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Lundell, Björn
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Butler, S., Gamalielsson, J., Lundell, B., Jonsson, P., Sjöberg, J., Mattsson, A., . . . Lönroth, E. (2018). An Investigation of Work Practices Used by Companies Making Contributions to Established OSS Projects. In: ICSE-SEIP '18 Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice: . Paper presented at ICSE-SEIP ’18: 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice Track, Gothenburg, Sweden — May 27 - June 03, 2018 (pp. 201-210). New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Investigation of Work Practices Used by Companies Making Contributions to Established OSS Projects
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2018 (English)In: ICSE-SEIP '18 Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, p. 201-210Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Professionals contribute to open source software (OSS) projects aspart of their employment. Previous research has addressed motivationsof individuals and the ways they engage with OSS projects.However, there is a lack of research which examines and explainswork practices used by companies in their engagement with projects.Work practices used by companies to contribute to five establishedOSS projects are investigated through examination of the actions ofemployees in public communication channels and draw on our experienceswhen analysing engagement with the same projects. Wefind that companies utilise work practices for contributing whichare congruent with the circumstances and their capabilities thatsupport their short and long term needs. We find that companiescontribute to OSS projects in different ways, such as employing coreproject developers, making donations, and joining project steeringcommittees in order to advance strategic interests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018
Keywords
Open source software, company contribution, work practices
National Category
Software Engineering
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15585 (URN)10.1145/3183519.3183531 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049698497 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-5659-6 (ISBN)
Conference
ICSE-SEIP ’18: 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice Track, Gothenburg, Sweden — May 27 - June 03, 2018
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-06-14 Created: 2018-06-14 Last updated: 2018-10-09Bibliographically approved
Lundell, B., Gamalielsson, J. & Katz, A. (2018). On Challenges for Implementing ISO Standards in Software: Can Both Open and Closed Standards Be Implemented in Open Source Software? (1ed.). In: Kai Jakobs (Ed.), Corporate and Global Standardization Initiatives in Contemporary Society: (pp. 219-251). Hershey: IGI Global
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Challenges for Implementing ISO Standards in Software: Can Both Open and Closed Standards Be Implemented in Open Source Software?
2018 (English)In: Corporate and Global Standardization Initiatives in Contemporary Society / [ed] Kai Jakobs, Hershey: IGI Global, 2018, 1, p. 219-251Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Over the years, the importance of open standards has been acknowledged in EU and national policies. Formal (e.g., ISO) standards are often referred to in software development and procurement. Use of formal (ISO) standards and to what extent ISO standards can be implemented in open source software is considered, with particular reference to patent licensing. It is shown that not all formal standards are open standards and that FRAND commitments may impose major challenges for use of such standards. Further policies and procedures set by standards setting organisations (SSOs) regarding the notification of standards-essential patents (SEPs) present challenges for organisations wishing to implement standards in software. This chapter elaborates implications and suggests ways of addressing the challenges identified. Use of formal standards may create barriers for implementation in open source software and inhibit an open and inclusive business-friendly ecosystem.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hershey: IGI Global, 2018 Edition: 1
Series
Advances in Human and Social Aspects of Technology, ISSN 2328-1316, E-ISSN 2328-1324
Keywords
Open Standards, Closed Standards, Open Source Software
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Technology; Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14690 (URN)10.4018/978-1-5225-5320-5.ch010 (DOI)978-1-5225-5320-5 (ISBN)1-5225-5320-7 (ISBN)978-1-5225-5321-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-01-26 Created: 2018-01-26 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Lundell, B. & Gamalielsson, J. (2018). Sustainable digitalisation through different dimensions of openness: how can lock-in, interoperability, and long-term maintenance of IT systems be addressed?. In: OpenSym '18: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Open Collaboration. Paper presented at OpenSym '18, 14th International Symposium on Open Collaboration, Paris, France, August 22-24, 2018 (pp. 3:1-3:10). New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Article ID 3.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable digitalisation through different dimensions of openness: how can lock-in, interoperability, and long-term maintenance of IT systems be addressed?
2018 (English)In: OpenSym '18: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Open Collaboration, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, p. 3:1-3:10, article id 3Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Lock-in, interoperability, and long-term maintenance are three fundamental challenges that need to be addressed by any organisation involved in development, use and procurement of IT systems. This paper clarifies fundamental concepts and key dimensions of openness and provides examples of work-practices and recommendations for achieving sustainable digitalisation through addressing the fundamental challenges. Specifically, there are three main contributions. First, the concepts open standard, open source software, and open content are clarified and elaborated. Second, the associated three dimensions standard, software, and content are elaborated through examples of how different combinations along the dimensions can enable and inhibit sustainable digitalisation when IT-systems are developed and procured. Third, work-practices used by public sector organisations in specific projects for development and procurement of IT-systems are elaborated with the view to discuss how the three fundamental challenges are being addressed and provide guidance for how organisations can achieve a sustainable digitalisation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018
Keywords
IT systems, interoperability, lock-in, long-term maintenance, open content, open source, open standard
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16037 (URN)10.1145/3233391.3233527 (DOI)978-1-4503-5936-8 (ISBN)
Conference
OpenSym '18, 14th International Symposium on Open Collaboration, Paris, France, August 22-24, 2018
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-08-06 Created: 2018-08-06 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Lundell, B., Gamalielsson, J., Tengblad, S., Yousefi, B. H., Fischer, T., Johansson, G., . . . Lönroth, E. (2017). Addressing Lock-in, Interoperability, and Long-Term Maintenance Challenges Through Open Source: How Can Companies Strategically Use Open Source?. In: Federico Balaguer, Roberto Di Cosmo, Alejandra Garrido, Fabio Kon, Gregorio Robles, Stefano Zacchiroli (Ed.), Open Source Systems: Towards Robust Practices. Paper presented at 13th IFIP WG 2.13 International Conference on Open Source Systems, OSS 2017; Buenos Aires; Argentina; 22 May 2017 through 23 May 2017; Code 191819 (pp. 80-88). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Addressing Lock-in, Interoperability, and Long-Term Maintenance Challenges Through Open Source: How Can Companies Strategically Use Open Source?
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2017 (English)In: Open Source Systems: Towards Robust Practices / [ed] Federico Balaguer, Roberto Di Cosmo, Alejandra Garrido, Fabio Kon, Gregorio Robles, Stefano Zacchiroli, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 80-88Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This industry paper reports on how strategic use of open source in company contexts can provide effective support for addressing the fundamental challenges of lock-in, interoperability, and longevity of software and associated digital assets. The fundamental challenges and an overview of an ongoing collaborative research project are presented. Through a conceptual model for open source usage in company contexts we characterise how companies engage with open source and elaborate on how the fundamental challenges can be effectively addressed through open source usage in company contexts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2017
Series
IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, ISSN 1868-4238, E-ISSN 1868-422X ; 496
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG); Followership and Organizational Resilience; Knowledge and Innovation Management (KIM); INF304 Open Source
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13610 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-57735-7_9 (DOI)2-s2.0-85019625844 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-57734-0 (ISBN)978-3-319-57735-7 (ISBN)
Conference
13th IFIP WG 2.13 International Conference on Open Source Systems, OSS 2017; Buenos Aires; Argentina; 22 May 2017 through 23 May 2017; Code 191819
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-06-01 Created: 2017-06-01 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved
Lundell, B. & Gamalielsson, J. (2017). Collaborative research involving small companies: Experiences from co-production of knowledge for research and practice through use of an action case approach. In: SER&IP '17 Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Software Engineering Research and Industrial Practice: . Paper presented at 2017 IEEE/ACM 4th International Workshop on Software Engineering Research and Industrial Practice (SER&IP), May 21, 2017 - May 21, 2017, Buenes Aires, Argentina (pp. 24-30). IEEE Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collaborative research involving small companies: Experiences from co-production of knowledge for research and practice through use of an action case approach
2017 (English)In: SER&IP '17 Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Software Engineering Research and Industrial Practice, IEEE Press, 2017, p. 24-30Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In order for the conduct of collaborative research projects and their outcomes to be valuable for both research and practice it is necessary to successfully address a number of sociotechnical challenges in the field of software engineering. Collaborative research involving researchers and practitionersrelated to software systems have utilised a variety of different research approaches. Adoption of an effective research approach for the situation at hand in a research project may significantly contribute to project success. Experiences from collaborative research show that action case can be an appropriate choice of approach for addressing socio-technical challenges in the software domain, which is appealing to both practitioners and researchers. This paper elaborates on a number of challenges for successful conduct of collaborative research projects and reports on experiences from use of action case as a research approach for conduct of collaborative research related to software systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2017
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG); INF304 Open Source
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13611 (URN)10.1109/SER-IP.2017..4 (DOI)000425916600005 ()2-s2.0-85026741813 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-2797-6 (ISBN)978-1-5386-2798-3 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 IEEE/ACM 4th International Workshop on Software Engineering Research and Industrial Practice (SER&IP), May 21, 2017 - May 21, 2017, Buenes Aires, Argentina
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-06-01 Created: 2017-06-01 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved
Francke, H., Gamalielsson, J. & Lundell, B. (2017). Institutional repositories as infrastructures for long-term preservation. Information research, 22(2), Article ID 757.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Institutional repositories as infrastructures for long-term preservation
2017 (English)In: Information research, ISSN 1368-1613, E-ISSN 1368-1613, Vol. 22, no 2, article id 757Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction. The study describes the conditions for long-term preservation of the content of the institutional repositories of Swedish higher education institutions based on an investigation of how deposited files are managed with regards to file format and how representatives of the repositories describe the functions of the repositories.

Method. The findings are based on answers to a questionnaire completed by thirty-four institutional repository representatives (97% response rate).

Analysis. Questionnaire answers were analysed through descriptive statistics and qualitative coding. The concept of information infrastructures was used to analytically discuss repository work.

Results. Visibility and access to content were considered to be the most important functions of the repositories, but long-term preservation was also considered important for publications and student theses. Whereas a majority of repositories had some form of guidelines for which file formats were accepted, very few considered whether or not file formats constitute open standards. This can have consequences for the long-term sustainability and access of the content deposited in the repositories.

Conclusion. The study contributes to the discussion about the sustainability of research publications and data in the repositories by pointing to the potential difficulties involved for long-term preservation and access when there is little focus on and awareness of open file formats.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG); INF304 Open Source
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13693 (URN)000404552600013 ()2-s2.0-85023781793 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region Västra Götaland
Available from: 2017-06-12 Created: 2017-06-12 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved
Gamalielsson, J. & Lundell, B. (2017). On licensing and other conditions for contributing to widely used open source projects: an exploratory analysis. In: OpenSym '17: Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Open Collaboration. Paper presented at The 13th International Symposium on Open Collaboration (OpenSym '17), Galway, Ireland — August 23 - 25, 2017 (pp. 9:1-9:14). New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On licensing and other conditions for contributing to widely used open source projects: an exploratory analysis
2017 (English)In: OpenSym '17: Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Open Collaboration, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, p. 9:1-9:14Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Open source software (OSS) projects are provided under different open source licenses and some projects use other conditions (in addition to licensing terms) for contributors to adhere to. Licensing terms and conditions may affect community involvement and contributions, and are perceived differently by different stakeholders in different OSS projects. The study reports from an exploratory analysis of licensing terms and other conditions for 200 widely used OSS projects, and an investigation of the relationship between licensing terms and other conditions for contributing. We find that strong copyleft licenses are most common and are used in the majority of the projects. Further, a clear majority of the OSS projects use no specific other condition for contributing in addition to the license terms. However, a clear majority of the OSS projects supported by foundations use other conditions for contributing in addition to the license terms. Finally, use of no specific other conditions in addition to the license terms is more common for projects using strong copyleft licensing compared to projects using non-copyleft licensing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017
Keywords
open source, licensing, conditions, agreements
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG); INF304 Open Source
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14079 (URN)10.1145/3125433.3125456 (DOI)2-s2.0-85029690024 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-5187-4 (ISBN)
Conference
The 13th International Symposium on Open Collaboration (OpenSym '17), Galway, Ireland — August 23 - 25, 2017
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-09-04 Created: 2017-09-04 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved
Gamalielsson, J. & Lundell, B. (2017). On organisational involvement and collaboration in W3C standards through editorship. Journal of Internet Services and Applications, 8(1), 5:1-5:26, Article ID 5.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On organisational involvement and collaboration in W3C standards through editorship
2017 (English)In: Journal of Internet Services and Applications, ISSN 0896-4327, E-ISSN 1869-0238, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 5:1-5:26, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Over time, a number of open standards have been developed and implemented in software for addressing a number of challenges, such as lock-in, interoperability and longevity of software systems and associated digital artefacts. An understanding of organisational involvement and collaboration in standardisation is important for informing any future policy and organisational decisions concerning involvement in standardisation. The overarching goal of the study is toestablish how organisations contribute to open standards development through editorship. Specifically, the focus is on open standards development in the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Through an analysis of editorship for all W3C recommendations we contribute novel findings concerning organisational involvement and collaboration, and highlight contributions from different types of organisations and countries. We make five principal contributions. First, we establish an overall characterisation of organisational involvement in W3C standardisation. Second, we report on organisational involvement in W3C standardisation over time. Third, we establish how different organisations, organisation types, and countries are involved in W3C technologies. Fourth, we report on organisational involvement in relation to standard development time. Fifth, we establish how organisations collaborate in W3C standardisation through social network analysis.

Keywords
Organisations, Involvement, Collaboration, W3C, Standards, Editorship
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG); INF304 Open Source
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13606 (URN)10.1186/s13174-017-0056-1 (DOI)000401476600001 ()2-s2.0-85019226419 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-01 Created: 2017-06-01 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved
Lundell, B. & Gamalielsson, J. (2017). On the potential for improved standardisation through use of open source work practices in different standardisation organisations: How can open source-projects contribute to development of IT-standards?. In: Kai Jakobs, Knut Blind (Ed.), Digitalisation: Challenge and Opportunity for Standardisation: Proceedings of the 22nd EURAS Annual Standardisation Conference. Paper presented at The 22nd EURAS Annual Standardisation Conference, Berlin, Germany, June 28-30, 2017 (pp. T137-T155). Aachen: Verlag Mainz
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the potential for improved standardisation through use of open source work practices in different standardisation organisations: How can open source-projects contribute to development of IT-standards?
2017 (English)In: Digitalisation: Challenge and Opportunity for Standardisation: Proceedings of the 22nd EURAS Annual Standardisation Conference / [ed] Kai Jakobs, Knut Blind, Aachen: Verlag Mainz , 2017, p. T137-T155Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Open source has had significant impact on how work practices for development and deployment of software and has thereby transformed the way of working in the domain of software. From a review of the literature and current activities amongst policy makers and standardisation organisations it is evident that there is potential for utilising open source work practices for improved standardisation processes in the domain of standards. This paper presents three principle contributions. First, we clarify core concepts and elaborate on work related to how organisations seek to utilise open source software for developing standards. Second, we present opportunities and challenges for how open source work practices can be used for development of IT-standards. Third, for different standardisation organisations we illustrate through a review of existing open source projects implementing standards provided by three different standardisation organisations how those projects have contributed to development and governance of each standard. We find that open source work practices may contribute to improved standardisation processes and thereby constitute an effective strategy for improved standardisation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aachen: Verlag Mainz, 2017
Series
EURAS Contributions to Standardisation Research ; 12
Keywords
open source, IT-standards, work practices
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG); INF304 Open Source
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13885 (URN)978-3-95886-172-5 (ISBN)3-95886-172-5 (ISBN)
Conference
The 22nd EURAS Annual Standardisation Conference, Berlin, Germany, June 28-30, 2017
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-06-30 Created: 2017-06-30 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved
Hammouda, I., Lundell, B., Madey, G. & Squire, M. (Eds.). (2017). Proceedings of the Doctoral Consortium at the 13th International Conference on Open Source Systems. Paper presented at Doctoral Consortium at the 13th International Conference on Open Source Systems, 2017, Buenos Aires, Argentina, May 22 2017. Skövde: University of Skövde
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proceedings of the Doctoral Consortium at the 13th International Conference on Open Source Systems
2017 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skövde: University of Skövde, 2017. p. 80
Series
Skövde University Studies in Informatics, ISSN 1653-2325 ; 2017:1
Keywords
open source, doctoral consortium, OSS, conference
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG); INF304 Open Source
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13797 (URN)978-91-983667-1-6 (ISBN)
Conference
Doctoral Consortium at the 13th International Conference on Open Source Systems, 2017, Buenos Aires, Argentina, May 22 2017
Available from: 2017-06-20 Created: 2017-06-20 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved
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