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Pylkkänen, P. (2017). Is there room in quantum ontology for a genuine causal role of consciousness?. In: Emmanuel Haven and Andrei Khrennikov (Ed.), The Palgrave Handbook of Quantum Models in Social Science: Applications and Grand Challenges (pp. 293-317). Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is there room in quantum ontology for a genuine causal role of consciousness?
2017 (English)In: The Palgrave Handbook of Quantum Models in Social Science: Applications and Grand Challenges / [ed] Emmanuel Haven and Andrei Khrennikov, Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 293-317Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Western philosophy and science have a strongly dualistic tradition regarding the mental and physical aspects of reality, which makes it difficult to understand their possible causal relations. In recent debates in cognitive neuroscience it has been common to claim on the basis of neural experiments that conscious experiences are causally inefficacious. At the same time there is much evidence that consciousness does play an important role in guiding behavior. The author explores whether a new way of understanding the causal role of mental states and consciousness could be provided by the ontological interpretation of the quantum theory (Bohm and Hiley, Phys. Rep. 144:323–348, 1987; Bohm and Hiley, The undivided universe: An ontological interpretation of quantum theory. Routledge: London, 1993). This interpretation radically changes our notion of matter by suggesting that a new type of active information plays a causal role at the quantum level of reality. The author thus considers to what extent the alleged causal powers of consciousness involve information, and then moves on to consider whether information in (conscious) mental states can be connected to the information at the level of quantum physics. In this way he sketches how quantum theory might help to throw light upon one of the grand challenges facing the social sciences and the humanities, namely the question of whether consciousness plays any genuine causal role in the physical world.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Palgrave Macmillan, 2017
Keywords
Function of consciousness, Mental causation, Epiphenomenalism, Active information, Bohm, Hiley
National Category
Philosophy
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10973 (URN)10.1057/978-1-137-49276-0_14 (DOI)978-1-137-49276-0 (ISBN)978-1-137-49275-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-05-28 Created: 2015-05-28 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Pylkkänen, P. (2017). The crisis of intelligibility in physics and the prospects of a new form of scientific rationality. In: Ilkka Niiniluoto & Thomas Wallgren (Ed.), On the Human Condition: Philosophical Essays in Honour of the Centennial Anniversary of Georg Henrik von Wright (pp. 373-399). Helsinki: The Philosophical Society of Finland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The crisis of intelligibility in physics and the prospects of a new form of scientific rationality
2017 (English)In: On the Human Condition: Philosophical Essays in Honour of the Centennial Anniversary of Georg Henrik von Wright / [ed] Ilkka Niiniluoto & Thomas Wallgren, Helsinki: The Philosophical Society of Finland , 2017, p. 373-399Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsinki: The Philosophical Society of Finland, 2017
Series
Acta Philosophica Fennica, ISSN 0355-1792 ; 93
Keywords
scientific rationality, world-view, intelligibility, quantum theory, von Wright, Bohm
National Category
Philosophy
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14638 (URN)978-951-9264-86-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-01-08 Created: 2018-01-08 Last updated: 2018-05-29Bibliographically approved
Pylkkänen, P. (2017). The role of Eastern approaches in David Bohm's scientific-philosophical odysseia. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 131, 171-178
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of Eastern approaches in David Bohm's scientific-philosophical odysseia
2017 (English)In: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, ISSN 0079-6107, E-ISSN 1873-1732, Vol. 131, p. 171-178Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Philosophy Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14729 (URN)10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2017.08.015 (DOI)000423004600013 ()28863930 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85029664407 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-08 Created: 2018-02-08 Last updated: 2018-02-12Bibliographically approved
Pylkkänen, P. (2016). Can Bohmian Quantum Information Help us to Understand Consciousness?. In: Harald Atmanspacher, Thomas Filk, Emmanuel Pothos (Ed.), Quantum Interaction: 9th International Conference, QI 2015, Filzbach, Switzerland, July 15-17, 2015, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 76-87). Springer Publishing Company
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can Bohmian Quantum Information Help us to Understand Consciousness?
2016 (English)In: Quantum Interaction: 9th International Conference, QI 2015, Filzbach, Switzerland, July 15-17, 2015, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Harald Atmanspacher, Thomas Filk, Emmanuel Pothos, Springer Publishing Company, 2016, p. 76-87Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The paper explores whether David Bohm’ s proposal about quantum theoretical active information, and the mind-matter scheme he developed on the basis of it, can help us to explain consciousness (Bohm and Hiley 1987, 1993; Bohm 1989, 1990 ; Pylkkänen 2007 ). Here it is important to acknowledge that other researchers in philosophy of mind and consciousness studies have also made use of the concept of information in their theories of mind and consciousness. For example, Dretske (1981 ) and Barwise and Seligman (1997 ) have explored the possibility that information in the sense of factual semantic contents (i.e. information as meaningful data that represents facts correctly or incorrectly) can be grounded in environmental information (i.e.information as mere correlation, e.g. the way tree rings carry information about age). For Dretske this was an important part of his attempts to give a naturalistic account of sensory experiences, qualia and consciousness. During recent years the notion of information has been used to explain consciousness most notably by David Chalmers (1996 ), as well as by Giulio Tononi and his co-workers (Tononi and Koch 2014 ; Oizumi, Albantakis and Tononi 2014 ). The strategy of this paper will be to first describe Bohm’ s mind-matter scheme, and then to briefl y consider Chalmers’  and Tononi et al.’ s ideas in the light of this scheme.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Publishing Company, 2016
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 9535
Keywords
Active information, integrated information, consciousness, Bohm, Chalmers, Tononi
National Category
Philosophy
Research subject
Humanities and Social sciences; Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12297 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-28675-4_6 (DOI)000405008500006 ()2-s2.0-84955448664 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-28674-7 (ISBN)978-3-319-28675-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-05-24 Created: 2016-05-24 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Pylkkänen, P. (2016). Consciousness in the light of quantum theory. In: Prem Saran Satsangi, Stuart Hameroff, Vishal Sani, Pami Dua (Ed.), Consciousness: Integrating Eastern and Western Perspectives (pp. 23-34). New Delhi: New Age Books
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consciousness in the light of quantum theory
2016 (English)In: Consciousness: Integrating Eastern and Western Perspectives / [ed] Prem Saran Satsangi, Stuart Hameroff, Vishal Sani, Pami Dua, New Delhi: New Age Books , 2016, p. 23-34Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the theme “quantum approaches to consciousness” by considering the work of one of the pioneers in the field. The physicist David Bohm (1917-1992) not only made important contributions to quantum physics, but also had a long-term interest in interpreting the results of quantum physics and relativity in order to develop a general world view.  His idea was further that living and mental processes could be understood in a new, scientifically and philosophically more coherent way in the context of such a new world view. This paper gives a brief overview of different – and sometimes contradictory - aspects of Bohm’s research programme, and evaluates how they can be used to give an account of topics of interest in contemporary consciousness studies, such as analogies between thought and quantum processes, the problem of mental causation, the mind-body problem and the problem of time consciousness. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New Delhi: New Age Books, 2016
Keywords
mental causation, mind-body problem, time consciousness, implicate order, ontological interpretation, active information, quantum cognition
National Category
Philosophy
Research subject
Humanities and Social sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13114 (URN)978-81-7822-493-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-11-17 Created: 2016-11-17 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Pylkkänen, P., Hiley, B. & Pättiniemi, I. (2015). Bohm's approach and individuality. In: Guay, A. and Pradeu, T. (Ed.), Individuals Across the Sciences: (pp. 226-249). Oxford University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bohm's approach and individuality
2015 (English)In: Individuals Across the Sciences / [ed] Guay, A. and Pradeu, T., Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 226-249Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

 Ladyman and Ross (LR) argue that quantum objects are not individuals

(or are at most weakly discernible individuals) and use this idea

to ground their metaphysical view, ontic structural realism, according

to which relational structures are primary to things. LR acknowledge

that there is a version of quantum theory, namely the Bohm theory

(BT), according to which particles do have denite trajectories at all

times. However, LR interpret the research by Brown et al.  as implying

that "raw stuff" or haecceities  are needed for the individuality of

particles of BT, and LR dismiss this as idle metaphysics. In this paper

we note that Brown et al.'s research does not imply that haecceities

are needed. Thus BT remains as a genuine option for those who seek

to understand quantum particles as individuals. However, we go on to

discuss some problems with BT which led Bohm and Hiley to modify it.

This modified version underlines that, due to features such as context-dependence

and non-locality, Bohmian particles have a very limited

autonomy in situations where quantum effects are non-negligible. So

while BT restores the possibility of quantum individuals, it also underlines

the primacy of the whole over the autonomy of the parts. The

later sections of the paper also examine the Bohm theory in the general

mathematical context of symplectic geometry. This provides yet

another way of understanding the subtle, holistic and dynamic nature

of Bohmian individuals. We finally briefly consider Bohm's other main 

line of research, the "implicate order", which is in some ways similar to

LR's structural realism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2015
National Category
Philosophy
Research subject
Humanities and Social sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10770 (URN)10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199382514.003.0013 (DOI)978-0-19-938251-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-03-24 Created: 2015-03-24 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Pylkkänen, P. (2015). Fundamental Physics and the Mind – Is There a Connection?. In: Harald Atmanspacher, Claudia Bergomi, Thomas Filk, Kirsty Kitto (Ed.), Quantum Interaction 2014: 8th International Conference, QI 2014, Filzbach, Switzerland, June 30 - July 3, 2014. Revised Selected Papers (pp. 3-11). Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fundamental Physics and the Mind – Is There a Connection?
2015 (English)In: Quantum Interaction 2014: 8th International Conference, QI 2014, Filzbach, Switzerland, June 30 - July 3, 2014. Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Harald Atmanspacher, Claudia Bergomi, Thomas Filk, Kirsty Kitto, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, p. 3-11Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recent advances in the field of quantum cognition (Pothos and Busemeyer 2013; Wang et al. 2013) suggest a puzzling connection between fundamental physics and the mind. Many researchers see quantum ideas and formalisms merely as useful pragmatic tools, and do not look for deeper underlying explanations for why they work. However, others are tempted to seek for an intelligible explanation for why quantum ideas work to model cognition. This paper first draws attention to how the physicist David Bohm already in 1951 suggested that thought and quantum processes are analogous, adding that this could be explained if some neural processes underlying thought involved non-negligible quantum effects. The paper next points out that the idea that there is a connection between fundamental physics and the mind is not unique to quantum theory, but was there already when Newtonian physics was assumed to be fundamental physics, advocated most notably by Kant. Kant emphasized the unique intelligibility of a Newtonian notion of experience, and this historical background prompts us to ask in the final part of the paper whether we can really make sense of any quantum-like experience (whether experience of the empirical phenomena in the external worldor the inner worldof psychological phenomena). It is proposed that intelligibility is a relative notion and that, regardless of initial difficulties, quantum approaches to cognition and consciousness are likely to provide valuable new ways of understanding the mind.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 8951
National Category
Philosophy
Research subject
Humanities and Social sciences; Humanities and Social sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10764 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-15931-7_1 (DOI)000355731900001 ()2-s2.0-84923612929 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-15930-0 (ISBN)978-3-319-15931-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-03-24 Created: 2015-03-21 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Pylkkänen, P. (2015). Quantum theory, active information and the mind-matter problem. In: E. Dzhafarov, S. Jordan, R. Zhang and V. Cervantes (Ed.), Contextuality from Quantum Physics to Psychology: (pp. 325-334). New Jersey: World Scientific
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantum theory, active information and the mind-matter problem
2015 (English)In: Contextuality from Quantum Physics to Psychology / [ed] E. Dzhafarov, S. Jordan, R. Zhang and V. Cervantes, New Jersey: World Scientific, 2015, p. 325-334Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Bohm and Hiley suggest that a certain new type of active information plays a key objective role in quantum processes. This paper discusses the implications of this suggestion to our understanding of the relation between the mental and the physical aspects of reality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New Jersey: World Scientific, 2015
Series
Advanced series on mathematical psychology, ISSN 1793-107X ; 6
National Category
Philosophy
Research subject
Humanities and Social sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11688 (URN)978-981-4730-60-0 (ISBN)978-981-4730-62-4 (ISBN)
Note

A Purdue Winer Memorial Lecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA, November 2, 2014.

Available from: 2015-11-13 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Pylkkänen, P. (2015). The quantum epoché. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 119(3), 332-340
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The quantum epoché
2015 (English)In: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, ISSN 0079-6107, E-ISSN 1873-1732, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 332-340Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The theme of phenomenology and quantum physics is here tackled by examining some basic interpretational issues in quantum physics. One key issue in quantum theory from the very beginning has been whether it is possible to provide a quantum ontology of particles in motion in the same way as in classical physics, or whether we are restricted to stay within a more limited view of quantum systems, in terms of complementary but mutually exclusive phenomena. In phenomenological terms we could describe the situation by saying that according to the usual interpretation of quantum theory (especially Niels Bohr's), quantum phenomena require a kind of epoche (i.e. a suspension of assumptions about reality at the quantum level). However, there are other interpretations (especially David Bohm's) that seem to re-establish the possibility of a mind-independent ontology at the quantum level. We will show that even such ontological interpretations contain novel, non-classical features, which require them to give a special role to phenomenaor appearances, a role not encountered in classical physics. We will conclude that while ontological interpretations of quantum theory are possible, quantum theory implies the need of a certain kind of epoche even for this type of interpretations. While different from the epoche connected to phenomenological description, the quantum epochenevertheless points to a potentially interesting parallel between phenomenology and quantum philosophy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
scientific realism, phenomenology, Bohr, Bohm, Hiley, epoché, ontology, Bohmian mechanics, interpretation of quantum theory, complementarity, Copenhagen interpretation
National Category
Philosophy Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Research subject
Humanities and Social sciences; Natural sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11592 (URN)10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2015.08.014 (DOI)000367414300011 ()26276464 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84949321494 (Scopus ID)
Note

This article is dedicated to Prof. Basil J. Hiley on the occasion of his 80th birthday.

Available from: 2015-10-09 Created: 2015-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Pylkkänen, P. (2015). Weak vs. Strong Quantum Cognition. In: Hans Liljenström (Ed.), Advances in Cognitive Neurodynamics (IV): Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Cognitive Neurodynamics - 2013 (pp. 411-418). Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Weak vs. Strong Quantum Cognition
2015 (English)In: Advances in Cognitive Neurodynamics (IV): Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Cognitive Neurodynamics - 2013 / [ed] Hans Liljenström, Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2015, p. 411-418Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In recent decades some cognitive scientists have adopted a program of quantum cognition. For example, Pothos and Busemeyer (PB) argue that there are empirical results concerning human decision-making and judgment that can be elegantly accounted for by quantum probability (QP) theory, while classical (Bayesian) probability theory fails. They suggest that the reason why QP works better is because some cognitive phenomena are analogous to quantum phenomena. This naturally gives rise to a further question about why they are analogous. Is this a pure coincidence, or is there a deeper reason? For example, could the neural processes underlying cognition involve subtle quantum effects, thus explaining why cognition obeys QP? PB are agnostic about this controversial issue, and thus their kind of program could be labeled as “weak quantum cognition” (analogously to the program of weak artificial intelligence as characterized by Searle). However, there is a long tradition of speculating about the role of subtle quantum effects in the neural correlates of cognition, constituting a program of “strong quantum cognition” (SQC) or “quantum cognitive neuroscience”. This paper considers the prospects of SQC, by briefly reviewing and commenting on some of the key proposals. In particular, Bohm and Hiley’s active information program will be discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2015
Series
Advances in Cognitive Neurodynamics, ISSN 2213-3569 ; IV
Keywords
Quantum cognition, Quantum probability, Analogy, Active 20 information, Implicate order, Mental causation, Representational content, 21 David Bohm, Basil Hiley
National Category
Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
Research subject
Humanities and Social sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10487 (URN)10.1007/978-94-017-9548-7_58 (DOI)000380362800058 ()978-94-017-9547-0 (ISBN)978-94-017-9548-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-12-30 Created: 2014-12-30 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7838-8293

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