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Biel, A. & Stigh, U. (2019). Comparison of J-integral methods to experimentally determine cohesive laws in shear for adhesives. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 94, 64-75
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of J-integral methods to experimentally determine cohesive laws in shear for adhesives
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 94, p. 64-75Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-quality simulation methods demand accurate material models. In simulations an adhesive can be represented by a cohesive layer. A cohesive layer model utilizes a cohesive law to represent the homogenized mechanical behaviour of a layer with a thickness. In the current paper we use three experimental methods to measure the cohesive law in shear using the ENF-specimen; one of the methods is novel and is also useful for evaluation of experiments with the ELS-specimen. Two sets of experiments are performed, one with elastic substrates and one with plastically deforming substrates. Each experiment is evaluated using all three methods. The evaluation shows that all methods provide reasonable data; the results are similar if the substrates are elastic. With smaller specimens, the substrates deform plastically and one of the methods is identified as the most accurate.

Keywords
Fracture, Cohesive zone model, Macro-shear, ENF-Specimen, ELS-Specimen
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Virtual Manufacturing Processes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16751 (URN)10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2019.04.014 (DOI)2-s2.0-85066242865 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-06 Created: 2019-04-06 Last updated: 2019-08-19Bibliographically approved
Stigh, U. & Biel, A. (2018). Effects of strain rate on the cohesive properties and fracture process of a pressure sensitive adhesive. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 203, 266-275
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of strain rate on the cohesive properties and fracture process of a pressure sensitive adhesive
2018 (English)In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 203, p. 266-275Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pressure sensitive adhesives provide high toughness at low stress and stiffness. These properties are beneficial for bimaterial bonding. In the present study the tape is modelled with a cohesive layer characterized by a cohesive law. This is suitable for FE-analysis of bonded structures. The cohesive law is measured using a method based on the path independent property of the J-integral. Complementing an earlier study, we here focus on influences of loading rate on the properties of the pressure sensitive adhesive. Transparent PMMA substrates are used with the transparent tape in Double Cantilever Beam specimens. The transparency of both the tape and the substrates provides the possibility of in-situ studies of the fracture process. The results indicate that the fracture energy levels off at about 1 kN/m for small loading rates. Moreover, the cohesive law also appears to level off below an engineering strain rate of about 2 s-1. The cohesive law contains two peak stresses. The first is associated with the nucleation of cavities in the tape. This occurs at a stress level comparable to the critical stress associated with an unbonded growth rate of a spherical cavity in rubber. The second peak stress is associated to the breaking down of walls formed between the fully developed cavities. This process precedes the final fracture of the tape. It also appears as nucleation of cavities is influenced by the strain rate where slower rates give more time for cavities to nucleate. This results in larger cavity density at smaller loading rates. The results also indicate a similarity of the effects of loading rate and ageing of the macroscopic properties of the present pressure sensitive adhesive.

Keywords
Experiment, Cohesive law, Elastomer, Cavity, Tape
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Mechanics of Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15940 (URN)10.1016/j.engfracmech.2018.07.011 (DOI)000450120500021 ()2-s2.0-85049793501 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-08 Created: 2018-07-08 Last updated: 2018-11-29Bibliographically approved
Biel, A. & Stigh, U. (2018). Strength and toughness in shear of constrained layers. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 138, 50-63
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strength and toughness in shear of constrained layers
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Solids and Structures, ISSN 0020-7683, E-ISSN 1879-2146, Vol. 138, p. 50-63Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Confined layers may fracture in shear. This occurs, for example in adhesive joints and composite materials. A common mechanism for shear fracture is the formation of shear hackles associated with an expansion of the layer. This makes shear toughness and strength depend on the constraint of the expansion. By constraining the expansion using external loading in experiments, the expansion is reduced but not totally inhibited. The experiments are evaluated using the path independent properties of the J-integral. It is shown that the shear toughness increases for the more constrained case. Thus, from a strength analysis perspective, ignoring the expansion leads to a conservative estimate of the fracture properties. Extrapolation of the evaluated properties to totally inhibited expansions gives the traction separation relation and the fracture toughness for a layer in simple shear.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
adhesive, cohesive law, cohesive layer, constrain, dilatation, Mode II, shear fracture, shear hackles, simple shear
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Mechanics of Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14973 (URN)10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2017.12.028 (DOI)000429764300005 ()2-s2.0-85039918457 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-19 Created: 2018-03-19 Last updated: 2018-05-25Bibliographically approved
Biel, A. & Stigh, U. (2017). Cohesive zone modelling of nucleation, growth and coalesce of cavities. International Journal of Fracture, 204(2), 159-174
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cohesive zone modelling of nucleation, growth and coalesce of cavities
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Fracture, ISSN 0376-9429, E-ISSN 1573-2673, Vol. 204, no 2, p. 159-174Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The stress-deformation relation i.e. cohesive law representing the fracture process in an almost incompressible adhesive tape is measured using the double cantilever beam specimen. As in many ductile materials, the fracture process of the tape involves nucleation, growth and coalesce of cavities. This process is studied carefully by exploiting the transparency of the used materials and the inherent stability of the specimen configuration. Utilising the path independence of the J -integral, the cohesive law is measured. The law is compared to the results of butt-joint tests. The law contains two stress peaks—the first is associated with nucleation of cavities at a stress level conforming to predictions of void nucleation in rubber elasticity. The second stress peak is associated with fracture of stretched walls between fully-grown cavities. After this second peak, a macroscopic crack is formed. The tape suffers at this stage an engineering strain of about 800%. A numerical analysis with the determined cohesive law recreates the global specimen behaviour.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Experiment, Defect, Elastomer, Cavity, Post-bifurcation, Adhesive Tape, Cohesive law
National Category
Mechanical Engineering Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Mechanics of Materials; INF000
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13082 (URN)10.1007/s10704-016-0168-9 (DOI)000394369700003 ()2-s2.0-84995404807 (Scopus ID)
Funder
ÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development), 14-312
Available from: 2016-11-08 Created: 2016-11-08 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved
Stigh, U. & Biel, A. (2017). Studies of fracture in shear of a constrained layer. In: Dmitri A. Indeitsev & Anton M. Krivtsov (Ed.), Advanced Problems in Mechanics: Proceedings of the XLV Summer School Conference. Paper presented at Advanced Problems in Mechanics, St Petersburg, Russia, June 22-27, 2017 (pp. 420-428). St Petersburg: Institute for Problems in Mechanical Engineering RAS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studies of fracture in shear of a constrained layer
2017 (English)In: Advanced Problems in Mechanics: Proceedings of the XLV Summer School Conference / [ed] Dmitri A. Indeitsev & Anton M. Krivtsov, St Petersburg: Institute for Problems in Mechanical Engineering RAS , 2017, p. 420-428Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cracks normally propagate in the opening mode associated with a state of local symmetry at a crack tip. However, the micro- or macrostructure of a material or structure sometimes forces cracks to propagate in a shearing mode. Irrespective of the actual material studied, fracture in shear is frequently asso- ciated with the formation of a large number smaller sigmoidal-shaped cracks in the propagation direction of the major crack. Propagation of the major shear crack is accomplished by coalescing the sigmoidal-shaped cracks. Ex- periments show that the formation of sigmoidal cracks due to shear loading leads to a normal separation of the joined substrates. Theoretical studies show that constraining the local opening of the sigmoidal cracks increases the frac- ture resistance for the propagation of the major crack. In the present study, experiments with a ductile adhesive loaded in shear and where the normal sep- aration is constrained are presented. The experiments are evaluated using the path independent J-integral. The associated cohesive law shows that consid- erable normal compressive stress develops in the adhesive during macroscopic shear loading. It is also concluded that by ignoring the normal separation in the evaluation of the experiments, the strength of the adhesive is underesti- mated. Thus, the procedure developed in earlier studies is conservative from a strength analysis perspective. The present technique might be possible to extend to other materials to reveal their properties in shear fracture.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
St Petersburg: Institute for Problems in Mechanical Engineering RAS, 2017
Series
Advanced problems in mechanics (Online)/Proceedings of the International Summer school-conference "Advanced problems in mechanics", ISSN 2312-9921
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Mechanics of Materials; INF000
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13852 (URN)
Conference
Advanced Problems in Mechanics, St Petersburg, Russia, June 22-27, 2017
Note

Available from: 2017-06-24 Created: 2017-06-24 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved
Stigh, U. (2016). Applications of equilibrium of configurational forces for the measurement of cohesive laws. In: Proceedings ECCM17: 17th European Conference on Composite Materials Munich, Germany, 26-30th June 2016. Paper presented at 17th European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM17, Munich, Germany, 26-30th June 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applications of equilibrium of configurational forces for the measurement of cohesive laws
2016 (English)In: Proceedings ECCM17: 17th European Conference on Composite Materials Munich, Germany, 26-30th June 2016, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A methodology to develop experimental methods to measure cohesive laws is introduced. This methodology is based on the property of all configurational forces equilibrium acting on a specimen to be in equilibrium. Two applications are given. The first shows a method to measure the cohesive law for shear representing the mechanical behaviour of an adhesive layer. The second application is a method to measure the cohesive law for the formation of a kink-band in a unidirectional composite. It is concluded that the methodology is critically dependent on the ability to associate a pseudopotential to the inelastic properties of the deforming material where the fracture process takes place. The importance to clearly identify the material that is modelled with the cohesive zone is also stressed.

Keywords
Configurational forces, Experimental method, Adhesive, Kink-band, Composite
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Technology; Mechanics of Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12659 (URN)2-s2.0-85018602533 (Scopus ID)978-3-00-053387-7 (ISBN)3-00-053387-7 (ISBN)
Conference
17th European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM17, Munich, Germany, 26-30th June 2016
Projects
DesTex-HB Smarta textilier
Funder
Region Västra Götaland
Available from: 2016-07-03 Created: 2016-07-03 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Stigh, U., Biel, A. & Svensson, D. (2016). Cohesive zone modelling and the fracture process of structural tape. Paper presented at 21st European Conference on Fracture, ECF21, 20-24 June 2016, Catania, Italy. Proceedia Structural Integrity, 2, 235-244
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cohesive zone modelling and the fracture process of structural tape
2016 (English)In: Proceedia Structural Integrity, ISSN 2452-3216, Vol. 2, p. 235-244Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Structural tapes provide comparable toughness as structural adhesives at orders of magnitude lower stresses. This is potentially useful to minimize the effects of differences in thermal expansion in the joining of mixed materials. The strength properties are modelled using the cohesive zone model. Thus, a cohesive zone represents the tape, i.e. stresses in the tape are transmitted to the substrates through tractions determined by the separations of the surfaces of substrates. This simplification allows for structural analysis of large complex structures. The relation between the traction and the separation is measured experimentally using methods based on the path independence of the J-integral. Repeated experiments are performed at quasi-static loading. A mixed mode cohesive law is adapted to the experimental data. The law is implemented as a UMAT in Abaqus. Simulations show minor thermal distortions due to thermal loading and substantial structural strength in mechanical loading of a mixed material structure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Mixed material joint, structural strength, FEA, J-integral method
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Technology; Mechanics of Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12733 (URN)10.1016/j.prostr.2016.06.031 (DOI)000387976800030 ()2-s2.0-85011855501 (Scopus ID)
Conference
21st European Conference on Fracture, ECF21, 20-24 June 2016, Catania, Italy
Projects
ÅForsk Tape
Funder
ÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development), 14-312
Note

"Open Access funded by European Structural Integrity Society"

Available from: 2016-08-02 Created: 2016-08-02 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved
Svensson, D., Alfredsson, K. S., Stigh, U. & Jansson, N. E. (2016). Measurement of cohesive law for kink-band formation in unidirectional composite. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 151, 1-10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement of cohesive law for kink-band formation in unidirectional composite
2016 (English)In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 151, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Kink-band formation is an important mechanism limiting the compressive strength of high strength composites. A cohesive zone model is used to model the material in a unidirectional carbon fibre composite that forms the kink-band. Equilibrium of configurational forces is used to design and evaluate the experiments. Microscopic studies show that a kink-band is formed with the height of about 200 μm. The corresponding cohesive law has a peak stress of about 1.5 GPa, a compression at failure of about 50 μm and a fracture energy of about 25 kJ/m2.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Composites, Configurational forces, DIC-measurement, Kink-band formation, Cohesive zone modelling
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Technology; Mechanics of Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11717 (URN)10.1016/j.engfracmech.2015.10.040 (DOI)000368922000001 ()2-s2.0-84947934411 (Scopus ID)
Projects
NFFP FiKomINFINIT MDC
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20130305VINNOVA, NFFP 013223
Available from: 2015-11-27 Created: 2015-11-27 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Svensson, D., Alfredsson, K. S. & Stigh, U. (2016). On the ability of coupled mixed mode cohesive laws to conform to LEFM for cracks in homogeneous orthotropic solids. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 163, 426-448
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the ability of coupled mixed mode cohesive laws to conform to LEFM for cracks in homogeneous orthotropic solids
2016 (English)In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 163, p. 426-448Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ability of coupled cohesive laws to conform to the predictions of linear elastic fracturemechanics (LEFM) in the case of small-scale-yielding (SSY) is explored. The study is concerned with cracks in homogeneous orthotropic solids and the results apply also for the case of isotropy. Both potential based and non-potential based cohesive laws are considered. It is shown that the initial stiffnesses of the cohesive law must be matched to the elastic moduli of the orthotropic solid in order to achieve a constant ratio of the cohesive stress components ahead of the crack tip. A simple condition for this is provided. For non potential based laws an additional apparently sufficient condition on the non-linear part of the cohesive law is identified: The traction vector must not change direction if the directionof the separation vector is constant. Fulfillment of this condition provides a uniform local mode mix in the cohesive zone with a value equal to the global mode mix. It is demonstrated that potential based cohesive laws display a varying local mode mix at the crack tip for cases with a mode dependent work of separation. This is identified as acomplicating feature in terms of calibrating the parameters of a cohesive law to experimental data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Composites, Cohesive zone modelling, Finite element analysis, Delamination, Mixed mode fracture
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Technology; Mechanics of Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12855 (URN)10.1016/j.engfracmech.2016.05.018 (DOI)000383309500027 ()2-s2.0-84989957760 (Scopus ID)
Projects
MDC
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-08-31 Created: 2016-08-31 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Walander, T., Eklind, A., Carlberger, T., Stigh, U. & Rietz, A. (2016). Prediction of mixed-mode cohesive fatigue strength of adhesively bonded structure using Mode I data. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 66, 15-25
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prediction of mixed-mode cohesive fatigue strength of adhesively bonded structure using Mode I data
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2016 (English)In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 66, p. 15-25Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A cohesive zone model is presented for analyzing the fatigue life of an adhesive joint in the range of 104–106 load cycles. The parameters of the model are derived from Mode I double cantilever beam experiments. Fatigue experiments with adhesively joined components from the automotive industry are performed, and the results from the experiments are compared to the results of simulations. The error in the predicted fatigue strength is of the same order as the statistical deviation of the fatigue experiments, indicating that the simulation method produces acceptable predictions of the fatigue strength for applications in e.g. early product development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Adhesive layer, Cohesive zone model, Damage, Fatigue, Finite element analysis
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Technology; Mechanics of Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11769 (URN)10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2015.12.003 (DOI)000371940600003 ()2-s2.0-84950250975 (Scopus ID)
Projects
ULFS: Fatigue of adhesively bonded structures
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20100214
Available from: 2015-12-18 Created: 2015-12-18 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0787-4942

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