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Lindström, BirgittaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1039-5830
Publications (10 of 31) Show all publications
Atif, Y., Al-Falahi, K., Wangchuk, T. & Lindström, B. (2019). A fuzzy logic approach to influence maximization in social networks. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A fuzzy logic approach to influence maximization in social networks
2019 (English)In: Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, ISSN 1868-5137, E-ISSN 1868-5145Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Within a community, social relationships are paramount to profile individuals’ conduct. For instance, an individual within a social network might be compelled to embrace a behaviour that his/her companion has recently adopted. Such social attitude is labelled social influence, which assesses the extent by which an individual’s social neighbourhood adopt that individual’s behaviour. We suggest an original approach to influence maximization using a fuzzy-logic based model, which combines influence-weights associated with historical logs of the social network users, and their favourable location in the network. Our approach uses a two-phases process to maximise influence diffusion. First, we harness the complexity of the problem by partitioning the network into significantly-enriched community-structures, which we then use as modules to locate the most influential nodes across the entire network. These key users are determined relatively to a fuzzy-logic based technique that identifies the most influential users, out of which the seed-set candidates to diffuse a behaviour or an innovation are extracted following the allocated budget for the influence campaign. This way to deal with influence propagation in social networks, is different from previous models, which do not compare structural and behavioural attributes among members of the network. The performance results show the validity of the proposed partitioning-approach of a social network into communities, and its contribution to “activate” a higher number of nodes overall. Our experimental study involves both empirical and real contemporary social-networks, whereby a smaller seed set of key users, is shown to scale influence to the high-end compared to some renowned techniques, which employ a larger seed set of key users and yet they influence less nodes in the social network.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Social networks, Community detection, Influence propagation, Fuzzy logic
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16779 (URN)10.1007/s12652-019-01286-2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064252809 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-04-15 Last updated: 2019-05-03Bibliographically approved
Lindström, B., Saadatmand, M., Mousavi, M. R. & Enoiu, E. (2019). Message from the ITEQS 2019 chairs. In: 2019 IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW): . Paper presented at 12th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2019, Xi'an, China, 22 April 2019 through 27 April 2019 (pp. 17). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Article ID 8728966.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Message from the ITEQS 2019 chairs
2019 (English)In: 2019 IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019, p. 17-, article id 8728966Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17465 (URN)10.1109/ICSTW.2019.00013 (DOI)2-s2.0-85068424130 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-0888-9 (ISBN)978-1-7281-0889-6 (ISBN)
Conference
12th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2019, Xi'an, China, 22 April 2019 through 27 April 2019
Note

Editorial

Available from: 2019-07-22 Created: 2019-07-22 Last updated: 2019-08-19
Lindström, B. & Márki, A. (2019). On strong mutation and the theory of subsuming logic‐based mutants. Software testing, verification & reliability, 29(1-2 Special Issue: SI), 1-23, Article ID e1667.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On strong mutation and the theory of subsuming logic‐based mutants
2019 (English)In: Software testing, verification & reliability, ISSN 0960-0833, E-ISSN 1099-1689, Vol. 29, no 1-2 Special Issue: SI, p. 1-23, article id e1667Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Redundant mutants might cause problems when benchmarking since testing techniques can get high scores without detecting any nonredundant mutants. However, removing nonredundant mutants might cause similar problems. Subsumed mutants are per definition also redundant since no additional tests are required to detect them once all other mutants are detected. We focus on relational operator replacement (ROR) and conditional operator replacement mutants. Subsumption relations between ROR mutants are defined by fault hierarchies. The fault hierarchies are proven for weak mutation but have since they were published been used with strong mutation. We prove that ROR fault hierarchies do not hold for strong mutation and show why. We also show that the probability for a random test to experience the problem can be more than 30% and that 50% of the mutants might be affected in a real software system. Finally, we show that there is a similar problem with the theory on sufficient conditional operator replacement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
error propagation, mutant subsumption, mutation testing, redundant mutants
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15090 (URN)10.1002/stvr.1667 (DOI)000458911000003 ()2-s2.0-85045856317 (Scopus ID)
Projects
TOCSYC
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20130085
Available from: 2018-04-21 Created: 2018-04-21 Last updated: 2019-03-05Bibliographically approved
Jiang, Y., Ding, J., Atif, Y., Jeusfeld, M., Andler, S., Lindström, B., . . . Haglund, D. (2018). Complex Dependencies Analysis: Technical Description of Complex Dependencies in Critical Infrastructures, i.e. Smart Grids. Work Package 2.1 of the ELVIRA Project. Skövde: University of Skövde
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complex Dependencies Analysis: Technical Description of Complex Dependencies in Critical Infrastructures, i.e. Smart Grids. Work Package 2.1 of the ELVIRA Project
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This document reports a technical description of ELVIRA project results obtained as part of Work-package 2.1 entitled “Complex Dependencies Analysis”. In this technical report, we review attempts in recent researches where connections are regarded as influencing factors to  IT systems monitoring critical infrastructure, based on which potential dependencies and resulting disturbances are identified and categorized. Each kind of dependence has been discussed based on our own entity based model. Among those dependencies, logical and functional connections have been analysed with more details on modelling and simulation techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skövde: University of Skövde, 2018. p. 22
Series
IIT Technical Reports ; HS-IIT-TR-18-003
Keywords
Dependencies, Interdependencies, Modelling and Simulation, Influence Factors
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Embedded Systems
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems; Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15114 (URN)
Projects
ELVIRA
Note

HS-IIT-TR-18-003 This is a technical report related to the ELVIRA project www.his.se/elvira

Available from: 2018-05-02 Created: 2018-05-02 Last updated: 2019-03-05Bibliographically approved
Atif, Y., Jiang, Y., Jeusfeld, M. A., Ding, J., Lindström, B., Andler, S. F., . . . Lindström, B. (2018). Cyber-threat analysis for Cyber-Physical Systems: Technical report for Package 4, Activity 3 of ELVIRA project. Skövde: University of Skövde
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cyber-threat analysis for Cyber-Physical Systems: Technical report for Package 4, Activity 3 of ELVIRA project
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Smart grid employs ICT infrastructure and network connectivity to optimize efficiency and deliver new functionalities. This evolu- tion is associated with an increased risk for cybersecurity threats that may hamper smart grid operations. Power utility providers need tools for assessing risk of prevailing cyberthreats over ICT infrastructures. The need for frameworks to guide the develop- ment of these tools is essential to define and reveal vulnerability analysis indicators. We propose a data-driven approach for design- ing testbeds to evaluate the vulnerability of cyberphysical systems against cyberthreats. The proposed framework uses data reported from multiple components of cyberphysical system architecture layers, including physical, control, and cyber layers. At the phys- ical layer, we consider component inventory and related physi- cal flows. At the control level, we consider control data, such as SCADA data flows in industrial and critical infrastructure control systems. Finally, at the cyber layer level, we consider existing secu- rity and monitoring data from cyber-incident event management tools, which are increasingly embedded into the control fabrics of cyberphysical systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skövde: University of Skövde, 2018. p. 18
Series
IIT Technical Reports ; HS-IIT-TR-18-004
Keywords
vulnerability analysis, cyber-threats, cyberphysical systems, clustering, multiagent systems
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems; Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16092 (URN)
Projects
This research has been supported in part by the EU ISF Project A431.678/2016 ELVIRA (Threat modeling and resilience of critical infrastructures), coordinated by Polismyndigheten/Sweden
Note

I publikationen: HS-IIT-18-004

Available from: 2018-08-29 Created: 2018-08-29 Last updated: 2019-02-18Bibliographically approved
Lindström, B., Offutt, J., González-Hernández, L. & Andler, S. F. (2018). Identifying Useful Mutants to Test Time Properties. In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW): . Paper presented at 2018 IEEE 11th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, 9–13 April 2018, Västerås, Sweden (pp. 69-76). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identifying Useful Mutants to Test Time Properties
2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW), IEEE Computer Society, 2018, p. 69-76Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Real-time systems have to be verified and tested for timely behavior as well as functional behavior. Thus, time is an extra dimension that adds to the complexity of software testing. A timed automata model with a model-checker can be used to generate timed test traces. To properly test the timely behavior, the set of test traces should challenge the different time constraints in the model. This paper describes and adapts mutation operators that target such time constraints in timed automata models. Time mutation operators apply a delta to the time constraints to help testers design tests that exceed the time constraints. We suggest that the size of this delta determines how easy the mutant is to kill and that the optimal delta varies by the program, mutation operator, and the individual mutant. To avoid trivial and equivalent time mutants, the delta should be set individually for each mutant. We discuss mutant subsumption and define the problem of finding dominator mutants in this new domain. In this position paper, we outline an iterative tuning process where a statistical model-checker, UPPAAL SMC, is used to: (i) create a tuned set of dominator time mutants, and (ii) generate test traces that kill the mutants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2018
Keywords
mutation testing, model-based testing, mutant subsumption, real-time systems, embedded systems
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16049 (URN)10.1109/ICSTW.2018.00030 (DOI)2-s2.0-85050973857 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-6352-3 (ISBN)978-1-5386-6353-0 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 IEEE 11th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, 9–13 April 2018, Västerås, Sweden
Projects
TOCSYC
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20130085
Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-11-21Bibliographically approved
Atif, Y., Jiang, Y., Lindström, B., Ding, J., Jeusfeld, M., Andler, S., . . . Haglund, D. (2018). Multi-agent Systems for Power Grid Monitoring: Technical report for Package 4.1 of ELVIRA project. Skövde: University of Skövde
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-agent Systems for Power Grid Monitoring: Technical report for Package 4.1 of ELVIRA project
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This document reports a technical description of ELVIRA project results obtained as part of Work- package 4.1 entitled “Multi-agent systems for power Grid monitoring”. ELVIRA project is a collaboration between researchers in School of IT at University of Skövde and Combitech Technical Consulting Company in Sweden, with the aim to design, develop and test a testbed simulator for critical infrastructures cybersecurity. This report outlines intelligent approaches that continuously analyze data flows generated by Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, which monitor contemporary power grid infrastructures. However, cybersecurity threats and security mechanisms cannot be analyzed and tested on actual systems, and thus testbed simulators are necessary to assess vulnerabilities and evaluate the infrastructure resilience against cyberattacks. This report suggests an agent-based model to simulate SCADA- like cyber-components behaviour when facing cyber-infection in order to experiment and test intelligent mitigation mechanisms. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skövde: University of Skövde, 2018. p. 16
Series
IIT Technical Reports ; HS-IIT-TR-18-002
Keywords
Smart grid security, Agent model, Multi-agent system
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems; Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15111 (URN)
Projects
Elvira project funded by EU Internal Security Fund (ISF) A431.678-2016
Note

HS-IIT-TR-18-002

Available from: 2018-05-02 Created: 2018-05-02 Last updated: 2019-03-05Bibliographically approved
González-Hernández, L., Lindström, B., Offutt, J., Andler, S. F., Potena, P. & Bohlin, M. (2018). Using Mutant Stubbornness to Create Minimal and Prioritized Test Sets. In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security (QRS): . Paper presented at 2018 IEEE 18th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability, and Security (QRS 2018), 16–20 July 2018, Lisbon, Portugal (pp. 446-457). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Mutant Stubbornness to Create Minimal and Prioritized Test Sets
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2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security (QRS), IEEE Computer Society, 2018, p. 446-457Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In testing, engineers want to run the most useful tests early (prioritization). When tests are run hundreds or thousands of times, minimizing a test set can result in significant savings (minimization). This paper proposes a new analysis technique to address both the minimal test set and the test case prioritization problems. This paper precisely defines the concept of mutant stubbornness, which is the basis for our analysis technique. We empirically compare our technique with other test case minimization and prioritization techniques in terms of the size of the minimized test sets and how quickly mutants are killed. We used seven C language subjects from the Siemens Repository, specifically the test sets and the killing matrices from a previous study. We used 30 different orders for each set and ran every technique 100 times over each set. Results show that our analysis technique performed significantly better than prior techniques for creating minimal test sets and was able to establish new bounds for all cases. Also, our analysis technique killed mutants as fast or faster than prior techniques. These results indicate that our mutant stubbornness technique constructs test sets that are both minimal in size, and prioritized effectively, as well or better than other techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2018
Keywords
Test Case Minimization, Minimal Sets, Test Case Prioritization, Mutant Stubbornness
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16050 (URN)10.1109/QRS.2018.00058 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052313827 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-7757-5 (ISBN)978-1-5386-7758-2 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 IEEE 18th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability, and Security (QRS 2018), 16–20 July 2018, Lisbon, Portugal
Projects
TOCSYC
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20130085
Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Ding, J., Atif, Y., Andler, S. F., Lindström, B. & Jeusfeld, M. (2017). CPS-based Threat Modeling for Critical Infrastructure Protection. Performance Evaluation Review, 45(2), 129-132
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CPS-based Threat Modeling for Critical Infrastructure Protection
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2017 (English)In: Performance Evaluation Review, ISSN 0163-5999, E-ISSN 1557-9484, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 129-132Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) are augmenting traditionalCritical Infrastructures (CIs) with data-rich operations. Thisintegration creates complex interdependencies that exposeCIs and their components to new threats. A systematicapproach to threat modeling is necessary to assess CIs’ vulnerabilityto cyber, physical, or social attacks. We suggest anew threat modeling approach to systematically synthesizeknowledge about the safety management of complex CIs andsituational awareness that helps understanding the nature ofa threat and its potential cascading-effects implications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Publications, 2017
Keywords
CPS, threat modeling, Critical Infrastructure Protection
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems; Information Systems; INF303 Information Security
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14245 (URN)10.1145/3152042.3152080 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041405430 (Scopus ID)
Projects
EU ISF project: Elvira
Funder
EU, European Research Council
Available from: 2017-10-23 Created: 2017-10-23 Last updated: 2018-06-01Bibliographically approved
Atif, Y., Ding, J., Lindström, B., Jeusfeld, M., Andler, S. F., Yuning, J., . . . Gustavsson, P. M. (2017). Cyber-Threat Intelligence Architecture for Smart-Grid Critical Infrastructures Protection. In: : . Paper presented at The International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, CRITIS 2017, Lucca, Italy, October 8-13, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cyber-Threat Intelligence Architecture for Smart-Grid Critical Infrastructures Protection
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Critical infrastructures (CIs) are becoming increasingly sophisticated with embedded cyber-physical systems (CPSs) that provide managerial automation and autonomic controls. Yet these advances expose CI components to new cyber-threats, leading to a chain of dysfunctionalities with catastrophic socio-economical implications. We propose a comprehensive architectural model to support the development of incident management tools that provide situation-awareness and cyber-threats intelligence for CI protection, with a special focus on smart-grid CI. The goal is to unleash forensic data from CPS-based CIs to perform some predictive analytics. In doing so, we use some AI (Artificial Intelligence) paradigms for both data collection, threat detection, and cascade-effects prediction. 

Keywords
critical infrastructures, cyber-threat, situation awareness, smart-grid, machine-learning, artificial intelligence, multi-agent systems
National Category
Computer Sciences Embedded Systems Energy Systems Remote Sensing Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems; Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14516 (URN)
Conference
The International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, CRITIS 2017, Lucca, Italy, October 8-13, 2017
Projects
ELVIRA
Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2018-02-01Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1039-5830

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