied material. The heterogenity of the fields and the limited amount of studies that focus on the duality of game development suggest that there is a need for a deeper analysis of the individual components and to synthesize results from disparate fields. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Video game, Creative product, Software development, Creativity management, Systematic literature review
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14980 (URN)10.1016/j.entcom.2018.02.008 (DOI)000440594100002 ()2-s2.0-85044109809 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Game Hub Scandinavia
Funder
Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak, NYPS 20200428
Available from: 2018-03-23 Created: 2018-03-23 Last updated: 2018-08-31Bibliographically approved
Toftedahl, M., Backlund, P. & Engström, H. (2018). Localization from an Indie Game Production Perspective: Why, When and How?. In: DiGRA '18 - Proceedings of the 2018 DiGRA International Conference: The Game is the Message. Paper presented at DIGRA 2018: The 11th Digital Games Research Association Conference, Turin, Italy, July 25-28, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Localization from an Indie Game Production Perspective: Why, When and How?
2018 (English)In: DiGRA '18 - Proceedings of the 2018 DiGRA International Conference: The Game is the Message, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates the process of game localization from an indie development perspective. The global nature of the digitally distributed game industry gives opportunities for game studios of all sizes to develop and distribute games on a global market. This poses a challenge for small independent developers with limited resources in funding and personnel, seeking to get as wide spread of their game as possible. To reach the players in other regions of the world localization needs to be done, taking language and other regional differences in mind. In an AAA or big-budget game production, these questions are handled by separate entities focusing solely on the localization process – but how do small independent game developers handle this? Indie game developers in Sweden, China and India have been interviewed to investigate the research question of how do indie game developers handle localization in the development process. The results points to a widespread use of community- and fan translation, and that only basic localization is done i.e. culturalization aspects are not considered. The results also show that the reason for localizing can be both business decisions but also to spread a specific message using games.

Keywords
game development, indie game, localization, game production
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16133 (URN)
Conference
DIGRA 2018: The 11th Digital Games Research Association Conference, Turin, Italy, July 25-28, 2018
Funder
Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak
Available from: 2018-09-03 Created: 2018-09-03 Last updated: 2018-09-27
Backlund, P., Engström, H., Berg Marklund, B. & Toftedahl, M. (2017). Developing games for non-leisure contexts: Identification of challenges and research gaps. In: F. Liarokapis et al. (Ed.), 2017 9th International Conference on Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications (VS-Games): Proceedings. Paper presented at 9th International Conference on Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications (VS-Games), 6-8 September 2017, Athens, Greece (pp. 15-22). IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, Article ID 8055806.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing games for non-leisure contexts: Identification of challenges and research gaps
2017 (English)In: 2017 9th International Conference on Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications (VS-Games): Proceedings / [ed] F. Liarokapis et al., IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, 2017, p. 15-22, article id 8055806Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The use of games in non-leisure contexts is referred to as serious games. The tradition of using games for purposes beyond entertainment goes back a long time before digital games. However, with the advent of digital games, serious games development has become an issue of both game design and technology development in various combinations. This paper presents a literature review of what types of topics are studied in the realm of serious games development, and contrasts the results with challenges and problems expressed by a panel of developers and researchers in serious games and gamification to identify research gaps. Our findings indicate a lack of research on the actual usage situations of serious games. It seems that the phase of organizational deployment and use is most often overseen. Furthermore, we identified a lack of client/customer perspective in most research on the development of gamified solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, 2017
Series
Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications (VS-Games), E-ISSN 2474-0489
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14587 (URN)10.1109/VS-GAMES.2017.8055806 (DOI)000425228700003 ()2-s2.0-85034633168 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-5812-9 (ISBN)978-1-5090-5811-2 (ISBN)
Conference
9th International Conference on Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications (VS-Games), 6-8 September 2017, Athens, Greece
Projects
Game Hub Scandinavia
Available from: 2017-12-15 Created: 2017-12-15 Last updated: 2018-03-08Bibliographically approved
Backlund, P., Engström, H., Johannesson, M., Lebram, M., Danielsson, M., Andersson Hagiwara, M., . . . Maurin Söderholm, H. (2017). The S.A.R.E.K Simulation Environment: Technical description of a flexible training environment for prehospital care..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The S.A.R.E.K Simulation Environment: Technical description of a flexible training environment for prehospital care.
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2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report contains a technical description of the result of the S.A.R.E.K (Simulation – Ambulance – Research – Education - Kinship) collaboration project and the Sim2020 project. The projects are collaborations between researchers in healthcare and IT, and prehospital care practitioners, with the aim to design, develop and test a contextualized simulation environment for prehospital care. We built a simulation environment representing the full depth and width of a prehospital care process. Breadth refers to including all phases of a prehospital mission, from dispatch to handover; while depth refers to detailed representations and recreation of artefacts, information and context for each of these phases. This report outlines the details of the overall design, all equipment and practical solutions used to create this.  

Apart from the installation which is described in this report we have also developed methods and carried out a variety of tests and experiments which are reported elsewhere. The focus of this report is the system and its components.

Publisher
p. 12
Series
IIT Technical Reports ; HS-IIT-TR-17-001
Keywords
prehospital simulation
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13558 (URN)
Projects
Sim2020SAREK
Funder
Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional GrowthRegion Västra Götaland
Available from: 2017-05-12 Created: 2017-05-12 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Toftedahl, M., Berg Marklund, B., Engström, H. & Backlund, P. (2016). Global Influences on Regional Industries: Game development in Nordic countries, China and India. In: Decoding the Academic-Industrial-Gameplay Complex: Digital Game Practice, Research and Study in China, Taiwan and Chinese-Speaking Regions. Paper presented at Chinese DiGRA 2016, The 3rd Annual Chinese DiGRA Conference, Taichung City, Taiwan, July 1-2, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Global Influences on Regional Industries: Game development in Nordic countries, China and India
2016 (English)In: Decoding the Academic-Industrial-Gameplay Complex: Digital Game Practice, Research and Study in China, Taiwan and Chinese-Speaking Regions, 2016Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The game development industry has historically been strongly associated with a few particularly dominant actors, namely Japan and the US. As a result, video game development processes and game content that have originated from these actors are often used as a benchmark for what game development is and can be. Discussing the games industry from these perspectives can, however, gloss over important nuances that make other game development regions unique. With this in mind, this paper intends to discuss the ways in which different cultural and regional contexts are reflected in the structure of local game development industries and, to some extent, in produced game content. To inform this discussion, the authors use the foundation and growth of game development practices in three different regions: the Nordic region, India, and China. These three regions serve as specific exemplifying cases of how video game industries and praxis can take different shapes depending on what resources and components they have available. The paper concludes that all regional games industries and game development practices are heavily influenced by the precedent set by historically dominant actors. This results in game content and development practices that often mimics pre-established standards. But, over time, the conditions surrounding the formation of regional industries manifest themselves in more locally unique content and development processes.

Keywords
Game development, regional practices, Nordic region, India, China, game industry
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13427 (URN)
Conference
Chinese DiGRA 2016, The 3rd Annual Chinese DiGRA Conference, Taichung City, Taiwan, July 1-2, 2016
Projects
Game Hub Scandinavia
Available from: 2017-03-13 Created: 2017-03-13 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Andersson Hagiwara, M., Backlund, P., Maurin Söderholm, H., Lundberg, L., Lebram, M. & Engström, H. (2016). Measuring participants’ immersion in healthcare simulation: the development of an instrument. Advances in Simulation, 2016(1), Article ID 17.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring participants’ immersion in healthcare simulation: the development of an instrument
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2016 (English)In: Advances in Simulation, ISSN 2059-0628, Vol. 2016, no 1, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Immersion is important for simulation-based education; however, questionnaire-based instruments to measure immersion have some limitations. The aim of the present work is to develop a new instrument to measure immersion among participants in healthcare simulation scenarios.

Methods

The instrument was developed in four phases: trigger identification, content validity scores, inter-rater reliability analysis and comparison with an existing immersion measure instrument. A modified Delphi process was used to develop the instrument and to establish validity and reliability. The expert panel consisted of 10 researchers. All the researchers in the team had previous experience of simulation in the health and/or fire and rescue services as researchers and/or educators and simulation designers. To identify triggers, the panel members independently screened video recordings from simulation scenarios. Here, a trigger is an event in a simulation that is considered a sign of reduced or enhanced immersion among simulation participants.

Results

The result consists of the Immersion Score Rating Instrument (ISRI). It contains 10 triggers, of which seven indicate reduced and three enhanced immersion. When using ISRI, a rater identifies trigger occurrences and assigns them strength between 1 and 3. The content validity analysis shows that all the 10 triggers meet an acceptable content validity index for items (I-CVI) standard. The inter-rater reliability (IRR) among raters was assessed using a two-way mixed, consistency, average-measures intra-class correlation (ICC). The ICC for the difference between weighted positive and negative triggers was 0.92, which indicates that the raters are in agreement. Comparison with results from an immersion questionnaire mirrors the ISRI results.

Conclusions

In conclusion, we present a novel and non-intrusive instrument for identifying and rating the level of immersion among participants in healthcare simulation scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2016
Keywords
Healthcare simulation, Immersion, Measure, Instrument
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Technology; Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12293 (URN)10.1186/s41077-016-0018-x (DOI)29449986 (PubMedID)
Projects
Sarek
Funder
Region Västra Götaland
Available from: 2016-05-24 Created: 2016-05-24 Last updated: 2018-08-31Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9287-9507

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