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Niklasson, M., Svensson, E., Leidenberger, S., Norrström, N. & Crawford, E. (2023). Free-living colonies of native honey bees (Apis mellifera mellifera) in 19th and early 20th century Sweden. Journal of Insect Conservation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Free-living colonies of native honey bees (Apis mellifera mellifera) in 19th and early 20th century Sweden
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Little information exists on the history and ecology of free-living colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in Europe, including its dark north-western subspecies (Apis mellifera mellifera). Our aim was to investigate the presence of colonies of free-living, native honey bees (A. m. mellifera) during the last two centuries in Sweden. For this we examined systematic interviews of beekeepers (176 answers from 158 questionnaires) performed in the years 1928–1981, with information dating back to the early 1800s. An overwhelming majority of answers (96%) confirmed the past presence of free-living colonies of honey bees in Sweden. While some stated that free-living colonies were simply absconded swarms from managed hives, the majority of interviewees (69%) believed that free-living colonies were of a truly wild origin. A decreasing trend in first-hand accounts of free-living colonies suggests that free-living populations underwent a dramatic decline at the end of the 19th century. This was also expressed in words by many interviewees, who in 14 cases stated that the loss of old forests and tree-cavity nest sites at the end of the 1800s was the primary cause of the decline. Direct accounts of perennial, free-living colonies, combined with detailed descriptions of the collection of large free-living colonies and/or wild honey, is strong evidence of free-living honey bees being well adapted to winter survival. These accounts contradict the officially supported view that the honey bee is a recently imported, domesticated, non-native species in Sweden. The results give a scientific underpinning and provide inspiration for the restoration of native forests which could facilitate populations of free-living colonies of A. m. mellifera exposed to natural selection. This could potentially lead to its return as a fully wild species. In an uncertain future, allowing for a natural lifestyle could increase resilience and reinstate characteristics that are otherwise lost in honey bees due to the increasing effects of artificial trait selection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
Free-living honey bees, Apis mellifera, Apis mellifera mellifera, Wild honey bees, Old-growth forests, Hollow trees, Rewilding
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Ecological Modelling Group
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23437 (URN)10.1007/s10841-023-00541-4 (DOI)001117287400001 ()2-s2.0-85178902669 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Bistånd till Nordiska bin
Funder
Swedish University of Agricultural SciencesInterreg, 2020–1923
Note

CC BY 4.0

Mats Niklasson mats.niklasson@nordensark.se

Published: 07 December 2023

Open access funding provided by Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. This work was financially supported by INTERREG project 2020–1923 “Bistånd till Nordiska bin” to MN, NN, SL and Trädgårdsresan (MN, EC). Milkywire provided financial support to MN for conservation of the Nordic Bee.

Available from: 2023-12-07 Created: 2023-12-07 Last updated: 2023-12-27Bibliographically approved
Crawford, E., Leidenberger, S., Norrström, N. & Niklasson, M. (2022). Using Video Footage for Observing Honey Bee Behaviour at Hive Entrances. Bee world, 99(4), 139-142
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Video Footage for Observing Honey Bee Behaviour at Hive Entrances
2022 (English)In: Bee world, ISSN 0005-772X, Vol. 99, no 4, p. 139-142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Video recording is a common method to study animal behaviour. In honey bee studies, short video-recordings are often used to learn more about a behaviour, but rarely used for their quantification. Standard methods for observing bee behaviour involve behavioural assays or direct observation of a limited subset of marked bees within an observation hive. This means that behaviour at the hive entrance may be overlooked. Here we describe a 4-camera set up for the study of behaviour at hive entrances. With minimal disturbance, we were able to record and quantify all previously described behaviours (9 in total - including self-grooming in drones) on and around the hive entrance. We briefly discuss the general feasibility of video footage and the relative frequency of each observed behaviour. Our conclusion is that video footage is a useful and perhaps overlooked method for unbiased quantification and comparisons of bee behaviour at the hive entrance. With this paper we are publishing some example short video-recordings as online supplementary material for educational purposes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2022
National Category
Behavioral Sciences Biology Environmental Sciences Ecology
Research subject
Ecological Modelling Group
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-21720 (URN)10.1080/0005772x.2022.2106739 (DOI)
Funder
Interreg, 2020-1923
Note

CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Published online: 23 Aug 2022

Copyright © 2022 Informa UK Limited

Email: mats.niklasson@nordensark.se

Milkywire and Trädgårdsresan provided financial support for technical equipment and salary to EC. MN, SL and NN were funded by INTERREG Project number 2020-1923 'BIstånd till Nordiska bin'.

Available from: 2022-08-24 Created: 2022-08-24 Last updated: 2022-11-21Bibliographically approved
Leidenberger, S., Norrström, N., Niklasson, M. & Dahl, Å. (2022). Vetenskapliga studier av honungsbin. Fauna och flora : populär tidskrift för biologi, 117(2), 28-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vetenskapliga studier av honungsbin
2022 (Swedish)In: Fauna och flora : populär tidskrift för biologi, ISSN 0014-8903, Vol. 117, no 2, p. 28-32Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Naturcentrum AB, 2022
National Category
Environmental Sciences Ecology
Research subject
Ecological Modelling Group
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-21721 (URN)
Available from: 2022-08-24 Created: 2022-08-24 Last updated: 2022-08-25Bibliographically approved
Leidenberger, S., Norrström, N. & Niklasson, M. (2021). Nyaste rön från INTERREG projektet – Bistånd till nordiska bin – unik resurs för framtidens ekosystemtjänster. NordBi-Aktuellt (2), 4-5
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nyaste rön från INTERREG projektet – Bistånd till nordiska bin – unik resurs för framtidens ekosystemtjänster
2021 (Swedish)In: NordBi-Aktuellt, no 2, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Föreningen Nordbi, 2021
National Category
Environmental Sciences Ecology
Research subject
Ecological Modelling Group
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-20806 (URN)
Available from: 2021-12-20 Created: 2021-12-20 Last updated: 2022-03-15Bibliographically approved
Norrström, N., Niklasson, M. & Leidenberger, S. (2021). Winter weight loss of different subspecies of honey bee Apis mellifera colonies (Linnaeus, 1758) in southwestern Sweden. PLOS ONE, 16(10), Article ID e0258398.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Winter weight loss of different subspecies of honey bee Apis mellifera colonies (Linnaeus, 1758) in southwestern Sweden
2021 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, no 10, article id e0258398Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Honey bees are currently facing mounting pressures that have resulted in population declines in many parts of the world. In northern climates winter is a bottleneck for honey bees and a thorough understanding of the colonies’ ability to withstand the winter is needed in order to protect the bees from further decline. In this study the influence of weather variables on colony weight loss was studied over one winter (2019–2020) in two apiaries (32 colonies in total) in southwestern Sweden with weather stations recording wind and temperature at 5-min intervals. Three subspecies of honey bees and one hybrid were studied: the native Apis mellifera mellifera, the Italian A. m. ligustica, the Carniolan A. m. carnica and the hybrid Buckfast. Additionally, we recorded Varroa mite infestation. To analyze factors involved in resource consumption, three modelling approaches using weather and weight data were developed: the first links daily consumption rates with environmental variables, the second modelled the cumulative weight change over time, and the third estimated weight change over time taking light intensity and temperature into account. Weight losses were in general low (0.039 ± 0.013kg/day and colony) and comparable to southern locations, likely due to an exceptionally warm winter (average temperature 3.5°C). Weight losses differed only marginally between subspecies with indications that A. m. mellifera was having a more conservative resource consumption, but more studies are needed to confirm this. We did not find any effect of Varroa mite numbers on weight loss. Increased light intensity and temperature both triggered the resource consumption in honey bees. The temperature effect on resource consumption is in accordance with the metabolic theory of ecology. The consequences of these findings on honey bee survival under predicted climate changes, is still an open question that needs further analysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PLoS, 2021
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Ecological Modelling Group
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-20659 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0258398 (DOI)000729172300074 ()34648553 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85117313451 (Scopus ID)
Projects
BIstånd till nordiska bin – unik resurs för framtidens ekosystemtjänster
Funder
Interreg Sweden-Norway
Note

CC BY 4.0

Sonja.Leidenberger@his.se

Published: October 14, 2021

Funding: All authors were funded by the EU-financed INTERREG Sweden-Norway programme - European structural and Investments Funds in Sweden (2014-2020) (grant-nr. 20201923) with the Swedish title “BIstånd till nordiska bin – unik resurs för framtidens ekosystemtjänster” (http://www.interreg-sverige-norge.com/?portfolio=bistand-till-nordiska-bin-unik-resurs-for-framtidens-ekosystemtjanster), the funders did not play a role in the study design, data collection, analysis, publish decistion or preparation of the manuscript.

Available from: 2021-10-20 Created: 2021-10-20 Last updated: 2022-04-11Bibliographically approved
Leidenberger, S. & Norrström, N. (2019). Lägesrapport inom INTERREG-projektet: BIstånd till nordiska bin. NordBi-Aktuellt (2), 5-6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lägesrapport inom INTERREG-projektet: BIstånd till nordiska bin
2019 (Swedish)In: NordBi-Aktuellt, no 2, p. 5-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Föreningen Nordbi, 2019
National Category
Environmental Sciences Ecology
Research subject
Ecological Modelling Group
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-18322 (URN)
Available from: 2020-03-17 Created: 2020-03-17 Last updated: 2020-03-19Bibliographically approved
Howell, D., Kempf, A., Belgrano, A., Thorpe, R., Vinther, M., Bartolino, V., . . . Urtizberea, A. (2018). Interim Report of the Working Group on Multispecies Assessment Methods (WGSAM). Copenhagen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interim Report of the Working Group on Multispecies Assessment Methods (WGSAM)
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The pan-regional Working Group on Multispecies Assessment Methods (WGSAM) met in San Sebastian, Spain, 16–20 October 2017. In this eleventh report of the group, work focused on three of the multi-annual ToRs (B, C, D). Based on their knowledge, participants provided an updated inventory of progress of multispecies models in ICES Ecoregions (ToR A), noting those regions where no information was available. A Key Run (ToR B) of the North Sea Stochastic Multispecies Model (SMS) was presented and reviewed in detail by 4 WGSAM experts, and approved by the group following implementation of changes agreed in plenary at the meeting and verified by a subset of experts post-meeting. The Key Run is documented in detail in Annex for ToR B, with key outputs summarised in Section 5 and data files made available on the WGSAM webpage and the ICES expert group Github (https://github.com/iceseg/wg_WGSAM). Since the M2 values are used for the assessment of important North Sea stocks, it is recommended to publish the annex also on the official stock annex website. In addition, WGSAM does not recommend updating existing data series of natural mortality by simply adding the latest three new years. The timeseries as a whole shows patterns which are not retained by this procedure. Multispecies model skill assessment (ToR C) and multi-model ensemble methods (ToR D) were emphasized this year. Considerable progress has been made towards advancing both aspects of multispecies modelling. Investigation of skill assessment and ensemble methods and case studies is critical to ensure that outputs of multispecies assessment models are reliable for use in operational assessment and to inform management decisions. Progress was also made on investigations of top predator impacts on managed fish across several regions (ToR F), including the North Sea where new information was included in the SMS key run. Further progress was also made on multispecies and ecosystem level reference points and harvest control rules in mixed fisheries (ToR G).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copenhagen: , 2018. p. 395
Series
ICES CM 2017/SSGEPI:20 ; 20
National Category
Fish and Aquacultural Science
Research subject
Ecological Modelling Group
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14790 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2012-1330
Available from: 2018-03-05 Created: 2018-03-05 Last updated: 2019-02-20Bibliographically approved
Norrström, N., Casini, M. & Holmgren, N. M. A. (2017). Nash equilibrium can resolve conflicting maximum sustainable yields in multi-species fisheries management. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 74(1), 78-90
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nash equilibrium can resolve conflicting maximum sustainable yields in multi-species fisheries management
2017 (English)In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 78-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current fisheries management goals set by the European Commission states that fish stocks should be harvested to deliver maximum sustainable yields (MSY) and simultaneously, management should take ecosystem considerations into account. This creates unsolved trade-offs for the management of the stocks. We suggest a definition of a multi-species-MSY (MS-MSY) where no alternative fishing mortality (F) can increase yield (long term) for any ecologically interacting stock, given that the other stocks are fished at constant efforts (Fs). Such a MS-MSY can be solved through the game theoretic concept of a Nash equilibrium and here we explore two solutions to this conflict in the Baltic Sea. We maximize the sustainable yield of each stock under two constraints: first, we harvest the other stocks at a fixed F (FNE); second, we keep the spawning stock biomasses of the other stocks fixed [biomass Nash equilibrium (BNE)]. As a case study, we have developed a multi-species interaction stochastic operative model (MSI-SOM), which contains a SOM for each of the three dominant species of the Baltic Sea, the predator cod (Gadus morhua), and its prey herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). For our Baltic Sea case, MS-MSYs exist under both the FNE and the BNE, but there is no guarantee that point solutions exists. We found that the prey species’ spawning stock biomasses are additive in the cod growth function, which allowed for a point solution in BNE. In the FNE, the herring MSY was found to be relatively insensitive to the other species’ fishing mortalities (F), which facilitated a point solution. The MSY targets of the BNE and the FNE differ slightly where the BNE gives higher predator yields and lower prey yields.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2017
Keywords
Baltic Sea, multi-species, reference points
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Ecological Modelling Group
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12862 (URN)10.1093/icesjms/fsw148 (DOI)000397136400008 ()2-s2.0-85020882554 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Note

CC BY 4.0

Available from: 2016-09-02 Created: 2016-09-02 Last updated: 2020-12-17Bibliographically approved
Orio, A., Nielsen, A., Luzenczyk, A., Berg, C., Ustups, D., Artemenkov, D., . . . Mirny, Z. (2017). Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS): 19-26 April 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark. Copenhagen: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS): 19-26 April 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark
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2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The ICES Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS) met 19-26 April 2017(Chair: Tomas Gröhsler, Germany and Co-chair: Michele Casini, Sweden), with 41 participants and 9 countries represented. The objective of WGBFAS was to assess the status of the following stocks: Sole in Division 3.a, SDs 20–24; Cod in Kattegat, Cod in SDs 22–24, Cod in SDs 25–32; Herring in SDs 25–27, 28.2, 29 and 32, Herring in SD 28.1 (Gulf of Riga), Herring in SDs 30-31 (Gulf of Bothnia); Sprat in SDs 22–32; Plaice in SDs 21–23, Plaice in SDs 24–25; Flounder in SDs 22–23, in SDs 24–25, in SDs 26+28 and SDs 27+29–32; Brill in SDs 22–32, Dab in SDs 22–32 and Turbot in SDs 22–32. WGBFAS also identified the data needed for next year’s data call with some suggestions for improvements in the data call, and stock-specific research needs.The report contains an introduction with the summary of other WGs relevant for the WGBFAS, the methods used, and ecosystem considerations. The results of the analytical stock assessment or survey trends for the species listed above are then presented with all the stocks with the same species in the same sections. The report ends with references, recommendations, links to Stock Annexes and list of Working Documents.The principle analytical models used for the stock assessments were XSA and SAM. For most flatfishes and cod in SDs 25–32 (data limited stocks), CPUE trends from bottomtrawl surveys were used in the assessment (except plaice in SDs 24–25 for which relative SSB from SAM was used). For the data limited stocks, reference points based on length-based indicators were estimated (except cod in SDs 25-32 for which relative reference points were estimated using the SPiCT model). For cod in SDs 25–32, intersessional work was planned to hopefully allow returning to an analytical stock assessment in the near future. Ecosystem changes have been analytically considered in the following stock assessments: Herring in SD 25–27, 28.2, 29 and 32, and Sprat in SD 22–32, in form of cod predation mortality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copenhagen: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 2017
Series
ICES CM 2017/ACOM:11
National Category
Fish and Aquacultural Science
Research subject
Ecological Modelling Group
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13959 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2012-1330
Available from: 2017-08-07 Created: 2017-08-07 Last updated: 2020-03-25Bibliographically approved
Howell, D., Kempf, A., Bauer, B., Belgrano, A., Thorpe, R., Vinther, M., . . . Kulatska, N. (2017). Report of the Working Group on Multispecies Assessment Methods (WGSAM), 10-14 October 2016, Reykjavik, Iceland. Copenhagen V, Denmark: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Report of the Working Group on Multispecies Assessment Methods (WGSAM), 10-14 October 2016, Reykjavik, Iceland
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2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Working Group on Multispecies Assessment Methods (WGSAM) met in Reykjavik, Iceland, 10–14 October 2016. In this tenth report of the pan-regional WGSAM, work focused on four (B, E, F, G) of the multi-annual ToRs.

Based on their knowledge, participants provided an updated inventory of progress of multispecies models in ICES Ecoregions (ToR A), noting those regions where no information was available. Reporting on ToR A was scarce compared to previous years, partly because recent relevant work was reported against ToR E and G instead.

A Key Run (ToR B) of the Baltic Sea Ecopath with Ecosim (NS-EwE) model was presented and reviewed in detail by 4 WGSAM experts, and approved by the group following implementation of changes agreed in plenary at the meeting and verified by the 4 experts in January. The Key Run is documented in a detail in Annex 3, with key outputs summarised in Section 3 and data files made available on the WGSAM webpage). WGSAM also conducted an informal review of the LeMans modelling framework for potential application in the Irish Sea, and recommended adjustments to the framework for further review. Because the LeMans framework is a within-model ensemble addressing parameter uncertainty, this review also related to ToR D.

Multispecies model skill assessment (ToR C) and multi-model ensemble methods (ToR D) were not emphasized this year. However, plans were made to coordinate future work for ToR C, and one ToR D presentation reviewed the utility of a dynamic multimodel ensemble for making inferences about the real world. This method can infer results for individual components of aggregate groups; the ensemble model uses correlations in other ecosystem models to determine what the models that group species would have predicted for individual species. A proof of concept for the North Sea was presented.

Ecosystem indicator analyses (ToR E) were presented from a wide range of ecosystems. A theoretical analysis comparing results from the Celtic and North Seas with 4 “idealized” fleets was presented to analyse the performance of selected indicators in a multispecies mixed fishery. Four indicators including the Large Fish Indicator (LFI) were examined, and shown to have mixed utility in measuring the impact of different fleet sectors, with the best indicator varying by ecosystem. A multivariate analysis of ecosystem responses to multiple drivers was conducted for four US ecosystems using gradient forest method to identify potential ecosystem thresholds. Other multivariate methods were reviewed that draw on the strengths of multiple indicators for the Northeast US shelf ecosystem. A food web based biodiversity indicator was presented with an application for the Baltic Sea. This could be extended to any ecosystem with an EwE or similar model. A community status indicator relating a species-area relationship to the LFI and mean trophic levels was presented for the Swedish west coast.

Impacts of apex predators on fisheries (ToR F) were examined with one presentation and a group discussion planning further work. A multipecies production model was parameterized to simulate interactions between three fish guilds, fisheries, and one marine mammal guild, concluding that fish reference points and trajectories change with marine mammal interactions. Fishery management was also important to reduce vessel interactions with and ensure prey supply to marine mammals. 4 | ICES WGSAM REPORT 2016 Exploration of practical advice for fisheries management incorporating multispecies, mixed fishery, and environmental factors (ToR G) was evident across regions. Two approaches for incorporating species, fleet, environmental, and other interactions are in progress in the Northeast US. One presentation outlined the New England approach, and another outlined the Mid-Atlantic approach. In New England, a management strategy evaluation is in progress to evaluate harvest control rules that consider herring's role as forage in the ecosystem. The modelling framework and stakeholder workshops were discussed. In the Baltic, a Nash Equilibrium optimisation approach incorporating environmental factors was presented for the cod-herring-sprat fishery to attempt to identify a solution that would give good yield for all species simultaneously. In the North Sea a theoretical analysis using 4 “idealized” fleets was presented to analyse the potential implications of "Pretty Good Yield" ranges around MSY. The model examined the likelihood of the fishery being precautionary for the different species given the uncertainties involved, and concluded that the upper ends of MSY ranges would not guarantee precautionarity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copenhagen V, Denmark: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 2017. p. 94
Series
ICES CM 2016/SSGEPI ; 21
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Ecological Modelling Group
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13506 (URN)
Available from: 2017-04-19 Created: 2017-04-19 Last updated: 2019-02-20Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2055-4284

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