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Publications (10 of 13) Show all publications
Persson, B. N. (2019). Current Directions in Psychiatric Classification: From the DSM to RDoC (1ed.). In: Danilo Garcia, Trevor Archer, Richard M. Kostrzewa (Ed.), Personality and Brain Disorders: Associations and Interventions (pp. 253-268). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Current Directions in Psychiatric Classification: From the DSM to RDoC
2019 (English)In: Personality and Brain Disorders: Associations and Interventions / [ed] Danilo Garcia, Trevor Archer, Richard M. Kostrzewa, Cham: Springer, 2019, 1, p. 253-268Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2019 Edition: 1
Series
Contemporary Clinical Neuroscience
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16732 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-90065-0_11 (DOI)978-3-319-90064-3 (ISBN)978-3-319-90065-0 (ISBN)
Note

Book: X-302 s.

Available from: 2019-03-28 Created: 2019-03-28 Last updated: 2019-06-05Bibliographically approved
Persson, B. N., Kajonius, P. J. & Garcia, D. (2019). Revisiting the Structure of the Short Dark Triad. Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), 26(1), 3-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revisiting the Structure of the Short Dark Triad
2019 (English)In: Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), ISSN 1073-1911, E-ISSN 1552-3489, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the past decade, extensive interest has been directed toward the Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy), popularly assessed by the Short Dark Triad (SD3). Nevertheless, relatively little research has been conducted on the SD3's factor structure. We investigated the SD3's psychometric properties in three studies with three independent samples, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses ( N1 = 1,487; N2 = 17,740; N3 = 496). In all three studies, Machiavellianism and psychopathy items displayed large general factor loadings, and narcissism larger specific factor loadings. In subsequent studies, two- and three-factor models fitted the data similarly, with the best fitting model being a bifactor model with items from Machiavellianism and psychopathy modelled as one specific factor, and narcissism as a second specific factor. On this basis, we suggest that the SD3 does not seem to capture the different mental processes theorized to underlie the similar behaviors generated by Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Additionally, we recommend the use of a single SD3 composite score, and not subscale scores, as subscales contain small amounts of reliable variance beyond the general factor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
Dark Triad, SD3, factor analysis, psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13453 (URN)10.1177/1073191117701192 (DOI)000453103900001 ()28382846 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85019867160 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, Dnr. 2015-01229
Available from: 2017-03-24 Created: 2017-03-24 Last updated: 2019-01-02Bibliographically approved
Persson, B. (2019). Searching for Machiavelli but Finding Psychopathy and Narcissism. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 10(3), 235-245
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Searching for Machiavelli but Finding Psychopathy and Narcissism
2019 (English)In: Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, ISSN 1949-2715, E-ISSN 1949-2723, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 235-245Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Machiavellianism is a psychological construct reflecting individual differences in manipulative and strategic thinking, pragmatic morality, and a cynical outlook on life. A recent stream of research has shown that Machiavellianism and psychopathy seem to be redundant constructs and that measures of Machiavellianism do not correspond well with theoretical expectations. In the present study, I juxtapose multiple measures of Machiavellianism against normal (i.e., the five-factor model and HEXACO) and abnormal (e.g., narcissism, psychopathy, impulsivity, and personality dysfunction) personality traits in an online sample (N = 591). Using Goldberg’s (2006) Bass–Ackwards approach, I investigate whether typical Machiavellian traits can be found anywhere in the construct hierarchy by comparing the levels of the hierarchy with expert-rated five-factor model prototypes of Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy, and external correlates. Our results indicate that measures of Machiavellianism mostly reflect psychopathy and narcissism. The implications of these results are discussed, including what the future may hold for Machiavellianism.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association (APA), 2019
Keywords
Dark Triad, Hierarchical structure, Machiavellianism, Narcissism, Psychopathy
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16571 (URN)10.1037/per0000323 (DOI)000467407200006 ()30628801 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059785000 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-17 Created: 2019-01-17 Last updated: 2019-06-05Bibliographically approved
Persson, B. & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2019). Social status as one key indicator of successful psychopathy: An initial empirical investigation. Personality and Individual Differences, 141, 209-217
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social status as one key indicator of successful psychopathy: An initial empirical investigation
2019 (English)In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 141, p. 209-217Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Psychopathy is a personality disorder that researchers have subdivided into two types: successful and unsuccessful. Nevertheless, little headway has been made regarding how to conceptualize and operationalize success. We consider various accounts of success from the existing literature and make the case for a two-dimensional view of successful psychopathy. Specifically, we contend that successful psychopathy can be conceptualized with two conditions in mind: (a) high social status and (b) lack of serious antisocial behavior. We emphasize that high social status, best described using socioeconomic status (SES), has been largely overlooked in the literature. We tested this idea using a sample of 591 participants who received measures of the triarchic model of psychopathy (i.e., boldness, meanness, and disinhibition), SES, and personality dysfunction. The results demonstrated that, as predicted, the putatively adaptive features of psychopathy (i.e., boldness) were positively related to SES and personality functioning. In contrast, the putatively maladaptive psychopathy features disinhibition and meanness were negatively related to personality functioning, and disinhibition was negatively related to SES. The relevance of boldness to psychopathy and the benefits of conceptualizing success as a continuous variable are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Successful psychopathy, Triarchic model of psychopathy, Socioeconomic status, Personality dysfunction
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16572 (URN)10.1016/j.paid.2019.01.020 (DOI)000458939900035 ()2-s2.0-85059964956 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-17 Created: 2019-01-17 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
Garcia, D., Persson, B., Al Nima, A., Gruneau Brulin, J., Rapp-Ricciardia, M. & Kajonius, P. J. (2018). IRT analyses of the Swedish Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. Heliyon, 4(3), Article ID e00569.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>IRT analyses of the Swedish Dark Triad Dirty Dozen
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2018 (English)In: Heliyon, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 4, no 3, article id e00569Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Psychology, Psychiatry, Clinical psychology
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14951 (URN)10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00569 (DOI)000432033900018 ()2-s2.0-85043592571 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-09 Created: 2018-03-09 Last updated: 2018-05-31
Persson, B. N., Kajonius, P. J. & Garcia, D. (2017). Testing construct independence in the Short Dark Triad using Item Response Theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 117, 74-80
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing construct independence in the Short Dark Triad using Item Response Theory
2017 (English)In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 117, p. 74-80Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy) is a popular construct for describing socially aversive personality traits. In recent years, the Short Dark Triad (SD3; Jones & Paulhus, 2014) has become a popular measure for assessing the Dark Triad constructs. However, recent research has called the supposed dissimilarity between the Dark Triad constructs into question. In particular, theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that a distinction between Machiavellianism and psychopathy may not be tenable. In order to investigate this issue further, we analyzed the SD3 in a large sample (N = 1983) using Item Response Theory. We establish item response parameter estimates for each Dark Triad construct and further test whether the Dark Triad constructs can be modelled together. Results show that Machiavellianism and narcissism could not be modelled together, but the combinations Machiavellianism and psychopathy, and narcissism and psychopathy, yielded acceptable model fit. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of how the Dark Triad constructs may be interpreted and studied in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Dark Triad, Item Response Theory, Machiavellianism, Narcissism, Psychopathy
National Category
Psychology Philosophy
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13600 (URN)10.1016/j.paid.2017.05.025 (DOI)000406567500013 ()2-s2.0-85019886838 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, Dnr. 2015-01229
Available from: 2017-05-29 Created: 2017-05-29 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Persson, B. N. & Kajonius, P. J. (2016). Dark and bright values: The Dark Triad and empathy relating to universal values. In: : . Paper presented at 2nd World Conference on Personality Psychology, March 31 to April 4, 2016, Búzios, Brazil (pp. 112).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dark and bright values: The Dark Triad and empathy relating to universal values
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is an emphasis on self-enhancing values in present-day society. Empathy is shown to be declining and callousness increasing.This two-study research set out to analyze dark personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and brightpersonality traits (emotional and cognitive empathy), and their predictive validity on universal value types. Using a sample ofSwedes and Americans (N = 385), the Dark Triad (SD3) correlated significantly with all value types (Schwartz’s 10 values), forminga sinusoid pattern which aligned with the circumplex value model. Machiavellianism and narcissism were positively associated withthe self-enhancing values Achievement and Power, while psychopathy was positively associated with the self-enhancing valuesHedonism and Power. Using a middle-aged US sample, cognitive and emotional empathy (IRI) were positively related to the selftranscendingvalues of Universalism and Benevolence and negatively with the self-enhancement values of Achievement and Power.In addition, both the dark and bright personality traits explained significant variance over the basic Big Five traits in universal values.Given the complex of values accounted for, we argue that these results account for a system of self-enhancing “dark values” andself-transcending “bright values”. This research highlights that certain universal values of individual and societal relevance can bepredicted by personality traits.

National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10514 (URN)
Conference
2nd World Conference on Personality Psychology, March 31 to April 4, 2016, Búzios, Brazil
Available from: 2015-01-12 Created: 2015-01-12 Last updated: 2019-10-07Bibliographically approved
Persson, B. N. & Kajonius, P. J. (2016). Dark values: The dark triad in Schwartz’ value types. In: Robert Thornberg & Tomas Jungert (Ed.), Independent in the heard: Inclusion and exclusion as social processes: Proceedings from the 9th GRASP conference, Linköping University, May 2014 (pp. 82-96). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dark values: The dark triad in Schwartz’ value types
2016 (English)In: Independent in the heard: Inclusion and exclusion as social processes: Proceedings from the 9th GRASP conference, Linköping University, May 2014 / [ed] Robert Thornberg & Tomas Jungert, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, p. 82-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016
Series
Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686 ; 121
Keywords
Dark Triad, universal values, morality, Dark Values
National Category
Psychology Social Psychology
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11866 (URN)978-91-7519-217-8 (ISBN)
Note

"GRASP (Group and Social Psychology) is an interdisciplinary conference"

Available from: 2016-02-02 Created: 2016-02-02 Last updated: 2019-10-07Bibliographically approved
Persson, B. N. & Kajonius, P. J. (2016). Empathy and Universal Values Explicated by the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis. Journal of Social Psychology, 156(6), 610-619
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empathy and Universal Values Explicated by the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis
2016 (English)In: Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, E-ISSN 1940-1183, Vol. 156, no 6, p. 610-619Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research reports that empathy is on the decline in present-day society together with an increasing trend in self-enhancing values. Based on the empathy-altruism hypothesis we investigated whether these constructs are interlinked, by analyzing the relationships between emotional and cognitive empathy and 10 universal values. In the first study, using a middle-aged US sample, the results showed that empathy was strongly and positively related to altruistic values and negatively to self-enhancing values in a pattern which aligned with the empathy-altruism hypothesis. In a second confirmation study, these findings were replicated and extended, while also controlling for the Big Five personality traits, to discount that empathy is only captured by basic personality. Only emotional empathy, not cognitive empathy, accounted for up to 18% additional variance in altruistic values, which further confirmed the emphasis on feelings, as postulated by the empathy-altruism hypothesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2016
Keywords
empathy, personality traits, values, empathy-altruism hypothesis
National Category
Psychology Social Psychology
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12005 (URN)10.1080/00224545.2016.1152212 (DOI)000386855100005 ()26885864 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84961116222 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-03-02 Created: 2016-03-02 Last updated: 2019-10-07Bibliographically approved
Kajonius, P. J., Persson, B. N., Rosenberg, P. & Garcia, D. (2016). The (mis)measurement of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: exploitation at the core of the scale. PeerJ, 4, Article ID e1748.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The (mis)measurement of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: exploitation at the core of the scale
2016 (English)In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, article id e1748Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PeerJ, 2016
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12002 (URN)10.7717/peerj.1748 (DOI)000371662900006 ()26966673 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84963963783 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-03-01 Created: 2016-03-01 Last updated: 2019-10-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9890-5788

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