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Atif, Y., Al-Falahi, K., Wangchuk, T. & Lindström, B. (2019). A fuzzy logic approach to influence maximization in social networks. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A fuzzy logic approach to influence maximization in social networks
2019 (English)In: Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, ISSN 1868-5137, E-ISSN 1868-5145Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Within a community, social relationships are paramount to profile individuals’ conduct. For instance, an individual within a social network might be compelled to embrace a behaviour that his/her companion has recently adopted. Such social attitude is labelled social influence, which assesses the extent by which an individual’s social neighbourhood adopt that individual’s behaviour. We suggest an original approach to influence maximization using a fuzzy-logic based model, which combines influence-weights associated with historical logs of the social network users, and their favourable location in the network. Our approach uses a two-phases process to maximise influence diffusion. First, we harness the complexity of the problem by partitioning the network into significantly-enriched community-structures, which we then use as modules to locate the most influential nodes across the entire network. These key users are determined relatively to a fuzzy-logic based technique that identifies the most influential users, out of which the seed-set candidates to diffuse a behaviour or an innovation are extracted following the allocated budget for the influence campaign. This way to deal with influence propagation in social networks, is different from previous models, which do not compare structural and behavioural attributes among members of the network. The performance results show the validity of the proposed partitioning-approach of a social network into communities, and its contribution to “activate” a higher number of nodes overall. Our experimental study involves both empirical and real contemporary social-networks, whereby a smaller seed set of key users, is shown to scale influence to the high-end compared to some renowned techniques, which employ a larger seed set of key users and yet they influence less nodes in the social network.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Social networks, Community detection, Influence propagation, Fuzzy logic
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16779 (URN)10.1007/s12652-019-01286-2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064252809 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-04-15 Last updated: 2019-09-04Bibliographically approved
Jiang, Y., Atif, Y., Ding, J. & Wang, W. (2019). A Semantic Framework With Humans in the Loop for Vulnerability-Assessment in Cyber-Physical Production Systems. In: : . Paper presented at The 14th International Conference on Risks and Security of Internet and Systems, Hammamet, Tunisia, October 29-31, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Semantic Framework With Humans in the Loop for Vulnerability-Assessment in Cyber-Physical Production Systems
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Criticalmanufacturingprocessesinsmartnetworkedsystems such as Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPSs) typically require guaranteed quality-of-service performances, which is supported by cyber- security management. Currently, most existing vulnerability-assessment techniques mostly rely on only the security department due to limited communication between di↵erent working groups. This poses a limitation to the security management of CPPSs, as malicious operations may use new exploits that occur between successive analysis milestones or across departmental managerial boundaries. Thus, it is important to study and analyse CPPS networks’ security, in terms of vulnerability analysis that accounts for humans in the production process loop, to prevent potential threats to infiltrate through cross-layer gaps and to reduce the magnitude of their impact. We propose a semantic framework that supports the col- laboration between di↵erent actors in the production process, to improve situation awareness for cyberthreats prevention. Stakeholders with dif- ferent expertise are contributing to vulnerability assessment, which can be further combined with attack-scenario analysis to provide more prac- tical analysis. In doing so, we show through a case study evaluation how our proposed framework leverages crucial relationships between vulner- abilities, threats and attacks, in order to narrow further the risk-window induced by discoverable vulnerabilities.

Keywords
Cyber-Physical Production System Security, Human-in-the-Loop, Vulnerability Assessment, Semantic Model, Reference Model
National Category
Embedded Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Information Systems Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems; Production and Automation Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17754 (URN)
Conference
The 14th International Conference on Risks and Security of Internet and Systems, Hammamet, Tunisia, October 29-31, 2019
Projects
ELVIRA
Note

EU ISF Project A431.678/2016 ELVIRA

Available from: 2019-10-03 Created: 2019-10-03 Last updated: 2019-11-07
Jiang, Y., Atif, Y. & Ding, J. (2019). Cyber-Physical Systems Security Based on A Cross-Linked and Correlated Vulnerability Database. In: : . Paper presented at the 14th International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, Linköping, Sweden, 23-25 September 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cyber-Physical Systems Security Based on A Cross-Linked and Correlated Vulnerability Database
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recent advances in data analytics prompt dynamic datadriven vulnerability assessments whereby data contained from vulnerabilityalert repositories as well as from Cyber-physical System (CPS) layer networks and standardised enumerations. Yet, current vulnerability assessment processes are mostly conducted manually. However, the huge volume of scanned data requires substantial information processing and analytical reasoning, which could not be satisfied considering the imprecision of manual vulnerability analysis. In this paper, we propose to employ a cross-linked and correlated database to collect, extract, filter and visualise vulnerability data across multiple existing repositories, whereby CPS vulnerability information is inferred. Based on our locally-updated database, we provide an in-depth case study on gathered CPS vulnerability data, to explore the trends of CPS vulnerability. In doing so, we aim to support a higher level of automation in vulnerability awareness and back risk-analysis exercises in critical infrastructures (CIs) protection.

Keywords
Cyber-Physical System Security, Vulnerability Analysis, Correlated Database Management, SCADA
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Computer Sciences
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17753 (URN)
Conference
the 14th International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, Linköping, Sweden, 23-25 September 2019
Projects
EU ISF Project A431.678/2016 ELVIRA
Note

Funded by EU Internal Security Funds

Available from: 2019-10-03 Created: 2019-10-03 Last updated: 2019-11-07
Maamar, Z., Baker, T., Faci, N., Al-Khafajiy, M., Ugljanin, E., Atif, Y. & Sellami, M. (2019). Weaving Cognition into the Internet-of-Things: Application to Water Leaks. Cognitive Systems Research, 56, 233-245
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Weaving Cognition into the Internet-of-Things: Application to Water Leaks
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2019 (English)In: Cognitive Systems Research, ISSN 2214-4366, E-ISSN 1389-0417, Vol. 56, p. 233-245Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the growing interest in the Internet-of-Things, many organizations remain reluctant to integrating things into their business processes. Different reasons justify this reluctance including things’ limited capabilities to act upon the cyber-physical surrounding in which they operate. To address this specific limitation, this paper examines thing empowerment with cognitive capabilities that would make them for instance, selective of the next business processes in which they would participate. The selection is based on things’ restrictions like limitedness and goals to achieve like improved reputation. For demonstration purposes, water leaks are used as a case study. A BPEL-based business process driving the fixing of water leaks is implemented involving different cognitive things like moisture sensor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Business Process, Cognitive Computing, Internet of Things, Water Leak
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16807 (URN)10.1016/j.cogsys.2019.04.001 (DOI)000468975100028 ()2-s2.0-85064498686 (Scopus ID)
Note

Corrigendum in: Cognitive Systems Research, Volume 58, December 2019, Page 54. doi:10.1016/j.cogsys.2019.05.006

Available from: 2019-04-23 Created: 2019-04-23 Last updated: 2019-10-18Bibliographically approved
Jiang, Y., Jeusfeld, M. A., Atif, Y., Ding, J., Brax, C. & Nero, E. (2018). A Language and Repository for Cyber Security of Smart Grids. In: Selmin Nurcan, Pontus Johnson (Ed.), 2018 IEEE 22nd International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC 2018): . Paper presented at 2018 IEEE 22nd International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC), Stockholm, Sweden, October 16-19, 2018 (pp. 164-170). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Language and Repository for Cyber Security of Smart Grids
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2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE 22nd International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC 2018) / [ed] Selmin Nurcan, Pontus Johnson, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE, 2018, p. 164-170Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Power grids form the central critical infrastructure in all developed economies. Disruptions of power supply can cause major effects on the economy and the livelihood of citizens. At the same time, power grids are being targeted by sophisticated cyber attacks. To counter these threats, we propose a domain-specific language and a repository to represent power grids and related IT components that control the power grid. We apply our tool to a standard example used in the literature to assess its expressiveness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE, 2018
Series
Proceedings (IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference), ISSN 2325-6354, E-ISSN 2325-6362
Keywords
cyber security, enterprise architecture, domain-specific language, taxonomy
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems; Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16403 (URN)10.1109/EDOC.2018.00029 (DOI)2-s2.0-85059076918 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-4139-2 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 IEEE 22nd International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC), Stockholm, Sweden, October 16-19, 2018
Projects
EU ISF Project A431.678/2016 ELVIRA
Note

Funded by EU Internal Security Funds

Available from: 2018-11-16 Created: 2018-11-16 Last updated: 2019-02-08Bibliographically approved
Jiang, Y., Atif, Y. & Ding, J. (2018). Agent Based Testbed Design for Cyber Vulnerability Assessment in Smart-Grids. In: : . Paper presented at CySeP summer school 2018/SWITIS, CySeP, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agent Based Testbed Design for Cyber Vulnerability Assessment in Smart-Grids
2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Smart grid employs Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure and network connectivity to optimize efficiency and deliver new functionalities. This evolution is associated with an increased risk for cybersecurity threats that may hamper smart grid operations. Power utility providers need tools for assessing risk of prevailing cyberthreats over ICT infrastructures. The need for frameworks to guide the development of these tools is essential to define and reveal vulnerability analysis indicators. We propose a data-driven approach for designing testbeds to allow the simulation of cyberattacks in order to evaluate the vulnerability and the impact of cyber threat attacks. The proposed framework uses data reported from multiple smart grid components at different smart grid architecture layers, including physical, control, and cyber layers. The multi-agent based framework proposed in this paper would analyze the conglomeration of these data reports to assert malicious attacks.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
INF303 Information Security; Distributed Real-Time Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16069 (URN)
Conference
CySeP summer school 2018/SWITIS, CySeP, 2018
Projects
ELVIRA (http://www.his.se/en/Research/informatics/Distributed-Real-Time-Systems/Infrastructure-resilience/)
Available from: 2018-08-22 Created: 2018-08-22 Last updated: 2018-11-21Bibliographically approved
Maamar, Z., Baker, T., Faci, N., Ugljanin, E., Atif, Y., Al-Khafajiy, M. & Sellami, M. (2018). Cognitive Computing Meets The Internet of Things. In: Leszek Maciaszek, Marten van Sinderen (Ed.), Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Software Technologies: . Paper presented at 13th International Conference on Software Technologies, ICSOFT, Porto, Portugal, July 26-28, 2018 (pp. 741-746). SciTePress
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive Computing Meets The Internet of Things
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Software Technologies / [ed] Leszek Maciaszek, Marten van Sinderen, SciTePress, 2018, p. 741-746Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper discusses the blend of cognitive computing with the Internet-of-Things that should result into developing cognitive things. Today’s things are confined into a data-supplier role, which deprives them from being the technology of choice for smart applications development. Cognitive computing is about reasoning, learning, explaining, acting, etc. In this paper, cognitive things’ features include functional and non-functional restrictions along with a 3 stage operation cycle that takes into account these restrictions during reasoning, adaptation, and learning. Some implementation details about cognitive things are included in this paper based on a water pipe case-study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SciTePress, 2018
Keywords
Business process, Cognitive computing, Internet-of-Things
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15352 (URN)10.5220/0006877507750780 (DOI)978-989-758-320-9 (ISBN)
Conference
13th International Conference on Software Technologies, ICSOFT, Porto, Portugal, July 26-28, 2018
Available from: 2018-06-06 Created: 2018-06-06 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Jiang, Y., Ding, J., Atif, Y., Jeusfeld, M., Andler, S., Lindström, B., . . . Haglund, D. (2018). Complex Dependencies Analysis: Technical Description of Complex Dependencies in Critical Infrastructures, i.e. Smart Grids. Work Package 2.1 of the ELVIRA Project. Skövde: University of Skövde
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complex Dependencies Analysis: Technical Description of Complex Dependencies in Critical Infrastructures, i.e. Smart Grids. Work Package 2.1 of the ELVIRA Project
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This document reports a technical description of ELVIRA project results obtained as part of Work-package 2.1 entitled “Complex Dependencies Analysis”. In this technical report, we review attempts in recent researches where connections are regarded as influencing factors to  IT systems monitoring critical infrastructure, based on which potential dependencies and resulting disturbances are identified and categorized. Each kind of dependence has been discussed based on our own entity based model. Among those dependencies, logical and functional connections have been analysed with more details on modelling and simulation techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skövde: University of Skövde, 2018. p. 22
Series
IIT Technical Reports ; HS-IIT-TR-18-003
Keywords
Dependencies, Interdependencies, Modelling and Simulation, Influence Factors
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Embedded Systems
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems; Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15114 (URN)
Projects
ELVIRA
Note

HS-IIT-TR-18-003 This is a technical report related to the ELVIRA project www.his.se/elvira

Available from: 2018-05-02 Created: 2018-05-02 Last updated: 2019-03-05Bibliographically approved
Atif, Y., Jiang, Y., Jeusfeld, M. A., Ding, J., Lindström, B., Andler, S. F., . . . Lindström, B. (2018). Cyber-threat analysis for Cyber-Physical Systems: Technical report for Package 4, Activity 3 of ELVIRA project. Skövde: University of Skövde
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cyber-threat analysis for Cyber-Physical Systems: Technical report for Package 4, Activity 3 of ELVIRA project
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Smart grid employs ICT infrastructure and network connectivity to optimize efficiency and deliver new functionalities. This evolu- tion is associated with an increased risk for cybersecurity threats that may hamper smart grid operations. Power utility providers need tools for assessing risk of prevailing cyberthreats over ICT infrastructures. The need for frameworks to guide the develop- ment of these tools is essential to define and reveal vulnerability analysis indicators. We propose a data-driven approach for design- ing testbeds to evaluate the vulnerability of cyberphysical systems against cyberthreats. The proposed framework uses data reported from multiple components of cyberphysical system architecture layers, including physical, control, and cyber layers. At the phys- ical layer, we consider component inventory and related physi- cal flows. At the control level, we consider control data, such as SCADA data flows in industrial and critical infrastructure control systems. Finally, at the cyber layer level, we consider existing secu- rity and monitoring data from cyber-incident event management tools, which are increasingly embedded into the control fabrics of cyberphysical systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skövde: University of Skövde, 2018. p. 18
Series
IIT Technical Reports ; HS-IIT-TR-18-004
Keywords
vulnerability analysis, cyber-threats, cyberphysical systems, clustering, multiagent systems
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems; Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16092 (URN)
Projects
This research has been supported in part by the EU ISF Project A431.678/2016 ELVIRA (Threat modeling and resilience of critical infrastructures), coordinated by Polismyndigheten/Sweden
Note

I publikationen: HS-IIT-18-004

Available from: 2018-08-29 Created: 2018-08-29 Last updated: 2019-02-18Bibliographically approved
Jiang, Y., Atif, Y. & Ding, J. (2018). Data Fusion Framework for Cyber Vulnerability Assessment in Smart Grid.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data Fusion Framework for Cyber Vulnerability Assessment in Smart Grid
2018 (English)Other (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Smart grid adopts ICT to enhance power-delivery management. However, these advanced technologies also introduce an increasing amount of cyber threats. Cyber threats occur because of vulnerabilities throughout smart-grid layers. Each layer is distinguished by typical data flows. For example, power-data stream flows along the physical layer; command data are pushed to and pulled from sensor-control devices, such as RTUs and PLCs. Vulnerabilities expose these data flows to cyber threat via communication networks, such as local control network, vendor network, corporate network and the wider internet. Thus, these data could be used to analyse vulnerabilities against cyber threats. After data collection, data analysis and modelling techniques would be used for vulnerability assessment.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Distributed Real-Time Systems; INF303 Information Security
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16070 (URN)
Available from: 2018-08-22 Created: 2018-08-22 Last updated: 2018-09-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7312-9089

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