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Handlin, L., Nilsson, A., Lidfors, L., Petersson, M. & Uvnäs-Moberg, K. (2018). The Effects of a Therapy Dog on the Blood Pressure and Heart Rate of Older Residents in a Nursing Home. Anthrozoos, 31(5), 567-576
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effects of a Therapy Dog on the Blood Pressure and Heart Rate of Older Residents in a Nursing Home
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2018 (English)In: Anthrozoos, ISSN 0892-7936, E-ISSN 1753-0377, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 567-576Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present project was to investigate whether repeated visits by a therapy dog to nursing homes might affect the older residents’ systolic blood pressure and heart rate. A secondary aim was to investigate and compare effects (differences in responses) in older people with high and normal systolic blood pressure. The project consisted of two consecutive studies; the dog study (two researchers and a therapy dog with a handler visited the residents at three nursing homes, n = 13), and the controlstudy (the two researchers alone visited the residents at three different nursinghomes, n = 13). The studies were divided into three periods; period 1(weeks 1–2), period 2 (weeks 3–4), and period 3 (weeks 5–6) and included two visits per week. The dog and her handler visited during periods 2 and 3 in the dog study. Participants’ heart rate and blood pressure were measured at 0 and 20 minutes at each visit. The data were analyzed using Friedman’s twowayanalysis of Variance by Rank with post-hoc analysis using Wilcoxonsigned-rank tests with a Bonferroni correction, and also with the mann-Whitney U test for independent samples. In the dog study, participants’ heartrate decreased significantly (p = 0.006) from period 1 to period 3. Participants with an initial systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mmhg had a significant decreasein both systolic blood pressure (p = 0.009) and heart rate (p = 0.009). In the control study, participants’ heart rate and systolic blood pressure did not change significantly. the participants in the dog study had a significantly lower systolic blood pressure during period 3 (p = 0.016) compared with those in the control study. In conclusion, repeated visits by a therapy dog–handler team decreased the older adults’ heart rate, and for those with high initial systolic blood pressure, blood pressure also decreased. In addition, systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the dog group when compared with the control group.

Keywords
heart rate, human–animal interaction, older adults, systolic blood pressure, therapy dog
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Translational Medicine TRIM
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16223 (URN)10.1080/08927936.2018.1505268 (DOI)000445072300004 ()2-s2.0-85053562177 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-20 Created: 2018-09-20 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Petersson, M., Uvnäs-Moberg, K., Nilsson, A., Gustafsson, L.-L., Hydbring-Sandberg, E. & Handlin, L. (2017). Oxytocin and Cortisol Levels in Dog Owners and Their Dogs Are Associated with Behavioral Patterns: An Exploratory Study. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, Article ID 1796.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oxytocin and Cortisol Levels in Dog Owners and Their Dogs Are Associated with Behavioral Patterns: An Exploratory Study
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2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1796Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have previously shown that dog–owner interaction results in increasing oxytocin levels in owners and dogs, decreasing cortisol levels in owners but increasing cortisol levels in dogs. The present study aimed to further investigate whether oxytocin and cortisol levels in the previously tested owners and dogs were associated with their behaviors during the interaction experiment. Ten female volunteer dog–owners and their male Labrador dogs participated in a 60 min interaction experiment with interaction taking place during 0–3 min and blood samples for analysis of oxytocin and cortisol were collected at 0, 1, 3, 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. The entire experiment was videotaped and the following variables were noted; the different types (stroking, scratching, patting and activating touch, i.e., scratching and patting combined) as well as the frequency of touch applied by the owner, the number of times the owner touched her dog, the dog’s positions and time spent in each position. Correlations were analyzed between the behavioral variables and basal oxytocin levels, maximum oxytocin levels, delta oxytocin levels, basal cortisol levels and cortisol levels at 15 min. Owners with low oxytocin levels before and during the interaction touched their dogs more frequently (0 min: Rs = −0.683, p = 0.042; oxytocin maximum: Rs = −0.783, p = 0.013). The lower the dogs’ oxytocin levels during the interaction, the more stroking they received (Rs = −0.717, p = 0.041). The more frequently activating touch was applied by the owner, the higher the dogs’ cortisol levels became (15 min: Rs = 0.661, p = 0.038). The higher the owners’ maximum oxytocin level the fewer position changes the dogs made (Rs = −0.817, p = 0.007) and the shorter time they spent sitting (Rs = −0.786, p = 0.036), whereas the higher the owners’ basal cortisol levels, the longer time the dogs spent standing (0 min: Rs = 0.683, p = 0.041). In conclusion, oxytocin and cortisol levels, both in dogs and in their owners, are associated with the way the owners interact with their dogs and also with behaviors caused by the interaction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2017
Keywords
oxytocin, cortisol, dog–human interaction, behavior
National Category
Neurosciences
Research subject
Translational Medicine TRIM
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14233 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01796 (DOI)000412875600001 ()2-s2.0-85032180504 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 221-2003-1098
Available from: 2017-10-16 Created: 2017-10-16 Last updated: 2018-02-16Bibliographically approved
Handlin, L., Muller, J. & Ekström, A. (2017). Promoting health of Swedish workers by complementary methods: example of a study design of a longitudinal randomized controlled intervention study. Medical Research Archives, 5(8), 1-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Promoting health of Swedish workers by complementary methods: example of a study design of a longitudinal randomized controlled intervention study
2017 (English)In: Medical Research Archives, ISSN 2375-1916, Vol. 5, no 8, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: When designing, implementing, and evaluating a work site health promotion program, it is necessary to ensure that the program is evidence based. The present article aims to present in-depth information on the design of a longitudinal randomized controlled complementary intervention pilot study that follows the Consort recommendations to evaluate possible effects of a health promotive intervention in healthy workers.

Methods: Employees from four different workplaces were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: i) Massage and mental training (sitting in the armchair and receiving mechanical massage while listening to mental training programs, n=19), ii) Massage (sitting in the armchair and receiving mechanical massage only, n=19), iii) Mental training (sitting in the armchair and listening to mental training programs only, n=19), iv) Pause (sitting in the armchair but not receiving mechanical massage or listening to mental training programs, n=19), v) Control (not sitting in the armchair at all, n=17). The study lasted for eight weeks. Immediately before the randomization, after four weeks and after eight weeks the participants responded to statements from the Swedish Scale of Personality and had their heart rate, blood pressure and fingertip temperature measured.

Results: Receiving mechanical massage and listening to mental training programs, either separately or in combination, during working hours had some positive effects on the employees’ own evaluation of their health, as well as their heart rate, blood pressure and fingertip temperature. However, the intervention need to be evaluated further.

Conclusion: The approach described makes it possible to design, implement and evaluate a work site health promotion program, also on pilot-study level and these results should be seen as a first step towards larger randomized studies. This types of studies need to focus on healthy participants and special care should be taken to guarantee adequately powered study groups and their homogeneity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: KEI Journals, 2017
Keywords
stress, anxiety, alternative, complementary, intervention, physical health, psychosocial health, heart rate, blood pressure, fingertip temperature, working place
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Nursing Other Health Sciences Clinical Laboratory Medicine
Research subject
Translational Medicine TRIM; Woman, Child and Family (WomFam)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14046 (URN)10.18103/mra.v5i8.1432 (DOI)
Projects
Effekt av massagefåtölj med avslappningsprogram på stressreduktion och hälsa- en randomiserad kontrollerad studie
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20110142
Available from: 2017-08-28 Created: 2017-08-28 Last updated: 2018-07-31Bibliographically approved
Muller, J., Ekström, A., Harlén, M., Lindmark, U. & Handlin, L. (2016). Mechanical massage and mental training program effect employees' heart rate, blood pressure and fingertip temperature: An exploratory pilot study. European Journal of Integrative Medicine, 8(5), 762-768
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical massage and mental training program effect employees' heart rate, blood pressure and fingertip temperature: An exploratory pilot study
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2016 (English)In: European Journal of Integrative Medicine, ISSN 1876-3820, E-ISSN 1876-3839, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 762-768Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Inability to relax and recover is suggested to be a key factor for stress-related health problems. This study aimed to investigate possible effects of mechanical massage and mental training, used either separately or in combination during working hours. Methods: Employees were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: i) Mechanical massage combined with mental training (n = 19), ii) Mechanical massage (n = 19), iii) Mental training (n = 19), iv) Pause (n = 19), v) Control (n = 17). The study lasted for eight weeks. Heart rate, blood pressure and fingertip temperature were measured at start, after four and after eight weeks. Results: Between-group analysis showed that heart rate differed significantly between the groups after 4 weeks (p = 0.020) and tended to differ after eight weeks (p = 0.072), with lowest levels displayed in the massage group and the control group. Blood pressure and fingertip temperature did not differ between the groups. Within-group analysis showed that mechanical massage decreased heart rate (p = 0.038) and blood pressure (systolic p = 0.019, diastolic p = 0.026) and increased fingertip temperature (p = 0.035). Mental training programs reduced heart rate (p = 0.036). Combining the two methods increased diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.028) and decreased fingertip temperature (p = 0.031). The control group had a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure during the first four weeks of the study (p = 0.038) Conclusion: Receiving mechanical massage and listening to mental training programs, either separately or in combination, during working hours had some positive effects on the employees’ heart rate, blood pressure and fingertip temperature. The effects were especially strong for employees who received mechanical massage only.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Heart rate, Blood pressure, Temperature, massage, Work Place, Stress
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Medical sciences; Woman, Child and Family (WomFam); Physics and Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12533 (URN)10.1016/j.eujim.2016.06.002 (DOI)000396402200024 ()2-s2.0-84977489680 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Effekt av massagefåtölj med avslappningsprogram på stress reduktion och hälsa- en randomiserad kontrollerad studie
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20110142
Available from: 2016-06-20 Created: 2016-06-20 Last updated: 2018-11-15Bibliographically approved
Muller, J., Handlin, L., Harlén, M., Lindmark, U. & Ekström, A. (2016). The value of armchairs in providing mechanical massage and mental relaxation programmes is not established for workplace health promotion [Letter to the editor]. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 21(1), 44-45
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The value of armchairs in providing mechanical massage and mental relaxation programmes is not established for workplace health promotion
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2016 (English)In: Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies, ISSN 1465-3753, E-ISSN 2042-7166, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 44-45Article in journal, Letter (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2016
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Medical sciences; Physics and Mathematics; Woman, Child and Family (WomFam)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12530 (URN)10.1111/fct.12222 (DOI)2-s2.0-84990241897 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Effekt av massagefåtölj med avslappningsprogram på stressreduktion och hälsa- en randomiserad kontrollerad studie
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20110142
Note

Authors' reply på kommentar av WM London gällande artikeln: Muller, J., Handlin, L., Harlén, M., Lindmark, U. & Ekström, A. (2015). Mechanical massage and mental training programmes affect employees' anxiety, stress susceptibility and detachment – a randomised explorative pilot study. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 15(1), Article ID 302.

Available from: 2016-06-20 Created: 2016-06-20 Last updated: 2018-11-15Bibliographically approved
Muller, J., Handlin, L., Harlén, M., Lindmark, U. & Ekström, A. (2015). Mechanical massage and mental training programmes affect employees´ anxiety, stress susceptibility and detachment – a randomised explorative pilot study. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 15(1), Article ID 302.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical massage and mental training programmes affect employees´ anxiety, stress susceptibility and detachment – a randomised explorative pilot study
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2015 (English)In: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1472-6882, E-ISSN 1472-6882, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 302Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND:

Working people's reduced ability to recover has been proposed as a key factor behind the increase in stress-related health problems. One not yet evidence-based preventive method designed to help employees keep healthy and be less stressed is an armchair with built-in mechanical massage and mental training programmes, This study aimed to evaluate possible effects on employees' experience of levels of "Anxiety", "Stress Susceptibility", "Detachment" and "Social Desirability" when using mechanical massage and mental training programmes, both separately and in combination, during working hours.

METHODS:

Employees from four different workplaces were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: i) Massage and mental training (sitting in the armchair and receiving mechanical massage while listening to the mental training programmes, n=19), ii) Massage (sitting in the armchair and receiving mechanical massage only, n=19), iii) Mental training (sitting in the armchair and listening to the mental training programmes only, n=19), iv) Pause (sitting in the armchair but not receiving mechanical massage or listening to the mental training programmes, n=19), v) Control (not sitting in the armchair at all, n=17). In order to discover how the employees felt about their own health they were asked to respond to statements from the "Swedish Scale of Personality" (SSP), immediately before the randomisation, after four weeks and after eight weeks (end-of-study).

RESULTS:

There were no significant differences between the five study groups for any of the traits studied ("Somatic Trait Anxiety", "Psychic Trait Anxiety", "Stress Susceptibility", "Detachment" and "Social Desirability") at any of the occasions. However, the massage group showed a significant decrease in the subscale "Somatic Trait Anxiety" (p=0.032), during the entire study period. Significant decreases in the same subscale were also observed in the pause group between start and week eight (p=0.040) as well as between week four and week eight (p=0.049) and also in the control group between the second and third data collection (p=0.014). The massage and mental training group showed a significant decrease in "Stress Susceptibility" between week four and week eight (p=0.022). The pause group showed a significant increase in the subscale "Detachment" (p=0.044).

CONCLUSIONS:

There were no significant differences between the five study groups for any of the traits studied. However, when looking at each individual group separately, positive effects in their levels of "Anxiety", "Stress Susceptibility" and "Detachment" could be seen. Although the results from this pilot study indicate some positive effects, mechanical chair massage and mental training programmes used in order to increase employee's ability to recover, needs to be evaluated further as tools to increase the employees ability to recover.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2015
Keywords
Stress, Anxiety, Alternative, Complementary, Intervention, Physical Health, Psychosocial health, Working place
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Research subject
Medical sciences; Woman, Child and Family (WomFam); Physical Activity, IT and Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11478 (URN)10.1186/s12906-015-0753-x (DOI)000360342400003 ()26329694 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84940492981 (Scopus ID)
Projects
EFFECT OF ARMCHAIR WITH MASSAGE AND RELAXATION PROGRAM ON RECOVERY AND HEALTH PROMOTION -A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDY
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20110142
Available from: 2015-09-02 Created: 2015-09-02 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Uvnäs-Moberg, K., Handlin, L. & Petersson, M. (2015). Self-soothing behaviors with particular reference to oxytocin release induced by non-noxious sensory stimulation. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, Article ID 1529.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-soothing behaviors with particular reference to oxytocin release induced by non-noxious sensory stimulation
2015 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, article id 1529Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2015
Keywords
oxytocin, non-noxious sensory stimulation, afferent nerves, anti-stress effects
National Category
Other Medical Sciences
Research subject
Medical sciences; Woman, Child and Family (WomFam)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10524 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01529 (DOI)000348135400001 ()25628581 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84926617655 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-01-13 Created: 2015-01-13 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Rehn, T., Handlin, L., Uvnäs-Moberg, K. & Keeling, L. J. (2014). Dogs' endocrine and behavioural responses at reunion are affected by how the human initiates contact. Physiology and Behavior, 124, 45-53
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dogs' endocrine and behavioural responses at reunion are affected by how the human initiates contact
2014 (English)In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 124, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
National Category
Natural Sciences Behavioral Sciences Biology Physiology
Research subject
Natural sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-9964 (URN)10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.10.009 (DOI)000331482200007 ()24513557 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84887736438 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-09-17 Created: 2014-09-17 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Handlin, L., Nilsson, A., Ejdebäck, M., Hydbring-Sandberg, E. & Uvnäs-Moberg, K. (2012). Associations between the Psychological Characteristics of the Human-Dog Relationship and Oxytocin and Cortisol Levels. Anthrozoos, 25(2), 215-228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between the Psychological Characteristics of the Human-Dog Relationship and Oxytocin and Cortisol Levels
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2012 (English)In: Anthrozoos, ISSN 0892-7936, E-ISSN 1753-0377, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 215-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present study was to explore possible correlations between dog owners' relationships with their dogs, as measured with the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS), and oxytocin and cortisol levels in both the owners and their dogs. Ten female owners of male Labrador Retrievers completed the MDORS. The scores obtained from the single items, subscales, and total score of the MDORS were calculated. Ten blood samples were collected from each dog owner and her dog during a 60-minute interaction. Blood samples were analyzed for oxytocin and cortisol by Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA) and mean values of oxytocin and cortisol were calculated in both owners and dogs. The MDORS scores obtained were correlated with basal and mean oxytocin and cortisol levels. The correlation analysis revealed some relationships between the scores of items in the MDORS that reflect the character of the dog-owner-relationship and the owners' hormone levels. For example, higher oxytocin levels in the owners were associated with greater frequency in kissing their dogs (rs = 0.864, p = 0.001). Lower cortisol levels in the owners were associated with their perception that it will be more traumatic when their dog dies (rs = -0.730, p = 0.025). The correlation analysis also revealed some relationships between the scores of items in the MDORS and the dogs' hormone levels. For example, greater frequency in owners kissing their dogs was associated with higher oxytocin levels in the dogs (rs = 0.753, p = 0.029). Six items in the subscale Perceived Costs, as well as the subscale itself, correlated significantly with the dogs' oxytocin levels (rs = 0.820, p = 0.007), that is, the lower the perceived cost, the higher the dogs' oxytocin levels. In addition, significant correlations between the oxytocin levels of the owners and the dogs were demonstrated. Possible mechanisms behind these correlations are discussed. In conclusion, the scores of some items and the subscales of the MDORS correlated with oxytocin, and to a lesser extent cortisol, levels in both the owners and dogs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berg Publishers, 2012
Keywords
cortisol, dog, dog owner, MDORS, oxytocin
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Natural sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-5929 (URN)10.2752/175303712X13316289505468 (DOI)000304287700007 ()2-s2.0-84859540616 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-06-05 Created: 2012-06-05 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Handlin, L., Jonas, W., Ransjö-Arvidson, A.-B., Petersson, M., Uvnäs-Moberg, K. & Nissen, E. (2012). Influence of Common Birth Interventions on Maternal Blood Pressure Patterns During Breastfeeding 2 Days After Birth. Breastfeeding Medicine, 7(2), 93-99
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Common Birth Interventions on Maternal Blood Pressure Patterns During Breastfeeding 2 Days After Birth
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2012 (English)In: Breastfeeding Medicine, ISSN 1556-8253, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 93-99Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: This study investigated possible influences of medical interventions during labor on maternal blood pressure during a breastfeed 2 days postpartum.

Subjects and Methods: Sixty-six primiparae with normal deliveries were consecutively recruited. Blood pressure was measured at –5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes during a morning breastfeed 2 days postpartum. Five treatment groups were formed based on the medical interventions received during labor: Non-medicated mothers (Control group, n=21); mothers receiving epidural analgesia (EDA) with oxytocin (OT) stimulation (EDAOT group, n=14); mothers receiving EDA without OT stimulation (EDAnon-OT group, n=7); mothers receiving OT stimulation only (OT intravenously [iv] group, n=9); and mothers receiving 10 IU of OT intramuscularly (im) only (OT im group, n=15).

Results: Baseline diastolic, but not systolic, blood pressure differed between the groups as displayed by significantly lower diastolic blood pressure in the EDAnon-OT group compared with the Control group, the OT iv group, and the EDAOT group (p=0.045, p=0.041, and p=0.024, respectively). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure fell significantly during the breastfeeding session in the Control group (p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively), the OT im group (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively), and the EDAOT group (p=0.028 and p=0.002, respectively), and the fall in diastolic blood pressure tended to be significant in the OT iv group (p=0.050). The duration of skin-to-skin contact before breastfeeding correlated positively with the decrease in systolic blood pressure in the OT im group (Rs=0.540, p=0.046).

Conclusion: Administration of EDA during labor lowers baseline diastolic blood pressure and abolishes the fall in blood pressure in response to a breastfeed 2 days after birth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mary Ann Liebert, 2012
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Natural sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-5933 (URN)10.1089/bfm.2010.0099 (DOI)000302777000005 ()22313391 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84859569252 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-06-05 Created: 2012-06-05 Last updated: 2018-05-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0987-8357

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