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Sikka, P., Revonsuo, A., Sandman, N., Tuominen, J. & Valli, K. (2018). Dream emotions: a comparison of home dream reports with laboratory early and late REM dream reports. Journal of Sleep Research, 27(2), 206-214
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dream emotions: a comparison of home dream reports with laboratory early and late REM dream reports
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 206-214Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to compare the emotional content of dream reports collected at home upon morning awakenings with those collectedin the laboratory upon early and late rapid eye movement (REM) sleep awakenings. Eighteen adults (11 women, seven men; mean age = 25.89 ± 4.85) wrote down their home dreams every morning immediately upon awakening during a 7-day period. Participants also spent two non-consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory where they were awoken 5 min into each continuous REM sleep stage, upon which they gave a verbal dream report. The content of a total of 151 home and 120 laboratory dream reports was analysed by two blind judges using the modified Differential Emotions Scale. It was found that: (1) home dream reports were more emotional than laboratory early REM dream reports, but not more emotional than laboratory late REM dream reports; (2) home dream reports contained a higher density of emotions than laboratory (early or late REM) dream reports; and (3) home dream reports were more negative than laboratory dream reports, but differences between home and early REM reports were larger than those between home and late REM reports. The results suggest that differences between home and laboratory dream reports in overall emotionality may be due to the time of night effect. Whether differences in the density of emotions and negative emotionality are due to sleep environment or due to different reporting procedures and time spent in a sleep stage, respectively, remains to be determined in future studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keyword
dreams, dreaming, emotions, content analysis, REM sleep, sleep stages
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13634 (URN)10.1111/jsr.12555 (DOI)000426866500008 ()28568911 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85020126304 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-06 Created: 2017-06-06 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
Revonsuo, A. (2018). Foundations of Consciousness. New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Foundations of Consciousness
2018 (English)Book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Routledge, 2018. p. 173
Keyword
Consciousness
National Category
Behavioral Sciences Biology
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14674 (URN)10.4324/9781315115092 (DOI)2-s2.0-85040658258 (Scopus ID)0-415-59467-7 (ISBN)978-0-415-59467-7 (ISBN)978-0-415-59466-0 (ISBN)978-1-315-11509-2 (ISBN)9781351629621 (ISBN)
Note

eBook Published 20 July 2017

Available from: 2018-01-22 Created: 2018-01-22 Last updated: 2018-02-13Bibliographically approved
Koivisto, M., Grassini, S., Salminen-Vaparanta, N. & Revonsuo, A. (2017). Different Electrophysiological Correlates of Visual Awareness for Detection and Identification. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 29(9), 1621-1631
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Different Electrophysiological Correlates of Visual Awareness for Detection and Identification
2017 (English)In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 29, no 9, p. 1621-1631Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Detecting the presence of an object is a different process than identifying the object as a particular object. This difference has not been taken into account in designing experiments on the neural correlates of consciousness. We compared the electrophysiological correlates of conscious detection and identification directly by measuring ERPs while participants performed either a task only requiring the conscious detection of the stimulus or a higher-level task requiring its conscious identification. Behavioral results showed that, even if the stimulus was consciously detected, it was not necessarily identified. A posterior electrophysiological signature 200-300 msec after stimulus onset was sensitive for conscious detection but not for conscious identification, which correlated with a later widespread activity. Thus, we found behavioral and neural evidence for elementary visual experiences, which are not yet enriched with higher-level knowledge. The search for the mechanisms of consciousness should focus on the early elementary phenomenal experiences to avoid the confounding effects of higher-level processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MIT Press, 2017
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Computer and Information Sciences Neurosciences
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14014 (URN)10.1162/jocn_a_01149 (DOI)000406493300012 ()28557691 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85026439674 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2018-01-22Bibliographically approved
Hurme, M., Koivisto, M., Revonsuo, A. & Railo, H. (2017). Early processing in primary visual cortex is necessary for conscious and unconscious vision while late processing is necessary only for conscious vision in neurologically healthy humans. NeuroImage, 150, 230-238
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early processing in primary visual cortex is necessary for conscious and unconscious vision while late processing is necessary only for conscious vision in neurologically healthy humans
2017 (English)In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 150, p. 230-238Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The neural mechanisms underlying conscious and unconscious visual processes remain controversial. Blindsight patients may process visual stimuli unconsciously despite their VI lesion, promoting anatomical models, which suggest that pathways bypassing the VI support unconscious vision. On the other hand, physiological models argue that the major geniculostriate pathway via VI is involved in both unconscious and conscious vision, but in different time windows and in different types of neural activity. According to physiological models, feedforward activity via VI to higher areas mediates unconscious processes whereas feedback loops of recurrent activity from higher areas back to VI support conscious vision. With transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) it is possible to study the causal role of a brain region during specific time points in neurologically healthy participants. In the present study, we measured unconscious processing with redundant target effect, a phenomenon where participants respond faster to two stimuli than one even when one of the stimuli is not consciously perceived. We tested the physiological feedforward-feedback model of vision by suppressing conscious vision by interfering selectively either with early or later VI activity with TMS. Our results show that early VI activity (60 ms) is necessary for both unconscious and conscious vision. During later processing stages (90 ms), VI contributes selectively to conscious vision. These findings support the feedforward-feedback-model of consciousness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
redundant target effect, TMS, V1, unconscious vision
National Category
Neurosciences Bioinformatics (Computational Biology) Neurology
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13578 (URN)10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.02.060 (DOI)000399855800019 ()28254455 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85013892326 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-05-23 Created: 2017-05-23 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Sikka, P., Feilhauer, D., Valli, K. & Revonsuo, A. (2017). How You Measure Is What You Get: Differences in Self- and External Ratings of Emotional Experiences in Home Dreams. American Journal of Psychology, 130(3), 367-384
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How You Measure Is What You Get: Differences in Self- and External Ratings of Emotional Experiences in Home Dreams
2017 (English)In: American Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0002-9556, E-ISSN 1939-8298, Vol. 130, no 3, p. 367-384Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study demonstrates that different methods for measuring emotional experiences in dreams — self-ratings of dreams using emotion rating scales versus external ratings in the form of content analysis of narrative dream reports — can lead to strikingly different results and contradicting conclusions about the emotional content of home dreams. During 3 consecutive weeks, every morning upon awakening, 44 participants (16 men, 28 women, average age 26.9± 5.1 years) reported their dreams and rated their emotional experiences in those dreams using the modified Differential Emotions Scale. Two external judges rated emotional experiences inthe same 552 (M = 12.55 ± 5.72) home dream reports using the same scale. Comparison of the 2 methods showed that with self-ratings dreams were rated as more emotional and more positive than with external ratings. Moreover, whereas with self-ratings the majority of dreams was rated as positively valenced, with external ratings the majority of dream reports was rated as negatively valenced. Although self- and external ratings converge, at least partially, in the measurement of negative emotional experiences, they diverge greatly in the measurement of positive emotional experiences. On one hand, this discrepancy may result from different biases inherent in the 2 measurement methods highlighting the need to develop better methods for measuring emotional experiences. On the other hand, self- and external ratings may capture different phenomena and should thus be considered complementary and used concurrently. Nevertheless, results suggest that negative emotional experiences can be measured in a more valid and reliable manner than positive emotional experiences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Illinois, US: , 2017
Keyword
emotions, dreaming, dream emotions, content analysis, gender differences
National Category
Natural Sciences Psychology
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14074 (URN)10.5406/amerjpsyc.130.3.0367 (DOI)000407872700010 ()2-s2.0-85027696254 (Scopus ID)
Note

Diana Feilhauer is now at the Department of Philosophy, Lund University, Sweden.

This research was supported by the Signe and Ane GyllenbergFoundation (P.S.), the Finnish Cultural Foundation (P.S.), and Academy of Finland (K.V., A.R.) (project 266434).

The authors thank Linnéa Stenström for assistance in the early phases of the study.

Available from: 2017-09-03 Created: 2017-09-03 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Koivisto, M., Grassini, S., Hurme, M., Salminen-Vaparanta, N., Railo, H., Vorobyev, V., . . . Revonsuo, A. (2017). TMS-EEG reveals hemispheric asymmetries in top-down influences of posterior intraparietal cortex on behavior and visual event-related potentials. Neuropsychologia, 107, 94-101
Open this publication in new window or tab >>TMS-EEG reveals hemispheric asymmetries in top-down influences of posterior intraparietal cortex on behavior and visual event-related potentials
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2017 (English)In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 107, p. 94-101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Clinical data and behavioral studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) suggest right-hemisphere dominance for top-down modulation of visual processing in humans. We used concurrent TMS-EEG to directly test for hemispheric differences in causal influences of the right and left intraparietal cortex on visual event-related potentials (ERPs). We stimulated the left and right posterior part of intraparietal sulcus (IPS1) while the participants were viewing and rating the visibility of bilaterally presented Gabor patches. Subjective visibility ratings showed that TMS of right IPS shifted the visibility toward the right hemifield, while TMS of left IPS did not have any behavioral effect. TMS of right IPS, but not left one, reduced the amplitude of posterior N1 potential, 180–220 ms after stimulus-onset. The attenuation of N1 occurred bilaterally over the posterior areas of both hemispheres. Consistent with previous TMS-fMRI studies, this finding suggests that the right IPS has top-down control on the neural processing in visual cortex. As N1 most probably reflects reactivation of early visual areas, the current findings support the view that the posterior parietal cortex in the right hemisphere amplifies recurrent interactions in ventral visual areas during the time-window that is critical for conscious perception.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Neurosciences
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14668 (URN)10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.11.012 (DOI)000418986600011 ()29137988 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85034029674 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-01-22 Created: 2018-01-22 Last updated: 2018-01-23Bibliographically approved
Koivisto, M., Harjuniemi, I., Railo, H., Salminen-Vaparanta, N. & Revonsuo, A. (2017). Transcranial magnetic stimulation of early visual cortex suppresses conscious representations in a dichotomous manner without gradually decreasing their precision. NeuroImage, 158, 308-318
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transcranial magnetic stimulation of early visual cortex suppresses conscious representations in a dichotomous manner without gradually decreasing their precision
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2017 (English)In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 158, p. 308-318Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of early visual cortex can suppresses visual perception at early stages of processing. The suppression can be measured both with objective forced-choice tasks and with subjective ratings of visual awareness, but there is lack of objective evidence on how and whether the TMS influences the quality of representations. Does TMS decrease the precision of representations in graded manner, or does it lead to dichotomous, "all-or-nothing" suppression. We resolved this question by using a continuous measure of the perceptual error: the observers had to perceive the orientation of a target (Landort-C) and to adjust the orientation of a probe to match that of the target. Mixture modeling was applied to estimate the probability of guess trials and the standard deviation of the non-guess trials. TMS delivered 60-150 ms after stimulus-onset influenced only the guessing rate, whereas the standard deviation (i.e., precision) was not affected. This suggests that TMS suppressed representations dichotomously without affecting their precision. The guessing probability correlated with subjective visibility ratings, suggesting that it measured visual awareness. In a control experiment, manipulation of the stimulus contrast affected the standard deviation of the errors, indicating that contrast has a gradual influence on the precision of representations. The findings suggest that TMS of early visual cortex suppresses perception in dichotomous manner by decreasing the signal-to-noise ratio by increasing the noise level, whereas reduction of the signal level (i.e., contrast) decreases the precision of representations.

Keyword
Consciousness, visual cortex
National Category
Neurosciences
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14672 (URN)10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.07.011 (DOI)000411450600028 ()28711735 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85024132853 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-01-22 Created: 2018-01-22 Last updated: 2018-01-23Bibliographically approved
Sikka, P., Revonsuo, A. & Valli, K. (2016). Methodological Issues in Measuring Dream Emotions. In: : . Paper presented at The 33rd Annual International Dream Conference (organized by the International Association for the Study of Dreams), Kerkrade, the Netherlands, June 24-28, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methodological Issues in Measuring Dream Emotions
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Emotions are central in dreams, specifically in rapid eye movement sleep dreams. Despite a wealth of research on the emotional content of dreams, there is little consensus about the overall emotionality and predominant valence of dreams or about the prevailing specific emotions in dreams. Previous contradictory findings are arguably due to unresolved methodological issues. However, studies that have directly investigated these methodological issues are scarce. In this presentation three studies that investigated the effect of study methodology on the frequency, valence and phenomenological content of dream emotions are discussed. The studies demonstrate that the use of different methods for rating dream emotions (participants who experience the dream vs external judges who analysed the respective dream report) and for collecting dream reports (home vs laboratory setting) leads to very different results and conclusions about the emotional content of dreams. As such, these studies highlight the importance of carefully considering study methodology when conducting and interpreting dream (emotional) content studies.

National Category
Natural Sciences Other Biological Topics Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Natural sciences; Humanities and Social sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12193 (URN)
Conference
The 33rd Annual International Dream Conference (organized by the International Association for the Study of Dreams), Kerkrade, the Netherlands, June 24-28, 2016
Available from: 2016-05-02 Created: 2016-05-02 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Koivisto, M., Salminen-Vaparanta, N., Grassini, S. & Revonsuo, A. (2016). Subjective visual awareness emerges prior to P3. European Journal of Neuroscience, 43(12), 1601-1611
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subjective visual awareness emerges prior to P3
2016 (English)In: European Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0953-816X, E-ISSN 1460-9568, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 1601-1611Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studies on the neural basis of visual awareness, the subjective experience of seeing, have found several potential neural corre- lates of visual awareness. Some of them may not directly correlate with awareness but with post-perceptual processes, such as reporting one’s awareness of the stimulus. We dissociated potential electrophysiological correlates of visual awareness from those occurring during response selection and thus co-occurring with post-perceptual processing. The participants performed two GO-NOGO conditions. In the aware-GO condition they responded with a key press when they were aware of the stimulus and withheld responding when they were unaware of it. In the unaware-GO condition they withheld responding when they were aware and responded when they were not aware of the stimulus. Thus, event-related potentials could be measured to aware and una- ware trials when responding was required and when not required. The results revealed that the N200 amplitude (180–280 ms) over the occipital and posterior temporal cortex was enhanced in aware trials as compared with trials without awareness. This effect (visual awareness negativity, VAN) did not depend on responding. The amplitude of P3 (350–450 ms) also was enhanced in aware trials as compared with unaware trials. In addition, the amplitudes in the P3 time window depended on responding: they were greater when awareness was mapped to GO-response than when not, suggesting that P3 reflects post-perceptual process- ing, that is, it occurs after awareness has emerged. These findings support theories of visual awareness that assume a relatively early onset of visual awareness before P3. 

National Category
Other Biological Topics
Research subject
Natural sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12750 (URN)10.1111/ejn.13264 (DOI)000379931800006 ()27109009 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84975120008 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-08-08 Created: 2016-08-08 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Revonsuo, A., Tuominen, J. & Valli, K. (2016). The Avatars in the Machine: Dreaming as a Simulation of Social Reality. In: Thomas Metzinger & Jennifer M. Windt (Ed.), Open MIND: Philosophy and the Mind Sciences in the 21st Century (pp. 1295-1322). MIT Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Avatars in the Machine: Dreaming as a Simulation of Social Reality
2016 (English)In: Open MIND: Philosophy and the Mind Sciences in the 21st Century / [ed] Thomas Metzinger & Jennifer M. Windt, MIT Press, 2016, p. 1295-1322Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MIT Press, 2016
Keyword
Dreaming, Brain, Evolution
National Category
Other Biological Topics
Research subject
Natural sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12747 (URN)10.15502/9783958570375 (DOI)9780262034609 (ISBN)9783958570375 (ISBN)978-3-95857-102-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-08-08 Created: 2016-08-08 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2771-1588

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