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Lundell, B., Gamalielsson, J. & Katz, A. (2023). Implementing the HEVC standard in software: Challenges and Recommendations for organisations planning development and deployment of software. Journal of Standardisation, 2, Article ID 1.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementing the HEVC standard in software: Challenges and Recommendations for organisations planning development and deployment of software
2023 (English)In: Journal of Standardisation, ISSN 2772-9249, Vol. 2, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Implementation and use of an IT standard in software involves legal, technical and societal challenges. This paper addresses how an organisation can, and should, determine the conditions for implementation and use of the HEVC standard in software. The investigation considers the availability of the standard’s complete technical specification and the extent to which an organisation can access the information necessary to assess the licence conditions for standard essential patents impinging on the standard. Through an action case study approach the investigation analyses declarations in patent databases relevant to the standard and seeks to obtain patent licences from each declarant permitting implementation of the standard in software, where that software is to be provided under one (or several) of three specific open source software licences, and alternatively to be provided as an online service. Our analysis of legal and licensing conditions for use of the standard shows significant obstacles. We find that it is impossible to obtain licences from patent holders that would allow for implementation and use of the standard in open source software. The paper illuminates significant challenges related to conditions for use of the standard under (F)RAND terms and identifies that references to the standard in public procurement projects lead to anti-competitive effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Delft: TU Delft OPEN, 2023
Keywords
HEVC, ITU-T H.265, ISO/IEC 23008-2, Open source software, Standard essential patents, Licence conditions, (F)RAND
National Category
Software Engineering Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
INF304 Open Source; Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-22154 (URN)10.18757/jos.2022.6695 (DOI)
Note

CC BY 4.0

Published: 3-2-2023

Corresponding author: bjorn.lundell@his.se

This research has been financially supported by the Swedish Knowledge Foundation (KK-stiftelsen) and participating partner organisations in the SUDO project. 

Available from: 2022-12-20 Created: 2022-12-20 Last updated: 2023-09-06Bibliographically approved
Gamalielsson, J., Lundell, B., Brax, C., Persson, T., Mattsson, A., Gustavsson, T. & Feist, J. (2023). On availability of Open Source Software reference implementations for standards issued by different standards setting organisations. In: Kai Jakobs (Ed.), Joint Proceedings EURAS & SIIT 2023: (Responsible) Standardisation for Smart Systems. Paper presented at 27th EURAS Annual Standardisation Conference & 12th International Conference on Standardisation and Innovation in Information Technology (SIIT), 28 - 30 June 2023, Aachen, Germany (pp. 97-116). Aachen: Verlag Mainz
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On availability of Open Source Software reference implementations for standards issued by different standards setting organisations
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2023 (English)In: Joint Proceedings EURAS & SIIT 2023: (Responsible) Standardisation for Smart Systems / [ed] Kai Jakobs, Aachen: Verlag Mainz , 2023, p. 97-116Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Software reference implementations of ICT standards have an important role for verifying that a standard is implementable, supporting interoperability testing among other implementations, and providing feedback to the standard development process. Providing reference implementations and widely used implementations of a standard as Open Source Software also promotes wide deployment in software systems, avoidance of different lock-in effects, interoperability, and longevity of systems and associated digital assets. In this paper results are reported on the availability of reference implementations and widely deployed implementations provided as Open Source Software for standards issued by different standards setting organisations. Specifically, findings draw from observations and analyses related to software implementations for identified standards issued by ETSI, IEC, IEEE, IETF, ISO, ITU-T, OASIS, and W3C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aachen: Verlag Mainz, 2023
Series
EURAS contributions to standardisation research ; 18
Keywords
Open source software, reference implementations, standard setting organisations
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23328 (URN)978-3-95886-491-7 (ISBN)3-95886-491-0 (ISBN)
Conference
27th EURAS Annual Standardisation Conference & 12th International Conference on Standardisation and Innovation in Information Technology (SIIT), 28 - 30 June 2023, Aachen, Germany
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2023-10-25 Created: 2023-10-25 Last updated: 2023-10-25Bibliographically approved
Butler, S., Gamalielsson, J., Lundell, B., Brax, C., Mattsson, A., Gustavsson, T., . . . Lönroth, E. (2023). On business adoption and use of reproducible builds for open and closed source software. Software quality journal, 31(3), 687-719
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On business adoption and use of reproducible builds for open and closed source software
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2023 (English)In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 687-719Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reproducible builds (R-Bs) are software engineering practices that reliably create bit-for-bit identical binary executable files from specified source code. R-Bs are applied in someopen source software (OSS) projects and distributions to allow verification that the distrib-uted binary has been built from the released source code. The use of R-Bs has been advo-cated in software maintenance and R-Bs are applied in the development of some OSS secu-rity applications. Nonetheless, industry application of R-Bs appears limited, and we seekto understand whether awareness is low or if significant technical and business reasonsprevent wider adoption. Through interviews with software practitioners and business man-agers, this study explores the utility of applying R-Bs in businesses in the primary and sec-ondary software sectors and the business and technical reasons supporting their adoption.We find businesses use R-Bs in the safety-critical and security domains, and R-Bs are valu-able for traceability and support collaborative software development. We also found thatR-Bs are valued as engineering processes and are seen as a badge of software quality, butwithout a tangible value proposition. There are good engineering reasons to use R-Bs inindustrial software development, and the principle of establishing correspondence betweensource code and binary offers opportunities for the development of further applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2023
Keywords
Reproducible builds, Software integrity, Software engineering, Open source software
National Category
Software Engineering
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-22091 (URN)10.1007/s11219-022-09607-z (DOI)000889385000001 ()2-s2.0-85143160581 (Scopus ID)
Funder
University of SkövdeKnowledge Foundation
Note

CC BY 4.0

Published: 29 November 2022

Simon Butler simon.butler@his.se

Open access funding provided by University of Skövde. This research has been financially supported by the Swedish Knowledge Foundation (KK-stiftelsen) and participating partner organisations in the LIM-IT project.

© 2022 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Part of Springer Nature.

Available from: 2022-11-30 Created: 2022-11-30 Last updated: 2023-09-22Bibliographically approved
Fischer, T., Lundell, B. & Gamalielsson, J. (2023). On PDF/A Conformance and Font Usage in PDF Documents Provided by Public Sector Organizations. International Journal of Standardization Research, 20(1), 1-19
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On PDF/A Conformance and Font Usage in PDF Documents Provided by Public Sector Organizations
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Standardization Research, ISSN 2470-8542, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of appropriate fonts and file formats for long-term maintenance of digital assets is a challenge for organizations in the public sector. The article reports from a study which investigated the PDF/A conformance and font usage in PDF files provided by Swedish public sector organizations (PSOs). This article presents an analysis of the PDF files’ properties and font usage including a categorization of fonts’ licenses. This study is motivated by the PDF/A-1 standard’s requirement that ‘only fonts that are legally embeddable in a file for unlimited, universal rendering shall be used.’ Analyzing PDF sets from three PSOs, the finding shows that the proportion of files that claim or succeed at conforming to PDF/A greatly varies among the sets despite similar backgrounds. Although the most popular way to make use of fonts is by embedding a subset of the font data, for some fonts expected to be ‘always available,’ a considerable proportion of PDF files does not include any font data. This puts the onus of locating this data on the PDF reader which is problematic for long-term archival

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IGI Global, 2023
Keywords
Archival, Embedding, Font, ISO, License, Long-Term, Open Source, Standardization, Subset, Typeface
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science Public Administration Studies Information Systems
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23225 (URN)10.4018/ijsr.329605 (DOI)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

CC BY 4.0

This research has been financially supported by the Swedish Knowledge Foundation (KK-stiftelsen) and participating partner organizations in the SUDO project.

Available from: 2023-09-18 Created: 2023-09-18 Last updated: 2023-10-10Bibliographically approved
Butler, S., Gamalielsson, J., Lundell, B., Brax, C., Persson, T., Mattsson, A., . . . Öberg, J. (2022). An Exploration of Openness in Hardware and Software Through Implementation of a RISC-V Based Desktop Computer. In: Gregorio Robles; Amel Charleux; Igor Steinmacher; Javier Arroyo; Antonio Balderas; Gemma Catolino; Alexandre Decan; Francisco Martín-Rico; Amit Kumar Verma (Ed.), OpenSym '22: Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Open Collaboration. Paper presented at OpenSym 2022: The 18th International Symposium on Open Collaboration, Madrid, Spain, September 7 - 9, 2022. New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Article ID 4.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Exploration of Openness in Hardware and Software Through Implementation of a RISC-V Based Desktop Computer
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2022 (English)In: OpenSym '22: Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Open Collaboration / [ed] Gregorio Robles; Amel Charleux; Igor Steinmacher; Javier Arroyo; Antonio Balderas; Gemma Catolino; Alexandre Decan; Francisco Martín-Rico; Amit Kumar Verma, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022, article id 4Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Open hardware and open source software platforms bring benefits to both implementers and users in the form of system adaptability and maintainability, and through the avoidance of lock-in, for example. Development of the \riscv\ Instruction Set Architecture and processors during the last ten years has made the implementation of a desktop computer using open hardware, including open processors, and open source software an approaching possibility. We use the SiFive Unmatched development board and Ubuntu Linux, and the recorded experiences of system builders using the Unmatched board to explore the extent to which it is possible to create an open desktop computer. The work identifies current limitations to implementing an open computer system, which lie mainly at the interface between the operating system and hardware components. Potential solutions to the challenges uncovered are proposed, including greater consideration of openness during the early stages of product design. A further contribution is made by an account of the synergies arising from open collaboration in a private-collective innovation process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022
National Category
Software Engineering
Research subject
INF304 Open Source; Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-21967 (URN)10.1145/3555051.3555065 (DOI)001066190000004 ()2-s2.0-85139156421 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-9845-9 (ISBN)978-1-4503-9846-6 (ISBN)
Conference
OpenSym 2022: The 18th International Symposium on Open Collaboration, Madrid, Spain, September 7 - 9, 2022
Note

CC BY 4.0

Available from: 2022-10-18 Created: 2022-10-18 Last updated: 2023-10-13Bibliographically approved
Butler, S., Gamalielsson, J., Lundell, B., Brax, C., Mattsson, A., Gustavsson, T., . . . Lönroth, E. (2022). Considerations and challenges for the adoption of open source components in software-intensive businesses. Journal of Systems and Software, 186, Article ID 111152.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Considerations and challenges for the adoption of open source components in software-intensive businesses
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 186, article id 111152Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Component-Based Software Development is a conventional way of working for software-intensive businesses and OpenSource Software (OSS) components are frequently considered by businesses for adoption and inclusion in softwareproducts. Previous research has found a variety of practices used to support the adoption of OSS components, in-cluding formally specified processes and less formal, developer-led approaches, and that the practices used continue todevelop. Evolutionary pressures identified include the proliferation of available OSS components and increases in thepace of software development as businesses move towards continuous integration and delivery. We investigate workpractices used in six software-intensive businesses in the primary and secondary software sectors to understand currentapproaches to OSS component adoption and the challenges businesses face establishing effective work practices to eval-uate OSS components. We find businesses have established processes for evaluating OSS components and communitiesthat support more complex and nuanced considerations of the cost and risks of component adoption alongside matterssuch as licence compliance and functional requirements. We also found that the increasing pace and volume of softwaredevelopment within some businesses provides pressure to continue to evolve software evaluation processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Component-based software development, software adoption, open source software
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
INF304 Open Source; Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-20817 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2021.111152 (DOI)000750027000016 ()2-s2.0-85122228228 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160104
Note

CC BY 4.0

Corresponding author: simon.butler@his.se (Simon Butler)

Available online 24 December 2021

Available from: 2021-12-27 Created: 2021-12-27 Last updated: 2022-04-11Bibliographically approved
Lundell, B., Gamalielsson, J., Katz, A. & Lindroth, M. (2022). Data processing and maintenance in different jurisdictions when using a SaaS solution in a public sector organisation. eJournal of eDemocracy & Open Government, 14(2), 214-234
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data processing and maintenance in different jurisdictions when using a SaaS solution in a public sector organisation
2022 (English)In: eJournal of eDemocracy & Open Government, E-ISSN 2075-9517, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 214-234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many public sector organisations (PSO) use SaaS solutions from dominant global providers. Implementation of these solutions may raise issues concerning both lawful data processing, and the obligations that those PSOs have to maintain their digital assets. One example is a large Swedish PSO which addressed these issues as part of the adoption and implementation of Microsoft 365. The study identifies challenges and presents an analysis of the organisational implementation of that SaaS solution, exposing legal issues that arose in that context. Findings show an absence of a documented risk analysis related to the PSO's use of that SaaS solution, covering data processing and maintenance of its digital assets. Recommendations are presented to facilitate a PSO's procurement and implementation of such a SaaS solution to address issues around data processing and the processing of digital assets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Krems: Department for E-Governance and Administration, Danube University Krems, 2022
Keywords
SaaS, lock-in, Microsoft 365, public procurement, contract terms, GDPR, case study
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-22153 (URN)10.29379/jedem.v14i2.749 (DOI)2-s2.0-85144647669 (Scopus ID)
Note

CC BY 3.0 Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Austria

Available from: 2022-12-20 Created: 2022-12-20 Last updated: 2024-01-03Bibliographically approved
Robles, G., Capiluppi, A., Gonzalez-Barahona, J. M., Lundell, B. & Gamalielsson, J. (2022). Development effort estimation in free/open source software from activity in version control systems. Empirical Software Engineering, 27, Article ID 135.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development effort estimation in free/open source software from activity in version control systems
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2022 (English)In: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 27, article id 135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Effort estimation models are a fundamental tool in software management, and used as a fore-cast for resources, constraints and costs associated to software development. For Free/OpenSource Software (FOSS) projects, effort estimation is especially complex: professionaldevelopers work alongside occasional, volunteer developers, so the overall effort (in person-months) becomes non-trivial to determine. The objective of this work it to develop a simpleeffort estimation model for FOSS projects, based on the historic data of developers’ effort.The model is fed with direct developer feedback to ensure its accuracy. After extractingthe personal development profiles of several thousands of developers from 6 large FOSSprojects, we asked them to fill in a questionnaire to determine if they should be consideredas full-time developers in the project that they work in. Their feedback was used to fine-tune the value of an effort threshold, above which developers can be considered as full-time.With the help of the over 1,000 questionnaires received, we were able to determine, for every project in our sample, the threshold of commits that separates full-time from non-full-time developers. We finally offer guidelines and a tool to apply our model to FOSS projects that use a version control system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2022
Keywords
Effort estimation, Open source, Free software, Mining software repositories, Versioning system, Commits
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-21642 (URN)10.1007/s10664-022-10166-x (DOI)000828248300001 ()2-s2.0-85134490012 (Scopus ID)
Note

CC BY 4.0

Andrea Capiluppi a.capiluppi@rug.nl

© 2022 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Part of Springer Nature.

Springer

We want to express our gratitude to Bitergia14 for the support they have provided when questions have arisen. We acknowledge the support of the Government of Spain through the “BugBirth” project (RTI2018-101963-B-100). We also acknowledge the work by Carlos Cervigón on an earlier version of the manuscript.

Available from: 2022-07-20 Created: 2022-07-20 Last updated: 2022-10-17Bibliographically approved
Lundell, B., Butler, S., Fischer, T., Gamalielsson, J., Brax, C., Feist, J., . . . Mattsson, A. (2022). Effective Strategies for Using Open Source Software and Open Standards in Organizational Contexts: Experiences From the Primary and Secondary Software Sectors. IEEE Software, 39(1), 84-92
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effective Strategies for Using Open Source Software and Open Standards in Organizational Contexts: Experiences From the Primary and Secondary Software Sectors
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2022 (English)In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 84-92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Open source software (OSS) and open standards have become increasingly important for addressing challenges related to lock-in, interoperability and long-term maintenance of systems and associated digital assets. OSS projects operate under different conditions and many projects and organisations consider successful governance and strategic involvement with projects to constitute major challenges. Today, many companies seek to establish work practices which facilitate strategic engagement with OSS projects. Based on findings from collaborative research which draws from rich insights and extensive experiences from practice, the paper presents seven actionable strategies for organisations that seek to leverage long-term involvement with OSS projects. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2022
Keywords
Collaboration, Companies, Interoperability, Linux, Open source software, Software systems, Standards
National Category
Information Systems Computer Sciences Computer Systems
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-19521 (URN)10.1109/MS.2021.3059036 (DOI)000733943900015 ()2-s2.0-85100845589 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, The LIM-IT project
Note

CC BY 4.0

Tidigare titel: Effective Organizational Strategies for Use of Open Source Software and Open Standards in Organizational Contexts

Available from: 2021-03-04 Created: 2021-03-04 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Lundell, B. (2022). Enskilt yttrande över Riksarkivets förslag till författningar (Dnr. RA-KS 2021/18).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enskilt yttrande över Riksarkivets förslag till författningar (Dnr. RA-KS 2021/18)
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Detta yttrande över innehållet i Riksarkivets förslag (i detta dokument hädanefter benämnt förslaget) till författningar (Dnr. RA-KS 2021/18) avsedda att ersätta Riksarkivets föreskrifter och allmänna råd (RA-FS 2009:2) om tekniska krav för elektroniska handlingar redovisar ett antal synpunkter och rekommendationer till Riksarkivet. Inledningsvis kan det konstateras att förslaget behandlar flera komplexa frågeställningar och att underlaget är mycket omfattande.

Författaren till detta yttrande (hädanefter benämnt författaren) avstyrker förslaget utifrån en analys som identifierat flera brister i såväl underlag som förslag. Det finns flera skäl till detta ställningstagande som redovisas i detta yttrande.

Genomförd analys visar att såväl själva förslaget, samt underlaget till förslaget, innehåller flera allvarliga brister som vid ett eventuellt genomförande skulle bidra till att skapa hinderför enskilda myndigheters möjligheter att upprätthålla en långsiktigt god förvaltning av elektroniska handlingar. Identifierade brister kan sammanfattningsvis kategoriseras och hänföras till en av fyra typer av brister. För det första, bland identifierade brister finns ett antal vilseledande uppgifter och direkta felaktigheter i det underlag som ligger till grund förförslaget.

För det andra, flera viktiga aspekter som ger förutsättningar för en god förvaltning av elektroniska handlingar saknar behandling i underlaget som ligger till grund för författningsförslaget.

Dessa vilseledande uppgifter och direkta felaktigheter, samt avsaknaden av att behandla viktiga aspekter av en god förvaltning av elektroniska handlingar, hindrar myndigheters möjligheter att upprätthålla en långsiktigt god förvaltning. För det tredje innehåller förslaget ett antal olämpliga rekommendationer som skapar hinder för en god förvaltning. För det fjärde utgör förslagets komplexitet ett betydande hinder för enskilda myndigheters möjligheter att tillämpa förslaget. En samlad bedömning av förslaget visar att en eventuelltillämpning av förslaget skulle ställa orimliga krav på enskilda myndigheter. Avslutningsvisredovisas även ett alternativt förslag till ansats för analys av format.

Publisher
p. 20
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
INF304 Open Source; Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-22150 (URN)HS 2021/842 (Högskolan i Skövde) (Local ID)HS 2021/842 (Högskolan i Skövde) (Archive number)HS 2021/842 (Högskolan i Skövde) (OAI)
Note

HS 2021/842 (Högskolan i Skövde)

Available from: 2022-12-20 Created: 2022-12-20 Last updated: 2022-12-21Bibliographically approved
Projects
ITEA-MoSiS [2008-04259_Vinnova]; University of SkövdeOPEES (Open Platform for the Engineering of Embedded Systems) [2010-02522_Vinnova]; University of Skövde
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2825-135X

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