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Liebel, G., Marko, N., Tichy, M., Leitner, A. & Hansson, J. (2018). Model-based engineering in the embedded systems domain: an industrial survey on the state-of-practice. Software and Systems Modeling, 17(1), 91-113
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model-based engineering in the embedded systems domain: an industrial survey on the state-of-practice
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2018 (English)In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 91-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Model-based engineering (MBE) aims at increasing the effectiveness of engineering by using models as important artifacts in the development process. While empirical studies on the use and the effects of MBE in industry exist, only few of them target the embedded systems domain. We contribute to the body of knowledge with an empirical study on the use and the assessment of MBE in that particular domain. The goal of this study is to assess the current state-of-practice and the challenges the embedded systems domain is facing due to shortcomings with MBE. We collected quantitative data from 113 subjects, mostly professionals working with MBE, using an online survey. The collected data spans different aspects of MBE, such as the used modeling languages, tools, notations, effects of MBE introduction, or shortcomings of MBE. Our main findings are that MBE is used by a majority of all participants in the embedded systems domain, mainly for simulation, code generation, and documentation. Reported positive effects of MBE are higher quality and improved reusability. Main shortcomings are interoperability difficulties between MBE tools, high training effort for developers and usability issues. Our study offers valuable insights into the current industrial practice and can guide future research in the fields of systems modeling and embedded systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2018
Keywords
Model-based engineering, Model-driven engineering, Embedded systems, Industry, Modeling, Empirical study, State-of-practice
National Category
Software Engineering Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14789 (URN)10.1007/s10270-016-0523-3 (DOI)000424654100007 ()2-s2.0-84962207101 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-02 Created: 2018-03-02 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Antinyan, V., Staron, M., Sandberg, A. & Hansson, J. (2016). A Complexity Measure for Textual Requirements. In: Jens Heidrich & Frank Vogelezang (Ed.), Proceedings of the 26th International Workshop on Software Measurement (IWSM) and the 11th International Conference on Software Process and Product Measurement (Mensura) IWSM-Mensura 2016: . Paper presented at Joint Conference of the 26th International Workshop on Software Measurement (IWSM) and the 11th International Conference on Software Process and Product Measurement (Mensura) (IWSM-Mensura 2016), Berlin, Germany, October 5-7, 2016 (pp. 148-158). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Complexity Measure for Textual Requirements
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 26th International Workshop on Software Measurement (IWSM) and the 11th International Conference on Software Process and Product Measurement (Mensura) IWSM-Mensura 2016 / [ed] Jens Heidrich & Frank Vogelezang, IEEE, 2016, p. 148-158Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Unequivocally understandable requirements are vital for software design process. However, in practice it is hard to achieve the desired level of understandability, because in large software products a substantial amount of requirements tend to have ambiguous or complex descriptions. Over time such requirements decelerate the development speed and increase the risk of late design modifications, therefore finding and improving them is an urgent task for software designers. Manual reviewing is one way of addressing the problem, but it is effort-intensive and critically slow for large products. Another way is using measurement, in which case one needs to design effective measures. In recent years there have been great endeavors in creating and validating measures for requirements understandability: most of the measures focused on ambiguous patterns. While ambiguity is one property that has major effect on understandability, there is also another important property, complexity, which also has major effect on understandability, but is relatively less investigated. In this paper we define a complexity measure for textual requirements through an action research project in a large software development organization. We also present its evaluation results in three large companies. The evaluation shows that there is a significant correlation between the measurement values and the manual assessment values of practitioners. We recommend this measure to be used with earlier created ambiguity measures as means for automated identification of complex specifications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
Keywords
measure, requirement, quality, complexity, automation
National Category
Software Engineering Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13549 (URN)10.1109/IWSM-Mensura.2016.030 (DOI)000399139200018 ()2-s2.0-8501196621 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-4147-3 (ISBN)978-1-5090-4148-0 (ISBN)
Conference
Joint Conference of the 26th International Workshop on Software Measurement (IWSM) and the 11th International Conference on Software Process and Product Measurement (Mensura) (IWSM-Mensura 2016), Berlin, Germany, October 5-7, 2016
Available from: 2017-05-05 Created: 2017-05-05 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Rana, R., Staron, M., Berger, C., Hansson, J., Nilsson, M. & Meding, W. (2016). Analyzing defect inflow distribution and applying Bayesian inference method for software defect prediction in large software projects. Journal of Systems and Software, 117, 229-244
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing defect inflow distribution and applying Bayesian inference method for software defect prediction in large software projects
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 117, p. 229-244Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tracking and predicting quality and reliability is a major challenge in large and distributed software development projects. A number of standard distributions have been successfully used in reliability engineering theory and practice, common among these for modeling software defect inflow being exponential, Weibull, beta and Non-Homogeneous Poisson Process (NHPP). Although standard distribution models have been recognized in reliability engineering practice, their ability to fit defect data from proprietary and OSS software projects is not well understood. Lack of knowledge about underlying defect inflow distribution also leads to difficulty in applying Bayesian based inference methods for software defect prediction. In this paper we explore the defect inflow distribution of total of fourteen large software projects/release from two industrial domain and open source community. We evaluate six standard distributions for their ability to fit the defect inflow data and also assess which information criterion is practical for selecting the distribution with best fit. Our results show that beta distribution provides the best fit to the defect inflow data for all industrial projects as well as majority of OSS projects studied. In the paper we also evaluate how information about defect inflow distribution from historical projects is applied for modeling the prior beliefs/experience in Bayesian analysis which is useful for making software defect predictions early during the software project lifecycle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Software, SRGM, Defect Inflow
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12642 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2016.02.015 (DOI)000377231800015 ()2-s2.0-84961641102 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-07-01 Created: 2016-07-01 Last updated: 2018-06-05Bibliographically approved
Antinyan, V., Staron, M., Derehag, J., Runsten, M., Wikström, E., Meding, W., . . . Hansson, J. (2015). Identifying Complex Functions: By Investigating Various Aspects of Code Complexity. In: Proceedings of 2015 Science and Information Conference (SAI): July 28-30, 2015, London, United Kingdom. Paper presented at Science and Information Conference (SAI), London, United Kingdom, July 28-30, 2015 (pp. 879-888). IEEE Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identifying Complex Functions: By Investigating Various Aspects of Code Complexity
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2015 (English)In: Proceedings of 2015 Science and Information Conference (SAI): July 28-30, 2015, London, United Kingdom, IEEE Press, 2015, p. 879-888Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The complexity management of software code has become one of the major problems in software development industry. With growing complexity the maintenance effort of code increases. Moreover, various aspects of complexity create difficulties for complexity assessment. The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationships of various aspects of code complexity and propose a method for identifying the most complex functions. We have conducted an action research project in two software development companies and complemented it with a study of three open source products. Four complexity metrics are measured, and their nature and mutual influence are investigated. The results and possible explanations are discussed with software engineers in industry. The results show that there are two distinguishable aspects of complexity of source code functions: Internal and outbound complexities. Those have an inverse relationship. Moreover, the product of them does not seem to be greater than a certain limit, regardless of software size. We present a method that permits identification of most complex functions considering the two aspects of complexities. The evaluation shows that the use of the method is effective in industry: It enables identification of 0.5% most complex functions out of thousands of functions for reengineering.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2015
Keywords
code, complexity, management, risk, trade-off
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Computer Sciences Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12796 (URN)10.1109/SAI.2015.7237246 (DOI)000380448800122 ()2-s2.0-84957825136 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-8547-0 (ISBN)978-1-4799-8548-7 (ISBN)
Conference
Science and Information Conference (SAI), London, United Kingdom, July 28-30, 2015
Available from: 2016-08-19 Created: 2016-08-19 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Liebel, G., Marko, N., Tichy, M., Leitner, A. & Hansson, J. (2014). Assessing the state-of-practice of model-based engineering in the embedded systems domain. In: Juergen Dingel, Wolfram Schulte, Isidro Ramos, Silvia Abrahão, Emilio Insfran (Ed.), Model-Driven Engineering Languages and Systems: 17th International Conference, MODELS 2014, Valencia, Spain, September 28 – October 3, 2014. Proceedings. Paper presented at 17th International Conference, MODELS 2014, Valencia, Spain, September 28 – October 3, 2014 (pp. 166-182). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the state-of-practice of model-based engineering in the embedded systems domain
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2014 (English)In: Model-Driven Engineering Languages and Systems: 17th International Conference, MODELS 2014, Valencia, Spain, September 28 – October 3, 2014. Proceedings / [ed] Juergen Dingel, Wolfram Schulte, Isidro Ramos, Silvia Abrahão, Emilio Insfran, Springer, 2014, p. 166-182Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Abstract Model-Based Engineering (MBE) aims at increasing the effectiveness of engineering by using models as key artifacts in the development process. While empirical studies on the use and the effects of MBE in industry exist, there is only little work targeting the embedded systems domain. We contribute to the body of knowledge with a study on the use and the assessment of MBE in that particular domain. We collected quantitative data from 112 subjects, mostly professionals working with MBE, with the goal to assess the ...

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2014
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 8767
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Systems
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10380 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-11653-2_11 (DOI)000345508500011 ()978-3-319-11652-5 (ISBN)978-3-319-11653-2 (ISBN)
Conference
17th International Conference, MODELS 2014, Valencia, Spain, September 28 – October 3, 2014
Note

Best paper award (Foundations track)

Available from: 2014-12-10 Created: 2014-12-10 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Al Mamun, A., Berger, C. & Hansson, J. (2014). Explicating, Understanding and Managing Technical Debt from Self-Driving Miniature Car Projects. In: Proceedings 2014 6th IEEE International Workshop on Managing Technical Debt: MTD 2014. Paper presented at 30th IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution (ICSME), 6th Workshop on Managing Technical Debt, 30 September, 2014, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada (pp. 11-18). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Explicating, Understanding and Managing Technical Debt from Self-Driving Miniature Car Projects
2014 (English)In: Proceedings 2014 6th IEEE International Workshop on Managing Technical Debt: MTD 2014, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 11-18Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Technical debt refers to various weaknesses in the design or implementation of a system resulting from trade-offs during software development usually for a quick release. Accumulating such debt over time without reducing it can seriously hamper the reusability and maintainability of the software. The aim of this study is to understand the state of the technical debt in the development of self-driving miniature cars so that proper actions can be planned to reduce the debt to have more reusable and maintainable software. A case study on a selected feature from two self-driving miniature car development projects is performed to assess the technical debt. Additionally, an interview study is conducted involving the developers to relate the findings of the case study with the possible root causes. The result of the study indicates that "the lack of knowledge" is not the primary reason for the accumulation of technical debt from the selected code smells. The root causes are rather in factors like time pressure followed by issues related to software/hardware integration and incomplete refactoring as well as reuse of legacy, third party, or open source code.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2014
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Systems
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10381 (URN)10.1109/MTD.2014.15 (DOI)978-1-4799-6791-9 (ISBN)
Conference
30th IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution (ICSME), 6th Workshop on Managing Technical Debt, 30 September, 2014, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
Available from: 2014-12-10 Created: 2014-12-10 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Staron, M., Hansson, J. & Bosch, J. (Eds.). (2014). Performance in software development – Special issue editorial (56ed.). Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance in software development – Special issue editorial
2014 (English)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014. p. 463-526 Edition: 56
Series
Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849 ; 56
National Category
Computer Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10386 (URN)
Available from: 2014-12-12 Created: 2014-12-12 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Staron, M., Hansson, J. & Bosch, J. (2014). Performance in software development – Special issue editorial (56ed.). Information and Software Technology, 56(5), 463-464
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance in software development – Special issue editorial
2014 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 463-464p. 463-464Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014. p. 463-464 Edition: 56
National Category
Computer Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10379 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2014.01.013 (DOI)000335545000001 ()2-s2.0-84897632851 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-12-10 Created: 2014-12-10 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Rana, R., Staron, M., Berger, C., Hansson, J., Nilsson, M., Törner, F., . . . Höglund, C. (2014). Selecting software reliability growth models and improving their predictive accuracy using historical projects data. Journal of Systems and Software, 98, 59-78
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selecting software reliability growth models and improving their predictive accuracy using historical projects data
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 98, p. 59-78Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During software development two important decisions organizations have to make are: how to allocate testing resources optimally and when the software is ready for release. SRGMs (software reliability growth models) provide empirical basis for evaluating and predicting reliability of software systems. When using SRGMs for the purpose of optimizing testing resource allocation, the model's ability to accurately predict the expected defect inflow profile is useful. For assessing release readiness, the asymptote accuracy is the most important attribute. Although more than hundred models for software reliability have been proposed and evaluated over time, there exists no clear guide on which models should be used for a given software development process or for a given industrial domain. Using defect inflow profiles from large software projects from Ericsson, Volvo Car Corporation and Saab, we evaluate commonly used SRGMs for their ability to provide empirical basis for making these decisions. We also demonstrate that using defect intensity growth rate from earlier projects increases the accuracy of the predictions. Our results show that Logistic and Gompertz models are the most accurate models; we further observe that classifying a given project based on its expected shape of defect inflow help to select the most appropriate model. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

National Category
Software Engineering Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14128 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2014.08.033 (DOI)000344421900005 ()2-s2.0-84908286057 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-19 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2018-06-05Bibliographically approved
Berndtsson, M., Hansson, J., Olsson, B. & Lundell, B. (2008). Thesis projects: A guide for students in computer science and information systems (2ed.). London: Springer London
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thesis projects: A guide for students in computer science and information systems
2008 (English)Book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Springer London, 2008. p. 158 Edition: 2
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-7275 (URN)978-1-84800-008-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2013-02-22 Created: 2013-02-22 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2895-0780

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