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Gustavsson, P., Syberfeldt, A. & Holm, M. (2023). Virtual reality platform for design and evaluation of human-robot collaboration in assembly manufacturing. International Journal of Manufacturing Research, 18(1), 28-49
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Virtual reality platform for design and evaluation of human-robot collaboration in assembly manufacturing
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Manufacturing Research, ISSN 1750-0591, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 28-49Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents 'virtual collaborative robot', a virtual reality platform for designing and evaluating collaboration between operators and industrial robots. Within the platform, human-robot collaboration scenarios can be created and a user can interact with a robot without the safety risks that might arise with physical industrial robots. In an initial evaluation of the platform a scenario was implemented combining speech recognition, haptic control, and augmented reality to assemble a car model. The results from this evaluation indicate that the suggested platform can be used to successfully test new applications with the standard equipment of virtual reality headsets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2023
Keywords
human-robot collaboration, HRC, human-robot interaction, HRI, virtual reality, augmented reality, speech recognition
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Virtual Production Development (VPD)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-22362 (URN)10.1504/IJMR.2023.129303 (DOI)000944150000002 ()2-s2.0-85153476675 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-04-03 Created: 2023-04-03 Last updated: 2023-09-25Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, P. & Syberfeldt, A. (2021). The Industry’s Perspective of Suitable Tasks for Human-Robot Collaboration in Assembly Manufacturing. In: 11th International Conference on Manufacturing Science and Technology (ICMST 2020) 22nd-24th September 2020, Liverpool, UK: . Paper presented at 11th International Conference on Manufacturing Science and Technology (ICMST 2020) 22nd-24th September 2020, Liverpool, UK. Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), Article ID 012010.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Industry’s Perspective of Suitable Tasks for Human-Robot Collaboration in Assembly Manufacturing
2021 (English)In: 11th International Conference on Manufacturing Science and Technology (ICMST 2020) 22nd-24th September 2020, Liverpool, UK, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2021, article id 012010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Human-robot collaboration (HRC) is the concept of combining a human and a robot into the same production cell and utilize the benefits of both. This concept has existed for more than a decade, but there are still quite few implementations of HRC within the manufacturing industry. One reason for this is the lack of knowledge when it comes to suitable tasks for HRC. Current research studies on the topic are mainly based on theoretical reasoning and/or research experiments, and little is known about what the industry perceive as suitable tasks for HRC. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate this and find out what industrial actors thinks are the most value-adding tasks for a human and a robot to carry out together. An in-depth interview study is undertaken with two companies and shop-floor operators, production engineers and automation engineers are interviewed. The result of the study pinpoints a number of tasks that the companies thinks are beneficial for HRC, which can serve as a guideline for other manufacturing companies considering to implement HRC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2021
Series
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-899X, E-ISSN 1757-899X ; 1063
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Production and Automation Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23248 (URN)10.1088/1757-899X/1063/1/012010 (DOI)
Conference
11th International Conference on Manufacturing Science and Technology (ICMST 2020) 22nd-24th September 2020, Liverpool, UK
Note

CC BY 3.0

Available from: 2023-09-25 Created: 2023-09-25 Last updated: 2023-09-25Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, P. (2020). Virtual Reality Platform for Design and Evaluation of the Interaction in Human-Robot Collaborative Tasks in Assembly Manufacturing. (Doctoral dissertation). Skövde: University of Skövde
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Virtual Reality Platform for Design and Evaluation of the Interaction in Human-Robot Collaborative Tasks in Assembly Manufacturing
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Industry is on the threshold of the fourth industrial revolution where smart factories area necessity to meet customer demands for increasing volumes of individualized products. Within the smart factory, cyber-physical production systems are becoming important to deal with changing production. Human-robot collaboration is an example of a cyber-physical system in which humans and robots share a workspace. By introducing robots and humans into the same working cell, the two can collaborate by allowing the robot to deal with heavy lifting, repetitive, and high accuracy tasks, while the human focuses on tasks that need intelligence, flexibility, and adaptability. There are few such collaborative applications in industry today. In the implementations that actually exist, the robots are mainly working side-by-side with humans rather than truly collaborating. Three main factors that limit the widespread application of human-robot collaboration can be identified: lack of knowledge regarding suitable human-robot collaboration tasks, lack of knowledge regarding efficient communication technologies for enabling interaction between humans and robots when carrying out tasks, and lack of efficient ways to safely analyze and evaluate collaborative tasks.

The overall aim of this thesis is to address these problems and facilitate and improve interaction between humans and robots, with a special focus on assembly manufacturing tasks. To fulfill this aim, an assembly workstation for human-robot collaboration has been developed and implemented both physically and virtually. A virtual reality platform called ViCoR has been developed that can be used to investigate, evaluate, and analyze the interaction between humans and robots and thereby facilitate the implementation of new human-robot collaboration cells. The workstation developed has also been used for data collection and experiments during the thesis work, and used to extract knowledge of how the interaction between human and robot can be improved.

Abstract [sv]

Industrin är på väg in i den fjärde industriella revolutionen, där smarta fabriker är nödvändigt för att möta kundernas krav på ökande volymer av individualiserade produkter. Inom den smarta fabriken blir cyberfysiska produktionssystem viktigt för att hantera den varierande produktionen. Människa-robot samarbete är ett exempel på ett cyberfysiskt produktionssystem där människor och robotar delar arbetsyta. Genom att införa robotar och människor i samma arbetscell kan de samarbeta där roboten kan hanterauppgifter som kräver tunga lyft, repetitiva rörelser och hög precision medan människan kan fokusera på uppgifter som kräver intelligens, flexibilitet och anpassningsförmåga. I dagens industri är sådana samarbetsapplikationer få och I de implementationer som finns så arbetar robotarna mestadels i närheten av en människa istället för att faktiskt samarbeta. Tre huvudfaktorer har identifierats som har begränsat antal tillämpningar av människa-robot samarbete: brist på kunskap om lämpliga människa-robot samarbetsuppgifter, brist på kunskap om kommunikationstekniker som möjliggör interaktion mellan människor och robotar samt brist på effektiva och säkra sätt att analysera och utvärdera samarbetsuppgifter.

Det övergripande syftet med denna avhandling är att adressera dessa problem samt att underlätta och förbättra interaktionen mellan människor och robotar, med ett särskilt fokus på monteringsuppgifter. För att uppfylla detta mål har en arbetsstation för samarbete mellan människa och robot utvecklats och implementerats både fysiskt och virtuellt. En virtuell verklighetsplattform som heter ViCoR har utvecklats som kan användas för att undersöka, utvärdera och analysera interaktionen mellan människor och robotar och därigenom underlätta arbetet att implementera nya samarbetsceller. Den utvecklade arbetsstationen har också använts för datainsamling och experiment under avhandlingen och använts för att utvinna kunskap om hur samverkan mellan människa och robot kan förbättras.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skövde: University of Skövde, 2020. p. 153
Series
Dissertation Series ; 34
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Robotics Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Production and Automation Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-18919 (URN)978-91-984918-6-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-09-08, ASSAR Industrial Innovation Arena, Skövde, 08:30
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Ett av fem delarbeten (övriga se rubriken Delarbeten/List of papers): PAPER 5 Patrik Gustavsson, Magnus Holm, and Anna Syberfeldt (2020a). “Evaluation of Human-Robot Interaction for Assembly Manufacturing in Virtual Reality”. In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (Submitted)

Available from: 2020-08-14 Created: 2020-08-14 Last updated: 2023-09-25Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, P. & Syberfeldt, A. (2018). A New Algorithm Using the Non-dominated Tree to improve Non-dominated Sorting. Evolutionary Computation, 26(1), 89-116
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A New Algorithm Using the Non-dominated Tree to improve Non-dominated Sorting
2018 (English)In: Evolutionary Computation, ISSN 1063-6560, E-ISSN 1530-9304, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 89-116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Non-dominated sorting is a technique often used in evolutionary algorithms to determine the quality of solutions in a population. The most common algorithm is the Fast Non-dominated Sort (FNS). This algorithm, however, has the drawback that its performance deteriorates when the population size grows. The same drawback applies also to other non-dominating sorting algorithms such as the Efficient Non-dominated Sort with Binary Strategy (ENS-BS). An algorithm suggested to overcome this drawback is the Divide-and-Conquer Non-dominated Sort (DCNS) which works well on a limited number of objectives but deteriorates when the number of objectives grows. This paper presents a new, more efficient, algorithm called the Efficient Non-dominated Sort with Non-Dominated Tree (ENS-NDT). ENS-NDT is an extension of the ENS-BS algorithm and uses a novel Non-Dominated Tree (NDTree) to speed up the non-dominated sorting. ENS-NDT is able to handle large population sizes and a large number of objectives more efficiently than existing algorithms for non-dominated sorting. In the paper, it is shown that with ENS-NDT the runtime of multi-objective optimization algorithms such as the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) can be substantially reduced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MIT Press, 2018
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Production and Automation Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13336 (URN)10.1162/EVCO_a_00204 (DOI)000426562300004 ()2-s2.0-85042773821 (Scopus ID)
Note

© 2018 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Available from: 2017-01-25 Created: 2017-01-25 Last updated: 2021-01-07Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, P., Holm, M., Syberfeldt, A. & Wang, L. (2018). Human-robot collaboration – towards new metrics for selection of communication technologies. Paper presented at 51st CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, Stockholm, May 16-18, 2018. Procedia CIRP, 72, 123-128
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human-robot collaboration – towards new metrics for selection of communication technologies
2018 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 72, p. 6p. 123-128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Industrial robot manufacturers have in recent years developed collaborative robots and these gains more and more interest within the manufacturing industry. Collaborative robots ensure that humans and robots can work together without the robot being dangerous for the human. However, collaborative robots themselves are not enough to achieve collaboration between a human and a robot; collaboration is only possible if a proper communication between the human and the robot can be achieved. The aim of this paper is to identify and categorize technologies that can be used to enable such communication between a human and an industrial robot.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018. p. 6
Keywords
human-robot collaboration, human-robot interaction
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Production and Automation Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15935 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2018.03.156 (DOI)000526120800021 ()2-s2.0-85049566186 (Scopus ID)
Conference
51st CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, Stockholm, May 16-18, 2018
Note

CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Edited by Lihui Wang

Available from: 2018-07-06 Created: 2018-07-06 Last updated: 2022-07-15Bibliographically approved
Syberfeldt, A., Danielsson, O. & Gustavsson, P. (2017). Augmented Reality Smart Glasses in the Smart Factory: Product Evaluation Guidelines and Review of Available Products. IEEE Access, 5, 9118-9130, Article ID 7927376.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Augmented Reality Smart Glasses in the Smart Factory: Product Evaluation Guidelines and Review of Available Products
2017 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 5, p. 9118-9130, article id 7927376Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Augmented reality smart glasses (ARSG) are increasingly popular and have been identified as a vital technology supporting shop-floor operators in the smart factories of the future. By improving our knowledge of how to efficiently evaluate and select ARSG for the shop-floor context, this paper aims to facilitate and accelerate the adoption of ARSG by the manufacturing industry. The market for ARSG has exploded in recent years, and the large variety of products to select from makes it not only difficult but also time consuming to identify the best alternative. To address this problem, this paper presents an efficient step-by-step process for evaluating ARSG, including concrete guidelines as to what parameters to consider and their recommended minimum values. Using the suggested evaluation process, manufacturing companies can quickly make optimal decisions about what products to implement on their shop floors. The paper demonstrates the evaluation process in practice, presenting a comprehensive review of currently available products along with a recommended best buy. The paper also identifies and discusses topics meriting research attention to ensure that ARSG are successfully implemented on the industrial shop floor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2017
Keywords
Augmented reality smart glasses, smart factory, augmented reality, industrial operator support
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Production and Automation Engineering; INF201 Virtual Production Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13922 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2703952 (DOI)000404270600043 ()2-s2.0-85028751835 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-07-15 Created: 2017-07-15 Last updated: 2019-11-21Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, P., Syberfeldt, A., Brewster, R. & Wang, L. (2017). Human-Robot Collaboration Demonstrator Combining Speech Recognition and Haptic Control. Paper presented at The 50th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, Taichung City, Taiwan on May 3rd – 5th, 2017. Procedia CIRP, 63, 396-401
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human-Robot Collaboration Demonstrator Combining Speech Recognition and Haptic Control
2017 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 63, p. 396-401Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent years human-robot collaboration has been an important topic in manufacturing industries. By introducing robots into the same working cell as humans, the advantages of both humans and robots can be utilized. A robot can handle heavy lifting, repetitive and high accuracy tasks while a human can handle tasks that require the flexibility of humans. If a worker is to collaborate with a robot it is important to have an intuitive way of communicating with the robot. Currently, the way of interacting with a robot is through a teaching pendant, where the robot is controlled using buttons or a joystick. However, speech and touch are two communication methods natural to humans, where speech recognition and haptic control technologies can be used to interpret these communication methods. These technologies have been heavily researched in several research areas, including human-robot interaction. However, research of combining these two technologies to achieve a more natural communication in industrial human-robot collaboration is limited. A demonstrator has thus been developed which includes both speech recognition and haptic control technologies to control a collaborative robot from Universal Robots. This demonstrator will function as an experimental platform to further research on how the speech recognition and haptic control can be used in human-robot collaboration. The demonstrator has proven that the two technologies can be integrated with a collaborative industrial robot, where the human and the robot collaborate to assemble a simple car model. The demonstrator has been used in public appearances and a pilot study, which have contributed in further improvements of the demonstrator. Further research will focus on making the communication more intuitive for the human and the demonstrator will be used as the platform for continued research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Human-robot collaboration, Speech recognition, Haptic control
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Production and Automation Engineering; INF201 Virtual Production Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13986 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2017.03.126 (DOI)000418465500067 ()2-s2.0-85028657899 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The 50th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, Taichung City, Taiwan on May 3rd – 5th, 2017
Note

CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Edited by Mitchell M. Tseng, Hung-Yin Tsai, Yue Wang

Available from: 2017-08-14 Created: 2017-08-14 Last updated: 2022-07-15Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, P. (2016). Using Speech Recognition, Haptic Control and Augmented Reality to enable Human-Robot Collaboration in Assembly Manufacturing: Research Proposal.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Speech Recognition, Haptic Control and Augmented Reality to enable Human-Robot Collaboration in Assembly Manufacturing: Research Proposal
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In recent years robots have become more adaptive and aware of the surroundings which enables them for use in human-robot collaboration. By introducing robots into the same working cell as the human, then the two can collaborate by letting the robot deal with heavy lifting, repetitive and high accuracy tasks while the human focuses on tasks that needs the flexibility of the human. Collaborative robots already exists today in the market but the usage of these robots are mainly to work in close proximity.

Usually a teaching pendant is used to program a robot by moving it using a joystick or buttons. Using this teaching pendant for programming is usually quite slow and requires training which means that few can operate it. However, recent research shows that there exist several application using multi-modal communication systems to improve the programming of a robot. This kind of programming will be necessary to collaborate with a robot in the industry since the human in a collaborative task might have to teach the robot how to execute its task.

This project aims to introduce a programming-by-guidance system into assembly manufacturing where the human can assist the robot by teaching the robot how to execute its task. Three technologies will be combined, speech recognition, haptic control, and augmented reality. The hypothesis is that with these three technologies an effective and intuitive programming-by-guidance system can be used within the assembly manufacturing industry. This project have three main motivators: Allowing workers, with no robot programming expertise, to teach the robot how to execute its task in an assembly manufacturing system; Reducing the development time of the robot by introducing advanced programming-by-guidance technology; Showing that augmented reality can add additional information that is useful when programming the robot.

Publisher
p. 10
Keywords
Human-Robot Collaboration, Speech Recognition, Haptic Control, Augmented Reality
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Technology; Production and Automation Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12845 (URN)
Note

Research proposal, PhD programme, University of Skövde

Available from: 2016-08-30 Created: 2016-08-30 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved
Syberfeldt, A. & Gustavsson, P. (2015). Robust product sequencing through evolutionary multi-objective optimisation. International Journal of Manufacturing Research, 10(4), 371-383
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Robust product sequencing through evolutionary multi-objective optimisation
2015 (English)In: International Journal of Manufacturing Research, ISSN 1750-0591, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 371-383Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes a study on efficient optimisation of real-world product sequencing problems with the aim of finding robust solutions. Robust solutions are insensitive to unforeseen disturbances in a manufacturing process, which is a critical characteristic for a successful realisation of optimisation results in manufacturing. In the paper, the traditional method of achieving robust solutions is extended by using standard deviation as an additional optimisation objective. This transforms the original single-objective optimisation problem into a multi-objective problem. Using standard deviation as an additional objective focuses the optimisation on solutions that have both high performance and a high degree of robustness (that is, a low standard deviation). In order to optimise the two objectives simultaneously, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on the Pareto approach is used. The multi-objective method for increased robustness is evaluated using both a benchmark problem and a real-world test case. The real-world test case is from GKN Aerospace in Sweden which manufactures components for aircraft engines and aero-derivative gas turbines. Results from the evaluation show that the method successfully increases the robustness while maintaining high performance of the optimisation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2015
Keywords
product sequencing, manufacturing industry, case study, robustness, evolutionary algorithms, multi-objective optimisation, aircraft engine components, aero-derivative gas turbines, standard deviation, GKN Aerospace, Sweden
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Production and Automation Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12016 (URN)10.1504/IJMR.2015.074823 (DOI)2-s2.0-84959326080 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-03-02 Created: 2016-03-02 Last updated: 2017-12-19Bibliographically approved
Syberfeldt, A., Gustavsson, P., Svantesson, J. & Almgren, T. (2014). A Case Study of Evolutionary Simulation Based Optimization in Aircraft Engine Manufacturing. In: Amos Ng; Anna Syberfeldt (Ed.), 12th International Industrial Simulation Conference 2014: ISC'2014. Paper presented at 12th Industrial Simulation Conference 2014, ISC'2014, June 11-13, 2014, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden (pp. 91-96). EUROSIS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Case Study of Evolutionary Simulation Based Optimization in Aircraft Engine Manufacturing
2014 (English)In: 12th International Industrial Simulation Conference 2014: ISC'2014 / [ed] Amos Ng; Anna Syberfeldt, EUROSIS , 2014, p. 91-96Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes an application of simulation-based optimization within the aircraft engine manufacturing domain. The study is performed at the company GKN Aerospace and considers the optimization of priorities of components in x-ray stations. More specifically, the optimization aims to reduce delays by finding an efficient prioritization of components waiting to be x-rayed. An evolutionary optimization algorithm is being implemented and connected to a discrete-event simulation model for evaluating solutions. For deploying the simulation-based optimization, a web-based system is developed that adopts distributed simulation agents for increased efficiency. © 2014 EUROSIS-ETI.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EUROSIS, 2014
Keywords
Aircraft engine manufacturing optimization, Case study, Evolutionary algorithm, Simulation-based optimization
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Technology; Production and Automation Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-9739 (URN)2-s2.0-84922135698 (Scopus ID)978-90-77381-83-0 (ISBN)
Conference
12th Industrial Simulation Conference 2014, ISC'2014, June 11-13, 2014, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden
Available from: 2014-08-20 Created: 2014-08-20 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8874-0676

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