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Winkle, K., Lagerstedt, E., Torre, I. & Offenwanger, A. (2023). 15 Years of (Who)man Robot Interaction: Reviewing the H in Human-Robot Interaction. ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction, 12(3), Article ID 28.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>15 Years of (Who)man Robot Interaction: Reviewing the H in Human-Robot Interaction
2023 (English)In: ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction, E-ISSN 2573-9522, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 28Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent work identified a concerning trend of disproportional gender representation in research participants in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Motivated by the fact that Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) shares many participant practices with HCI, we explored whether this trend is mirrored in our field. By producing a dataset covering participant gender representation in all 684 full papers published at the HRI conference from 2006-2021, we identify current trends in HRI research participation. We find an over-representation of men in research participants to date, as well as inconsistent and/or incomplete gender reporting which typically engages in a binary treatment of gender at odds with published best practice guidelines. We further examine if and how participant gender has been considered in user studies to date, in-line with current discourse surrounding the importance and/or potential risks of gender based analyses. Finally, we complement this with a survey of HRI researchers to examine correlations between the who is doing with the who is taking part, to further reflect on factors which seemingly influence gender bias in research participation across different sub-fields of HRI. Through our analysis we identify areas for improvement, but also reason for optimism, and derive some practical suggestions for HRI researchers going forward.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023
Keywords
Gender, Systematic Review, User Study Methodologies, Participant Recruitment, Inclusivity
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT Gender Studies Robotics
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-22066 (URN)10.1145/3571718 (DOI)001020331600001 ()2-s2.0-85163177354 (Scopus ID)
Note

CC BY 4.0

*All authors contributed equally to this work. KW has taken on first author responsibilities whilst 2nd-4th author ordering was decided by dice roll. Authors’ addresses: Katie Winkle*, Uppsala Universitet, Sweden, katie.winkle@it.uu.se; Erik Lagerstedt*, University of Skövde, Sweden,erik.lagerstedt@his.se; Ilaria Torre*, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, ilariat@kth.se; Anna Ofenwanger*, Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Inria, LISN, Orsay, France, anna.ofenwanger@universite-paris-saclay.fr.

We first want to acknowledge those authors who came before us in identifying issues around gender in HCI – these works have signicantly informed this manuscript, but also our approaches to HRI research more broadly. We wish to specically thank Dongwook Yoon and Julia Bullard for their work on the conceptualisation and development of the gender data schema and extraction method that we build on [59]; also Minsuk Chang, Alan Milligan, and Austin Kobayashi for their input and work on initial version of the MAGDA tool [59].We would like to thank all of the HRI researchers who engaged with our survey. We additionally want to thank those reviewers who provided constructive feedback on an earlier version of this work, and reviewersfor/attendees of the DEI Workshop held at HRI 2022 for further discussion – the manuscript is improved greatly as a result and we hope we have done justice to both the positive and negative critique we have received. All figures were generated with a colour palette based on the non-binary pride lag, created by Joel Le Forestier (https://joelleforestier.com/#pridepalettes). This work was partially funded by the Digital Futures Research Centre.

Available from: 2022-11-21 Created: 2022-11-21 Last updated: 2023-08-18Bibliographically approved
Torre, I. & Lagerstedt, E. (2023). Can a gender ambiguous robot voice reduce gender stereotypes?. In: Pierre Gander; Linus Holm; Erik Billing (Ed.), Proceedings of the 18th SweCog Conference: . Paper presented at 18th SweCog Conference, Swedish Cognitive Society, Göteborg 2023, 5 - 6 October (pp. 79-82). Skövde: Högskolan i Skövde
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can a gender ambiguous robot voice reduce gender stereotypes?
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the 18th SweCog Conference / [ed] Pierre Gander; Linus Holm; Erik Billing, Skövde: Högskolan i Skövde , 2023, , p. 90p. 79-82Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skövde: Högskolan i Skövde, 2023. p. 90
Series
SUSI, ISSN 1653-2325 ; 2023:1
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Computer Sciences Human Aspects of ICT Gender Studies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23343 (URN)978-91-989038-0-5 (ISBN)
Conference
18th SweCog Conference, Swedish Cognitive Society, Göteborg 2023, 5 - 6 October
Note

Short paper

Available from: 2023-11-08 Created: 2023-11-08 Last updated: 2023-11-14Bibliographically approved
Torre, I., Lagerstedt, E., Dennler, N., Seaborn, K., Leite, I. & Székely, É. (2023). Can a gender-ambiguous voice reduce gender stereotypes in human-robot interactions?. In: Proceedings of the 2023 32nd IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN): . Paper presented at IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Communication (ROMAN), August 28-31, 2023, Paradise Hotel, Busan, Korea (pp. 106-112). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can a gender-ambiguous voice reduce gender stereotypes in human-robot interactions?
Show others...
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2023 32nd IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), IEEE, 2023, p. 106-112Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

When deploying robots, its physical characteristics, role, and tasks are often fixed. Such factors can also be associated with gender stereotypes among humans, which then transfer to the robots. One factor that can induce gendering but is comparatively easy to change is the robot’s voice. Designing voice in a way that interferes with fixed factors might therefore be a way to reduce gender stereotypes in human-robot interaction contexts. To this end, we have conducted a video-based online study to investigate how factors that might inspire gendering of a robot interact. In particular, we investigated how giving the robot a gender-ambiguous voice can affect perception of the robot. We compared assessments (n=111) of videos in which a robot’s body presentation and occupation mis/matched with human gender stereotypes. We found evidence that a gender-ambiguous voice can reduce gendering of a robot endowed with stereotypically feminine or masculine attributes. The results can inform more just robot design while opening new questions regarding the phenomenon of robot gendering.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2023
Series
IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication proceedings, ISSN 1944-9445, E-ISSN 1944-9437
National Category
Robotics Interaction Technologies Human Aspects of ICT Gender Studies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23358 (URN)10.1109/RO-MAN57019.2023.10309500 (DOI)001108678600016 ()979-8-3503-3670-2 (ISBN)979-8-3503-3671-9 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Communication (ROMAN), August 28-31, 2023, Paradise Hotel, Busan, Korea
Note

This work was partially funded by the Digital Futures research centre. All figures were generated with a colour palette based on the non-binary pride flag, created by Joel Le Forestier (https://joelleforestier.com/#pridepalettes).

Available from: 2023-11-14 Created: 2023-11-14 Last updated: 2024-01-05Bibliographically approved
Lagerstedt, E. & Thill, S. (2023). Conceptual Tools for Exploring Perspectives of Different Kinds of Road-Users. In: : . Paper presented at HAI ’23 Workshop — Cars As Social Agents, Gothenburg, Sweden, December 4, 2023, Co-located with the 11th International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction (HAI 2023).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptual Tools for Exploring Perspectives of Different Kinds of Road-Users
2023 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The traffic domain is increasingly inhabited by vehicles with driving support systems and automation to the degree where the idea of fully autonomous vehicles is gaining popularity as a credible prediction about the near future. As more aspects of driving become automated, the role of the driver, and the way they perceive their vehicle, surroundings, and fellow road users, change. To address some of the emerging kinds of interaction between different agents in the traffic environment, it is important to take social phenomena and abilities into account, even to the extent of considering highly automated vehicles to be social agents in their own right. To benefit from that, it is important to frame the perception of the traffic environment, as well as the road users in it, in an appropriate theoretical context. We propose that there are helpful concepts related to functional and subjective perception, derived from gestalt psychology and Umweltlehre, that can fill this theoretical need, and support better understanding of vehicles of various degrees of automation.

Keywords
Autonomous Vehicles, Human-Agent Interaction, Human-Robot Interaction, perception, social, interaction
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Psychology Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23444 (URN)
Conference
HAI ’23 Workshop — Cars As Social Agents, Gothenburg, Sweden, December 4, 2023, Co-located with the 11th International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction (HAI 2023)
Available from: 2023-12-08 Created: 2023-12-08 Last updated: 2023-12-11Bibliographically approved
Rosén, J., Lagerstedt, E. & Lamb, M. (2023). Investigating NARS: Inconsistent Practice of Application and Reporting. In: Proceedings of the 2023 32nd IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN): . Paper presented at IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Communication (ROMAN), August 28-31, 2023, Paradise Hotel, Busan, Korea (pp. 922-927). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating NARS: Inconsistent Practice of Application and Reporting
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2023 32nd IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), IEEE, 2023, p. 922-927Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Negative Attitude toward Robots Scale (NARS) is one of the most common questionnaires used in the studies of human-robot interaction (HRI). It was established in 2004, and has since then been used in several domains to measure attitudes, both as main results and as a potential confounding factor. To better understand this important tool of HRI research, we reviewed the HRI literature with a specific focus on practice and reporting related to NARS. We found that the use of NARS is being increasingly reported, and that there is a large variation in how NARS is applied. The reporting is, however, often not done in sufficient detail, meaning that NARS results are often difficult to interpret, and comparing between studies or performing meta-analyses are even more difficult. After providing an overview of the current state of NARS in HRI, we conclude with reflections and recommendations on the practices and reporting of NARS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2023
Series
IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication proceedings, ISSN 1944-9445, E-ISSN 1944-9437
National Category
Robotics Human Aspects of ICT Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23359 (URN)10.1109/RO-MAN57019.2023.10309650 (DOI)001108678600106 ()979-8-3503-3670-2 (ISBN)979-8-3503-3671-9 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Communication (ROMAN), August 28-31, 2023, Paradise Hotel, Busan, Korea
Available from: 2023-11-14 Created: 2023-11-14 Last updated: 2024-01-05Bibliographically approved
Lagerstedt, E. & Thill, S. (2023). Multiple Roles of Multimodality Among Interacting Agents. ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction, 12(2), Article ID 17.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiple Roles of Multimodality Among Interacting Agents
2023 (English)In: ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction, E-ISSN 2573-9522, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The term ‘multimodality’ has come to take on several somewhat different meanings depending on the underlying theoretical paradigms and traditions, and the purpose and context of use. The term is closely related to embodiment, which in turn is also used in several different ways. In this paper, we elaborate on this connection and propose that a pragmatic and pluralistic stance is appropriate for multimodality. We further propose a distinction between first and second order effects of multimodality; what is achieved by multiple modalities in isolation and the opportunities that emerge when several modalities are entangled. This highlights questions regarding ways to cluster or interchange different modalities, for example through redundancy or degeneracy. Apart from discussing multimodality with respect to an individual agent, we further look to more distributed agents and situations where social aspects become relevant.

In robotics, understanding the various uses and interpretations of these terms can prevent miscommunication when designing robots, as well as increase awareness of the underlying theoretical concepts. Given the complexity of the different ways in which multimodality is relevant in social robotics, this can provide the basis for negotiating appropriate meanings of the term at a case by case basis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2023
Keywords
Multimodality, Embodiment, Robotics, Sensors
National Category
Philosophy Human Aspects of ICT Robotics
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-21986 (URN)10.1145/3549955 (DOI)001020329300004 ()2-s2.0-85164237637 (Scopus ID)
Note

CC BY 4.0

Available from: 2022-10-27 Created: 2022-10-27 Last updated: 2023-08-17Bibliographically approved
Rosén, J. & Lagerstedt, E. (2023). Speaking Properly with Robots. In: : . Paper presented at HRI ’23 Workshop — Inclusive HRI II, Equity and Diversity in Design, Application, Methods, and Community, Stockholm, Sweden, March 13, 2023, Co-located with the 2023 International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI 2023) (pp. 1-3).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Speaking Properly with Robots
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is a risk of genuine but norm-breaking phenomena related to human-robot interaction remaining invisible, since their rarity make observed instances dismissed as anecdotes. In this extended abstract we present observations related to bias in who is understood in vocal interactions with robots. Noting the fundamentally political and intersectional nature of the problem, we call for a strategy for documenting such comparatively rare or messy events to break the invisibility and facilitate accumulation of evidence.

Keywords
Robots, HRI, Speech Recognition, Vocal Interaction, Sociolinguistics
National Category
Robotics Ethics General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-22330 (URN)
Conference
HRI ’23 Workshop — Inclusive HRI II, Equity and Diversity in Design, Application, Methods, and Community, Stockholm, Sweden, March 13, 2023, Co-located with the 2023 International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI 2023)
Available from: 2023-03-21 Created: 2023-03-21 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Lagerstedt, E. & Svensson, H. (2022). Do Tourists Dream of Electric Bikes?: Electric Bikes as a Mean to Improve Sustainability of Tourism in Rural Sweden. In: Academic Mindtrek 2022: 25th International Academic Mindtrek conference. Paper presented at Academic Mindtrek 2022: 25th International Academic Mindtrek conference, Tampere, Finland, November 16 - 18, 2022 (pp. 167-178). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do Tourists Dream of Electric Bikes?: Electric Bikes as a Mean to Improve Sustainability of Tourism in Rural Sweden
2022 (English)In: Academic Mindtrek 2022: 25th International Academic Mindtrek conference, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022, p. 167-178Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The paper investigates the potential of electric bikes as a sustainable alternative for local transportation during vacations in rural areas, replacing mainly transportation by car. Our starting point is that a key to behaviour change in the context of tourism and leisure travels is to make the sustainable travel option the most desirable option for the traveller. We study this by exploring three different electric bike offers in the area of Skaraborg, Sweden, and analysing the experience of the cyclists. 15 participants were invited to rent electric bicycles as mode of transportation for tourism in and around the small towns Lidköping and Skara for one day. Individual semi structured interviews were performed with the participants. Our main result is that there are aspects of electric bikes that make them particularly appropriate as a sustainable mode of transportation for local tourist destinations, and could also lower the threshold for more sustainable behaviours. Travelling by electric bike was experienced as beneficial in several ways; it automatically and effortlessly gives the cyclist access to nature, it constitutes a plausible option for more sustainable transportation at medium distances, and it allows the entire group of travellers, such as a families, to feel as being part of shaping the journey which contributes to engagement and motivation. Although intended for tourists, it also facilitate local people to access and reflect on their local flora and fauna. We also found that digital tools such as maps, information sources, and booking systems have a key part in the deployment when appropriately integrated. In addition, we found that it was important to lower the threshold of trying electric bikes, and an important key for this was personal service from proficient people who could provide a sense of security by giving instructions, answering questions, and support in adjusting the equipment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022
Keywords
sustainable tourism, electric bikes, behavioural change, modal shift
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT Economic Geography Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-22064 (URN)10.1145/3569219.3569350 (DOI)2-s2.0-85142647010 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-9955-5 (ISBN)
Conference
Academic Mindtrek 2022: 25th International Academic Mindtrek conference, Tampere, Finland, November 16 - 18, 2022
Projects
SMaRT — Sustainable Mobility Rural and Urban Transport
Funder
Interreg, NYPS 20203416
Note

CC BY 4.0

This work is done within the Interreg funded project SMaRT —Sustainable Mobility Rural and Urban Transport, NYPS 20203416. The authors would also like to thank Kajsa Nalin who assisted in taking the teaser image.

Available from: 2022-11-21 Created: 2022-11-21 Last updated: 2023-01-16Bibliographically approved
Rosén, J., Lagerstedt, E. & Lamb, M. (2022). Is human-like speech in robots deception?. In: : . Paper presented at HRI ’22 Workshop — Robo-Identity 2, Exploring Artificial Identity and Emotion via Speech Interactions, Sapporo, Japan, March 6, 2022 (Virtual Event), Co-located with the 2022 International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI 2022) (pp. 1-3).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is human-like speech in robots deception?
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this extended abstract is to discuss how speech and voice in robots could impact user expectations, and how we, within the human-robot interaction (HRI) research community, ought to handle human-like speech both in research and in the development of robots. Human-like speech refers to both emotions that are expressed through speech and the synthetic voice profile by the robot. The latter is especially important as artificial human-like speech is becoming indistinguishable from actual human speech. Together, these characteristics may cause certain expectations of what the robot is and what it is capable of which may impact both the immediate interactions between a user and robot, as well as a user's future interactions with robots. While there are many ethical considerations around robot designs, we focus specifically on the ethical implications of speech design choices as these choices affect user expectations. We believe this particular dimension is of importance because it not only effects the user immediately, but also the field of HRI, both as a field of research and design. The stance on deception may vary across the different domains that robots are used within; for example, there is a wider acknowledgment of deception in scientific research compared to commercial use of robots. Some of this variation may turn on technical definitions of deception for specific areas or cases. In this paper, we will take on a more general understanding of deception as an attempt to distort or withhold facts with the aim to mislead.

Keywords
human-robot interaction, deception, ethics, robo-identity
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Robotics Ethics
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-22221 (URN)
Conference
HRI ’22 Workshop — Robo-Identity 2, Exploring Artificial Identity and Emotion via Speech Interactions, Sapporo, Japan, March 6, 2022 (Virtual Event), Co-located with the 2022 International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI 2022)
Available from: 2023-01-31 Created: 2023-01-31 Last updated: 2023-02-01Bibliographically approved
Lagerstedt, E. & Kolbeinsson, A. (2021). Introducing Functional Tones for Analysing Action Perception in Manufacturing: Explaining What Affordances Cannot. In: Mahmoud Shafik; Keith Case (Ed.), Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXIV: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 35th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, 7–10 September 2021, University of Derby, Derby, UK. Paper presented at 18th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, ICMR 2021, incorporating the 35th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, 7–10 September 2021, University of Derby, Derby, UK (pp. 47-52). Amsterdam: IOS Press, 15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introducing Functional Tones for Analysing Action Perception in Manufacturing: Explaining What Affordances Cannot
2021 (English)In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXIV: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 35th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, 7–10 September 2021, University of Derby, Derby, UK / [ed] Mahmoud Shafik; Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2021, Vol. 15, p. 47-52Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Functional tones is a concept that originates in theoretical biology and resembles how the concept ‘affordances’ is used. Both functional tones and affordances are concepts dealing with particularly salient features in an individual’s immediate environment. The concept of affordances has proven useful for practitioners of usability and design as it supports intuitive ways of classifying how action possibilities match between a person and an object [1]. Functional tones have, however, thus far remained obscure among practitioners, despite functional tones having a stronger theoretical foundation and facilitates a deeper and more human-centred analysis of interaction. The functional tones related to an object depend not only on the modes of sensation and action the perceiver is capable of, but also more subjective aspects such as experience, motivation and emotions. Using functional tones in design or analysis of interaction provides a fundamentally user experience centred perspective while avoiding the philosophical luggage of affordances.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2021
Series
Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, ISSN 2352-751X, E-ISSN 2352-7528 ; 15
Keywords
Functional tones, Affordances, Usability evaluation, User experience design, UXD
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Interaction Technologies Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); User Centred Product Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-20530 (URN)10.3233/ATDE210011 (DOI)2-s2.0-85116350722 (Scopus ID)978-1-64368-198-6 (ISBN)978-1-64368-199-3 (ISBN)
Conference
18th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, ICMR 2021, incorporating the 35th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, 7–10 September 2021, University of Derby, Derby, UK
Note

CC BY-NC 4.0

Available from: 2021-09-08 Created: 2021-09-08 Last updated: 2021-10-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8937-8063

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