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Richardson, K., Coeckelbergh, M., Wakunuma, K., Billing, E., Ziemke, T., Gómez, P., . . . Belpaeme, T. (2018). Robot Enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism (DREAM): A Social Model of Autism. IEEE technology & society magazine, 37(1), 30-39
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Robot Enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism (DREAM): A Social Model of Autism
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2018 (English)In: IEEE technology & society magazine, ISSN 0278-0097, E-ISSN 1937-416X, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 30-39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The development of social robots for children with autism has been a growth field for the past 15 years. This article reviews studies in robots and autism as a neurodevelopmental disorder that impacts socialcommunication development, and the ways social robots could help children with autism develop social skills. Drawing on ethics research from the EU-funded Development of Robot-Enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism (DREAM) project (framework 7), this paper explores how ethics evolves and developed in this European project.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Keywords
Autism, Ethics, Medical treatment, Pediatrics, Robots, Variable speed drives
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14957 (URN)10.1109/MTS.2018.2795096 (DOI)000427133300007 ()2-s2.0-85043506763 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Development of robot-enhanced therapy for children with autism spectrum disorders (DREAM), FP7 grant #611391
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 611391
Available from: 2018-03-13 Created: 2018-03-13 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Einarsson, A. & Ziemke, T. (2017). Exploring the Multi-Layered Affordances of Composing and Performing Interactive Music with Responsive Technologies. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, Article ID 1701.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the Multi-Layered Affordances of Composing and Performing Interactive Music with Responsive Technologies
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1701Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The question motivating the work presented here, starting from a view of music as embodied and situated activity, is how can we account for the complexity of interactive music performance situations. These are situations in which human performers interact with responsive technologies, such as sensor-driven technology or sound synthesis affected by analysis of the performed sound signal. This requires investigating in detail the underlying mechanisms, but also providing a more holistic approach that does not lose track of the complex whole constituted by the interactions and relationships of composers, performers, audience, technologies, etc. The concept of affordances has frequently been invoked in musical research, which has seen a "bodily turn" in recent years, similar to the development of the embodied cognition approach in the cognitive sciences. We therefore begin by broadly delineating its usage in the cognitive sciences in general, and in music research in particular. We argue that what is still missing in the discourse on musical affordances is an encompassing theoretical framework incorporating the sociocultural dimensions that are fundamental to the situatedness and embodiment of interactive music performance and composition. We further argue that the cultural affordances framework, proposed by Rietveld and Kiverstein (2014) and recently articulated further by Ramstead et al. (2016) in this journal, although not previously applied to music, constitutes a promising starting point. It captures and elucidates this complex web of relationships in terms of shared landscapes and individual fields of affordances. We illustrate this with examples foremost from the first author's artistic work as composer and performer of interactive music. This sheds new light on musical composition as a process of construction-and embodied mental simulation-of situations, guiding the performers' and audience's attention in shifting fields of affordances. More generally, we believe that the theoretical perspectives and concrete examples discussed in this paper help to elucidate how situations-and with them affordances-are dynamically constructed through the interactions of various mechanisms as people engage in embodied and situated activity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2017
Keywords
affordances, cultural affordances, embodied activity, embodied cognition, composition, interactive music, responsive technology, situated activity
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Other Humanities
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14261 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01701 (DOI)000411930700001 ()29033880 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85030183889 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-10-26 Created: 2017-10-26 Last updated: 2018-08-31Bibliographically approved
Thellman, S., Silvervarg, A. & Ziemke, T. (2017). Folk-Psychological Interpretation of Human vs. Humanoid Robot Behavior: Exploring the Intentional Stance toward Robots. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, Article ID 1962.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Folk-Psychological Interpretation of Human vs. Humanoid Robot Behavior: Exploring the Intentional Stance toward Robots
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1962Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

People rely on shared folk-psychological theories when judging behavior. These theories guide people's social interactions and therefore need to be taken into consideration in the design of robots and other autonomous systems expected to interact socially with people. It is, however, not yet clear to what degree the mechanisms that underlie people's judgments of robot behavior overlap or differ from the case of human or animal behavior. To explore this issue, participants (N = 90) were exposed to images and verbal descriptions of eight different behaviors exhibited either by a person or a humanoid robot. Participants were asked to rate the intentionality, controllability and desirability of the behaviors, and to judge the plausibility of seven different types of explanations derived from a recently proposed psychological model of lay causal explanation of human behavior. Results indicate: substantially similar judgments of human and robot behavior, both in terms of (1a) ascriptions of intentionality/controllability/desirability and in terms of (1b) plausibility judgments of behavior explanations; (2a) high level of agreement in judgments of robot behavior -(2b) slightly lower but still largely similar to agreement over human behaviors; (3) systematic differences in judgments concerning the plausibility of goals and dispositions as explanations of human vs. humanoid behavior. Taken together, these results suggest that people's intentional stance toward the robot was in this case very similar to their stance toward the human.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2017
Keywords
human-robot interaction, folk psychology, social interaction, intentional stance, attribution theory, intentionality ascription, behavior explanation, social robots
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Interaction Technologies Robotics
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14545 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01962 (DOI)000415036700001 ()29184519 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85033792430 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-04 Created: 2017-12-04 Last updated: 2018-06-13Bibliographically approved
Esteban, P. G., Baxter, P., Belpaeme, T., Billing, E., Cai, H., Cao, H.-L., . . . Ziemke, T. (2017). How to Build a Supervised Autonomous System for Robot-Enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Paladyn - Journal of Behavioral Robotics, 8(1), 18-38
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How to Build a Supervised Autonomous System for Robot-Enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
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2017 (English)In: Paladyn - Journal of Behavioral Robotics, ISSN 2080-9778, E-ISSN 2081-4836, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 18-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Robot-Assisted Therapy (RAT) has successfully been used to improve social skills in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) through remote control of the robot in so-called Wizard of Oz (WoZ) paradigms.However, there is a need to increase the autonomy of the robot both to lighten the burden on human therapists (who have to remain in control and, importantly, supervise the robot) and to provide a consistent therapeutic experience. This paper seeks to provide insight into increasing the autonomy level of social robots in therapy to move beyond WoZ. With the final aim of improved human-human social interaction for the children, this multidisciplinary research seeks to facilitate the use of social robots as tools in clinical situations by addressing the challenge of increasing robot autonomy.We introduce the clinical framework in which the developments are tested, alongside initial data obtained from patients in a first phase of the project using a WoZ set-up mimicking the targeted supervised-autonomy behaviour. We further describe the implemented system architecture capable of providing the robot with supervised autonomy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
De Gruyter Open, 2017
Keywords
Robot-Enhanced Therapy, Autism Spectrum Disorders, Supervised Autonomy, Multi-sensory Data, Cognitive Controller
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13559 (URN)10.1515/pjbr-2017-0002 (DOI)2-s2.0-85031508273 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 611391
Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2018-08-31Bibliographically approved
Alenljung, B., Lindblom, J., Andreasson, R. & Ziemke, T. (2017). User Experience in Social Human-Robot Interaction. International Journal of Ambient Computing and Intelligence (IJACI), 8(2), 12-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>User Experience in Social Human-Robot Interaction
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Ambient Computing and Intelligence (IJACI), ISSN 1941-6237, E-ISSN 1941-6245, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 12-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Socially interactive robots are expected to have an increasing importance in human society. For social robots to provide long-term added value to people’s lives, it is of major importance to stressthe need for positive user experience (UX) of such robots. The human-centered view emphasizes various aspects that emerge in the interaction between humans and robots. However, a positive UX does not appear by itself but has to be designed for and evaluated systematically. In this paper, the focus is on the role and relevance of UX in human-robot interaction (HRI) and four trends concerning the role and relevance of UX related to socially interactive robots are identified, and three challenges related to its evaluation are also presented. It is argued that current research efforts and directions are not sufficient in HRI research, and that future research needs to further address interdisciplinary research in order to achieve long-term success of socially interactive robots.

Keywords
Human-Centered HRI, Human-Robot Interaction, Human-Technology Interaction, Robotic Technology, Socially Interactive Technology, UX Design, UX Evaluation, UX Goals
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); Information Systems; INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13430 (URN)10.4018/IJACI.2017040102 (DOI)000396727500002 ()2-s2.0-85016032163 (Scopus ID)
Projects
the Knowledge Foundation, Stockholm, SIDUS grant agreement no. 20140220. (AIR, “Action and intention recognition in human interaction with autonomous systems").
Available from: 2017-03-13 Created: 2017-03-13 Last updated: 2018-06-13Bibliographically approved
Sakreida, K., Effnert, I., Thill, S., Menz, M. M., Jirak, D., Eickhoff, C. R., . . . Binkofski, F. (2016). Affordance processing in segregated parieto-frontal dorsal stream sub-pathways. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 69, 89-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Affordance processing in segregated parieto-frontal dorsal stream sub-pathways
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2016 (English)In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 69, p. 89-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Object interaction, Affordances, Stable, Variable, Cognitive psychology, Parieto-frontal pathways, Ventro-dorsal, Dorso-dorsal, Neuroscience
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12731 (URN)10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.07.032 (DOI)000385323500007 ()27484872 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84982728809 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-07-31 Created: 2016-07-31 Last updated: 2018-08-03Bibliographically approved
Billing, E., Svensson, H., Lowe, R. & Ziemke, T. (2016). Finding Your Way from the Bed to the Kitchen: Re-enacting and Re-combining Sensorimotor Episodes Learned from Human Demonstration. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 3(9)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finding Your Way from the Bed to the Kitchen: Re-enacting and Re-combining Sensorimotor Episodes Learned from Human Demonstration
2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 3, no 9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several simulation theories have been proposed as an explanation for how humans and other agents internalize an "inner world" that allows them to simulate interactions with the external real world - prospectively and retrospectively. Such internal simulation of interaction with the environment has been argued to be a key mechanism behind mentalizing and planning. In the present work, we study internal simulations in a robot acting in a simulated human environment. A model of sensory-motor interactions with the environment is generated from human demonstrations, and tested on a Robosoft Kompai robot. The model is used as a controller for the robot, reproducing the demonstrated behavior. Information from several different demonstrations is mixed, allowing the robot to produce novel paths through the environment, towards a goal specified by top-down contextual information. 

The robot model is also used in a covert mode, where actions are inhibited and perceptions are generated by a forward model. As a result, the robot generates an internal simulation of the sensory-motor interactions with the environment. Similar to the overt mode, the model is able to reproduce the demonstrated behavior as internal simulations. When experiences from several demonstrations are combined with a top-down goal signal, the system produces internal simulations of novel paths through the environment. These results can be understood as the robot imagining an "inner world" generated from previous experience, allowing it to try out different possible futures without executing actions overtly.

We found that the success rate in terms of reaching the specified goal was higher during internal simulation, compared to overt action. These results are linked to a reduction in prediction errors generated during covert action. Despite the fact that the model is quite successful in terms of generating covert behavior towards specified goals, internal simulations display different temporal distributions compared to their overt counterparts. Links to human cognition and specifically mental imagery are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lausanne, Switzerland: Frontiers, 2016
Keywords
compositionality, internal simulation, learning from demonstration, simulation theory, predictive sequence learning, prospection, embodied cognition, imagination, representation
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Technology; Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12075 (URN)10.3389/frobt.2016.00009 (DOI)000382475100002 ()
Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Ziemke, T. (2016). The body of knowledge: On the role of the living body in grounding embodied cognition. Biosystems (Amsterdam. Print), 148, 4-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The body of knowledge: On the role of the living body in grounding embodied cognition
2016 (English)In: Biosystems (Amsterdam. Print), ISSN 0303-2647, E-ISSN 1872-8324, Vol. 148, p. 4-11Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Embodied cognition is a hot topic in both cognitive science and Al, despite the fact that there still is relatively little consensus regarding what exactly constitutes 'embodiment'. While most embodied Al and cognitive robotics research views the body as the physical/sensorimotor interface that allows to ground computational cognitive processes in sensorimotor interactions with the environment, more biologically based notions of embodied cognition emphasize the fundamental role that the living body - and more specifically its homeostatic/allostatic self-regulation - plays in grounding both sensorimotor interactions and embodied cognitive processes. Adopting the latter position - a multi-tiered affectively embodied view of cognition in living systems - it is further argued that modeling organisms as layered networks of bodily self-regulation mechanisms can make significant contributions to our scientific understanding of embodied cognition. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Allostasis, Cognitive systems, Grounding, Homeostasis, Embodied Al, Embodied cognition, Emotion, Intentionality, Predictive regulation, Representation
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13177 (URN)10.1016/j.biosystems.2016.08.005 (DOI)000387196400002 ()27543133 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84993990240 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-01 Created: 2016-12-01 Last updated: 2018-08-03Bibliographically approved
Vernon, D., Thill, S. & Ziemke, T. (2016). The Role of Intention in Cognitive Robotics. In: Anna Esposito & Lakhmi C. Jain (Ed.), Toward Robotic Socially Believable Behaving Systems: Volume I (pp. 15-27). Switzerland: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Role of Intention in Cognitive Robotics
2016 (English)In: Toward Robotic Socially Believable Behaving Systems: Volume I / [ed] Anna Esposito & Lakhmi C. Jain, Switzerland: Springer, 2016, p. 15-27Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We argue that the development of robots that can interact effectively with people requires a special focus on building systems that can perceive and comprehend intentions in other agents. Such a capability is a prerequisite for all pro-social behaviour and in particular underpins the ability to engage in instrumental helping and mutual collaboration. We explore the prospective and intentional nature of action, highlighting the importance of joint action, shared goals, shared intentions, and joint attention in facilitating social interaction between two or more cognitive agents. We discuss the link between reading intentions and theory of mind, noting the role played by internal simulation, especially when inferring higher-level actionfocussed intentions. Finally, we highlight that pro-social behaviour in humans is the result of a developmental process and we note the implications of this for the challenge of creating cognitive robots that can read intentions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: Springer, 2016
Series
Intelligent Systems Reference Library, ISSN 1868-4394 ; 105
Keywords
Robotics, Human-robot interaction, emotion, intention
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Technology; Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11945 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-31056-5_3 (DOI)000377156400004 ()2-s2.0-84961627492 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-31055-8 (ISBN)
Projects
DREAM: Development of Robot-enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 611391
Available from: 2016-02-23 Created: 2016-02-23 Last updated: 2018-08-03Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, M., Thill, S. & Ziemke, T. (2015). Action and intention recognition in human interaction with autonomous vehicles. In: : . Paper presented at "Experiencing Autonomous Vehicles: Crossing the Boundaries between a Drive and a Ride" workshop in conjunction with CHI2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Action and intention recognition in human interaction with autonomous vehicles
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Keywords
action recognition, intention recognition, embodied cognition, social interaction
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10867 (URN)
Conference
"Experiencing Autonomous Vehicles: Crossing the Boundaries between a Drive and a Ride" workshop in conjunction with CHI2015
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2018-08-01Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6883-2450

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