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Thorvald, P., Lindblom, J. & Kolbeinsson, A. (2020). Embodied Interactions in Cognitive Manufacturing. In: Hasan Ayaz (Ed.), Advances in Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering: Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering, and the AHFE International Conference on Industrial Cognitive Ergonomics and Engineering Psychology, July 24-28, 2019, Washington D.C., USA. Paper presented at International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE), Washington D.C, USA, 24-28 July, 2019 (pp. 419-426). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Embodied Interactions in Cognitive Manufacturing
2020 (English)In: Advances in Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering: Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering, and the AHFE International Conference on Industrial Cognitive Ergonomics and Engineering Psychology, July 24-28, 2019, Washington D.C., USA / [ed] Hasan Ayaz, Springer, 2020, p. 419-426Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a discussion on the role of embodied interaction with a basis in social embodiment effects and how they can be viewed in light of manufacturing ergonomics. The social embodiment effects are four statements, grounded in empirical findings, which highlight the interplay of social stimuli, embodied responses, and cognitive processing. They suggest and base an argument for how embodiment is central to cognitive processing, how bodily states interact extensively with cognitive states, and ultimately how embodied interaction is ubiquitous in human cognition. The paper further presents a view on how human based manufacturing can be studied in light of this argument, exploring other areas where social embodiment has been further researched, with an aim to suggest examples of where social embodiment effects might be found in manufacturing ergonomics and form a basis for future investigations. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Series
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, ISSN 2194-5357, E-ISSN 2194-5365 ; 953
Keywords
Human based manufacturing·ergonomics, Manufacturing, Social embodiment·cognition, Economic and social effects, Manufacture, Cognitive processing, Cognitive state, Embodied interaction, Empirical findings, Human cognition, Ergonomics
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
User Centred Product Design; Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17416 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-20473-0_41 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067652021 (Scopus ID)978-3-030-20472-3 (ISBN)978-3-030-20473-0 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE), Washington D.C, USA, 24-28 July, 2019
Available from: 2019-07-09 Created: 2019-07-09 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
Kolbeinsson, A., Lagerstedt, E. & Lindblom, J. (2019). Foundation for a classification of collaboration levels for human-robot cooperation in manufacturing. Production & Manufacturing Research, 7(1), 448-471
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Foundation for a classification of collaboration levels for human-robot cooperation in manufacturing
2019 (English)In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 448-471Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Industry 4.0 aims to support the factory of the future, involving increased use of information systems and new ways of using automation, such as collaboration where a robot and a human share work on a single task. We propose a classification of collaboration levels for Human-Robot collaboration (HRC) in manufacturing that we call levels of collaboration (LoC), formed to provide a conceptual model conducive to the design of assembly lines incorporating HRC. This paper aims to provide a more theoretical foundation for such a tool based on relevant theories from cognitive science and other perspectives of human-technology interaction, strengthening the validity and scientific rigour of the envisioned LoC tool. The main contributions consist of a theoretical grounding to motivate the transition from automation to collaboration, which are intended to facilitate expanding the LoC classification to support HRC, as well as an initial visualization of the LoC approach. Future work includes fully defining the LoC classification as well as operationalizing functionally different cooperation types. We conclude that collaboration is a means to an end, so collaboration is not entered for its own sake, and that collaboration differs fundamentally from more commonly used views where automation is the focus.

National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
User Centred Product Design; Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17502 (URN)10.1080/21693277.2019.1645628 (DOI)000477742200001 ()2-s2.0-85069762392 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-08 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved
Kolbeinsson, A. (2019). Situating interruptions in manufacturing assembly. (Doctoral dissertation). Skövde: University of Skövde
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Situating interruptions in manufacturing assembly
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Interruptions have been studied extensively, with interruptions experiments where tasks performed on computers are interrupted by another task received on the same computer having receiving much of the focus. Additionally, many of the tasks used in existing research have been designed specifically to test the effect of interruptions on humans by making both the interrupting task and the task being interrupted quite difficult. The studies introduced here show that these commonly used tasks do not accurately represent some aspects of the manual tasks commonly performed by humans outside of laboratory experiments, with the experiments in this thesis focusing on manual tasks in assembly. A notable difference identified here is that interruptions in manual assembly tasks were seen to always contain a negotiation element, meaning that the person being interrupted could always modify to some extent when to respond to interruptions. Another central finding is that breakpoints for smart interruption systems need to be chosen using even more care than suggested by existing research because of an effect that can cause a notification to be completely missed when sent at a point that seemed opportune. This is due to apparent lulls in the activity containing preparation for the next action, or anticipation of action, using the Activity Theory (AT) terms used in the analysis of this effect. AT was identified as a useful tool for the analysis of manual assembly as it supports a hierarchical analysis of the activity and takes into account operator skill (task familiarity) in an easy to understand manner.AT was further used in an observational study where current approaches to interruption management were observed and explored. A surprising conclusion was that classical interruptions, as commonly defined, where one task is interrupted and another task must be completed before resuming the main (primary) task were exceedingly uncommon. This was found to be due to the high task familiarity (skill level) of the workers, the assembly activities being designed to minimise the risk of interruptions, and workers being trained to always finish the current operation before switching to another task. Workers did however engage in conversation and an interesting style of communication, dubbed ebb-and-flow style of negotiation, was identified. The differences between the results found in literature and the results of the studies were synthesised into a theoretical framework, or a collection of theories that work together to support the analysis of interruptions, and a visual support tool for the theoretical framework was created. This visual support tool, called an activity board both binds together the theories in a way that should make the theoretical framework easier to understand, and provides the beginnings of an analysis tool for interruption using the framework.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling undersöker hur olika former av att bli avbruten från sin nuvarande uppgift av antingen andra personer eller av datorbaserade informationssystem påverkar monteringspersonal inom tillverkningsindustrin. Avhandlingen presenterar sedan olika strategier för att reducera de negativa effekterna av avbrotten. Datorbaserade informationssystem (IT-system) används i allt större omfattning inom industrin för att effektivisera produktionen och undvika arbetskrävande manuell uppdatering av information. Notifieringar behövs eftersom montören kan ha behov av ny information som har blivit tillgänglig och i vissa fall måste arbetsuppgifter ändras omedelbart baserat på den nya informationen. Detta kräver olika former av avbrott och existerande forskning visar att det att bli avbruten kan leda till ökat antal fel, längre tid för att utföra den huvudsakliga uppgiften och ökad stress.

Avbrott har studerats tidigare för att testa när det är lämpligt att avbryta någon och hur. Dock har den tidigare forskningen främst genomförts i situationer som inte liknar vanliga arbetsuppgifter. Forskning finns där avbrott har observerats inom sjukvården, men det kan inte fastställas att samma teorier fungerar för att stödja montörer inom industrin.

En existerande och etablerad taxonomi för avbrott identifierades att vara av stor relevans för detta arbete, men eftersom taxonomin enbart hade använts på uppgifter av mer artificiell karaktär behövde den testas under mer verklighetsliknande förhållanden inom tillverkningsindustrin. Denna avhandling innehåller resultat från två experiment som utfördes för att undersöka om taxonomin även fungerar vid manuellt monteringsarbete inom tillverkningsindustrin. Eftersom att experimenten innebar en stor risk för ett ökat antal fel under monteringsarbetet valdes istället simulera en monteringslina, som innebär att en hyfsat verklighetstrogen monteringslina byggdes enbart för att bedriva experiment.

Resultaten visar att det finns skillnader mellan att använda uppgifter av artificiell karaktär i en labbmiljö och att använda mer autentiska uppgifter som efterliknar faktiskt monteringsarbete. En viktig skillnad som identifierades fick benämningen negotiation element, och visar hur det nästan alltid går att välja (till någon grad) när avbrott åtgärdas. Identifieringen av lämpliga avbrottstillfällen visade sig också vara svårare än vad som antogs på förhand, som ledde till det andra experimentet där detta studerades i mer detalj. Andra experimentet visade att en utav de förvalda avbrottstillfällena inte alls fungerade lika bra som förväntat. En observationsstudie utfördes också i en fullt naturlig tillverkningsmiljö för att kategorisera hur störningar hanteras av montörer i denna miljön. Denna studie visade att klassiska avbrott där montören byter ifrån sin uppgift till en annan uppgift var väldigt sällsynta, och detta sågs vara på grund av att uppgifterna är designade för att undvika avbrott, samt att montörerna är erfarna och har träning för att undvika avbrott. Resultaten från dessa tre studier användes för att bygga ihop olika teorier för att skapa ett teoretiskt ramverk som introduceras i avhandlingen. Detta ramverk använder grafiska metoder för att analysera och mer intuitivt kunna förstå hur avbrott inverkar på manuella monteringsuppgifter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skövde: University of Skövde, 2019. p. 197
Series
Dissertation Series ; 28
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Human Aspects of ICT
Research subject
User Centred Product Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16652 (URN)978-91-984918-0-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-02-26, Portalen, Insikten, Skövde, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Delarbete 5 (av 5). Kolbeinsson, A., Lindblom, J., & Thorvald, P. (2018). Well designed workspacesand work practices in manufacturing resist classical interruptions: How an assemblyline assembles engines. submitted for review.

Available from: 2019-02-21 Created: 2019-02-21 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Kolbeinsson, A., Lagerstedt, E. & Lindblom, J. (2018). Classification of Collaboration Levels for Human-Robot Cooperation in Manufacturing. In: Peter Thorvald & Keith Case (Ed.), Peter Thorvald, Keith Case (Ed.), Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018,  University of Skövde, Sweden. Paper presented at 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden (pp. 151-156). Amsterdam: IOS Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Classification of Collaboration Levels for Human-Robot Cooperation in Manufacturing
2018 (English)In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018,  University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, p. 151-156Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Industry 4.0 aims to support the factory of the future, which involves increased amounts of information systems and new ways of using automation. One new usage is collaboration between human and industrial robot in manufacturing, with both partners sharing work on a single task. Supporting human-robot collaboration (HRC) requires understanding the requirements of HRC as well as the differences to existing approaches where the goal is more automation, such as in the case of self-driving cars. We propose a framework that we call levels of collaboration to support this, and posit that this framework supports a mental model conducive to the design of lines incorporating HRC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018
Series
Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, ISSN 2352-751X, E-ISSN 2352-7528 ; 8
Keywords
Human-robot collaboration, Manufacturing, Industry 4.0
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems; User Centred Product Design; Interaction Lab (ILAB); INF202 Virtual Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16117 (URN)10.3233/978-1-61499-902-7-151 (DOI)000462212700025 ()2-s2.0-85057431589 (Scopus ID)978-1-61499-901-0 (ISBN)978-1-61499-902-7 (ISBN)
Conference
16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden
Projects
KK-stiftelsen AIR - SIDUS nr 20140220ManuWork (EU) nr 723711
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 723711Knowledge Foundation, 20140220
Note

Detta arbete är finansierat både av AIR(KK)  och ManuWork (EU).

Available from: 2018-08-31 Created: 2018-08-31 Last updated: 2019-04-05Bibliographically approved
Iriondo Pascual, A., Högberg, D., Kolbeinsson, A., Ruiz Castro, P., Mahdavian, N. & Hanson, L. (2018). Proposal of an Intuitive Interface Structure for Ergonomics Evaluation Software. In: Sebastiano Bagnara, Riccardo Tartaglia, Sara Albolino, Thomas Alexander, Yushi Fujita (Ed.), Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume VIII: Ergonomics and Human Factors in Manufacturing, Agriculture, Building and Construction, Sustainable Development and Mining. Paper presented at International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018), August 26-30, 2018, Florence, Italy (pp. 289-300). Cham: Springer, 825
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proposal of an Intuitive Interface Structure for Ergonomics Evaluation Software
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume VIII: Ergonomics and Human Factors in Manufacturing, Agriculture, Building and Construction, Sustainable Development and Mining / [ed] Sebastiano Bagnara, Riccardo Tartaglia, Sara Albolino, Thomas Alexander, Yushi Fujita, Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 825, p. 289-300Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Nowadays, different technologies and software for ergonomics evaluations are gaining greater relevance in the field of ergonomics and production development. The tools allow users such as ergonomists and engineers to perform assessments of ergonomic conditions of work, both related to work simulated in digital human modelling (DHM) tools or based on recordings of work performed by real operators. Regardless of approach, there are many dimensions of data that needs to be processed and presented to the users.

The users may have a range of different expectations and purposes from reading the data. Examples of situations are to: judge and compare different design solutions; analyse data in relation to anthropometric differences among subjects; investigate different body regions; assess data based on different time perspectives; and to perform assessments according to different types of ergonomics evaluation methods. The range of different expectations and purposes from reading the data increases the complexity of creating an interface that considers all the necessary tools and functions that the users require, while at the same time offer high usability.

This paper focuses on the structural design of a flexible and intuitive interface for an ergonomics evaluation software that possesses the required tools and functions to analyse work situations from different perspectives, where the data input can be either from DHM tools or from real operators while performing work. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2018
Series
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, ISSN 2194-5357, E-ISSN 2194-5365 ; 825
Keywords
Ergonomics, Interface, Data Management
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
User Centred Product Design; INF202 Virtual Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16185 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-96068-5_32 (DOI)000468070400032 ()2-s2.0-85052146989 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-96067-8 (ISBN)978-3-319-96068-5 (ISBN)
Conference
International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018), August 26-30, 2018, Florence, Italy
Projects
Smart Textiles for a Sustainable Work Life
Note

This work has been made possible with the support from Vinnova/UDI in Sweden, in the project Smart Textiles for a Sustainable Work Life, and by the participating organizations. This support is gratefully acknowledged.

Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2019-06-07Bibliographically approved
Kolbeinsson, A., Thorvald, P. & Lindblom, J. (2017). Coordinating the interruption of assembly workers in manufacturing. Applied Ergonomics, 58, 361-371
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coordinating the interruption of assembly workers in manufacturing
2017 (English)In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 58, p. 361-371Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines how interruptions from information and communications technology systems affect errors and the time to complete tasks for assembly workers. Interruptions have previously been examined in laboratory experiments and office environments, but not much work has been performed in other authentic environments. This paper contains the results of an experiment that was performed in a simulated manufacturing assembly environment, which tested the effects of interruptions on a manual assembly task. The experiment used existing interruption coordination methods as a basis, and the results showed a difference in the effect of interruptions and interruption coordination between cognitively complex laboratory tasks and manual assembly tasks in an authentic environment. Most notably, the negative effects of interruptions delivered without consideration were smaller in this experiment. Based on these findings, recommendations were developed for designing interruption systems for minimizing the costs (errors and time) imposed by interruptions during assembly tasks in manufacturing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Interruptions, Manual assembly, Manufacturing
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Technology; User Centred Product Design; Interaction Lab (ILAB); INF202 Virtual Ergonomics; INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12770 (URN)10.1016/j.apergo.2016.07.015 (DOI)000384776100042 ()27633233 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84982833592 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Sense&React
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-314350
Available from: 2016-08-09 Created: 2016-08-09 Last updated: 2019-09-05Bibliographically approved
Kolbeinsson, A., Lindblom, J. & Thorvald, P. (2017). Missing mediated interruptions in manual assembly: Critical aspects of breakpoint selection. Applied Ergonomics, 61, 90-101
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Missing mediated interruptions in manual assembly: Critical aspects of breakpoint selection
2017 (English)In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 61, p. 90-101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The factory of the future aims to make manufacturing more effective and easily customisable, using advanced sensors and communications to support information management. In this paper, we examine how breakpoint selection during interruption management can fail, even when using recommendations for interruption management from existing research. We present an experiment based on prior work where mediated interruptions (i.e. smart interruptions that should interrupt at opportune moments) were missed by participants when sent at one of two pre-defined breakpoints. These breakpoints were selected based on existing research to minimise the cost of interruption, which can involve longer times to complete tasks as well as making errors on tasks. Missing mediated interruptions in this way was unexpected, and the prior study was not configured to measure this effect, which has led to the experiment detailed here. We strive to explore whether there is a risk of missing notifications when mediated interruptions are used, and how this is affected by breakpoint selection. This was investigated through an experiment that uses tasks and environments that simulate a manufacturing assembly facility.

The results indicate that the effect exists, i.e. that participants miss significantly more notifications when interrupted at fine breakpoints than when interrupted at coarse breakpoints. An embodied cognition perspective was used for analysis of the tasks to understand the cause of the effect. This analysis shows that an overlap between “action” and “anticipation of action” can account for why participants miss notifications at fine breakpoints. Based on these findings, recommendations were developed for designing interruption systems that minimise the costs (errors and time) imposed by interruptions during assembly tasks in manufacturing.

Keywords
Interruptions, Mediated interruptions, Breakpoint selection, Manual assembly, Manufacturing
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Technology; User Centred Product Design; Interaction Lab (ILAB); INF202 Virtual Ergonomics; INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13346 (URN)10.1016/j.apergo.2017.01.010 (DOI)000397354200010 ()28237024 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85010452326 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Sense&React
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 314350
Available from: 2017-01-30 Created: 2017-01-30 Last updated: 2019-02-21Bibliographically approved
Kolbeinsson, A. (2016). Managing Interruptions in Manufacturing: Towards a Theoretical Framework for Interruptions in Manufacturing Assembly. (Licentiate dissertation). Skövde: Högskolan i Skövde
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing Interruptions in Manufacturing: Towards a Theoretical Framework for Interruptions in Manufacturing Assembly
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The effect of interruptions from ICT systems on assembly workers in manufacturing is examined in this thesis, as is how the risks of errors, increases in assembly time, increased cognitive load and resultant stress can be mitigated, as well as ensuring that important new information is acted upon. To these ends, a literature study was conducted, followed by two studies using an experimental approach in an environment that simulated a manufacturing assembly situation, and used tasks designed to be representative of manufacturing assembly tasks. The results of the literature study and the two studies are presented in four appended papers. The body of the thesis itself introduces similar material, and takes a step towards the creation of a theoretical framework that supports analysing the tasks and environments in question from a embodied and situated (DEEDS or 4E) viewpoint on cognition. This theoretical framework uses graphical representations similar to storyboards to support the analyst in maintaining an embodied and situated viewpoint during analyses of active tasks that require an examination of the interplay between brain, body, and environment. Supporting an embodied viewpoint during analysis has the purpose of facilitating the design of interruption coordination systems that take into account the embodied and situated nature of the tasks faced in manual tasks such as assembly in manufacturing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skövde: Högskolan i Skövde, 2016. p. 176
Series
Dissertation Series ; 12 (2016)
Keywords
Interruptions, Manufacturing, Mobile Devices, Cognition
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Research subject
Technology; User Centred Product Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12791 (URN)978-91-982690-2-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2016-09-19, Insikten, Kanikegränd 1, Skövde, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Sense&React
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-314350
Available from: 2016-08-19 Created: 2016-08-17 Last updated: 2018-11-15Bibliographically approved
Kolbeinsson, A. & Lindblom, J. (2015). Mind the body: How embodied cognition matters in manufacturing. Paper presented at 6th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the Affiliated Conferences, 26–30 July 2015, Las Vegas, United States. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 5184-5191
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mind the body: How embodied cognition matters in manufacturing
2015 (English)In: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, p. 5184-5191Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Embodied cognition can provide human factors and applied ergonomics practitioners with better embodied cognition design principles. This paper investigates and analyzes observational video-recorded data from an experiment that simulated a manufacturing environment. The operator was interrupted during a primary assembly task via a handheld computing device which delivered different classes of notifications. The focus is on the embodied aspect of notifications in an active environment, and why one class of notifications called mediated notifications failed at a specific point previously thought to be suitable. Guidelines for analyzing tasks from an embodied cognition perspective that complements and expands traditional human factors and applied ergonomics approaches were developed and are included.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
embodied cognition, handedness, assembly, manufacturing
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Technology; User Centred Product Design; Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11358 (URN)10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.576 (DOI)000383740305044 ()2-s2.0-84982814904 (Scopus ID)
Conference
6th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the Affiliated Conferences, 26–30 July 2015, Las Vegas, United States
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-314350
Note

ISBN 978-1-4951-6042-4

Available from: 2015-08-17 Created: 2015-08-17 Last updated: 2019-02-21Bibliographically approved
Kolbeinsson, A., Falkman, G. & Lindblom, J. (2015). Showing uncertainty in aircraft cockpits using icons. Paper presented at 6th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the Affiliated Conferences, 26–30 July 2015, Las Vegas, United States. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 2905-2912
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Showing uncertainty in aircraft cockpits using icons
2015 (English)In: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, p. 2905-2912Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines an icon set designed for displaying uncertainty surrounding threat levels of an approaching object in anaircraft cockpit. This is done through an experiment that compares an icon set designed for this experiment with two icon setsfrom existing research that were tested in static laboratory conditions. The experiment used a flight simulator to simulate realisticflight conditions. The results showed that the icon set designed for this experiment was easier to read. Guidelines for the designof icons for displaying uncertainty are presented based on the results of the experiment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
uncertainty visualisation, aviation, information visualisation, interaction design, icon design
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Technology; User Centred Product Design; Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL); Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11359 (URN)10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.805 (DOI)000383740303004 ()2-s2.0-85009918026 (Scopus ID)
Conference
6th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the Affiliated Conferences, 26–30 July 2015, Las Vegas, United States
Note

Arbetet som ligger till grund för detta konferensbidrag utfördes av Ari när han var student på masterprogrammet i datavetenskap (nuvarande IIT), därav har Ari fått den affileringen för detta bidrag. Göran Falkman var handledare och Jessica Lindblom var examinator. ISBN 978-1-4951-6042-4

Available from: 2015-08-17 Created: 2015-08-17 Last updated: 2018-04-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2627-0079

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