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Redondo Verdú, C., Sempere Maciá, N., Strand, M., Holm, M., Schmidt, B. & Olsson, J. (2023). Enhancing Manual Assembly Training using Mixed Reality and Virtual Sensors. Paper presented at 17th CIRP Conference on Intelligent Computation in Manufacturing Engineering - CIRP ICME '23, Gulf of Naples, Italy, 12 - 14 July 2023. Procedia CIRP
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancing Manual Assembly Training using Mixed Reality and Virtual Sensors
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2023 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

In recent years Mixed Reality technology has been widely used to enhance operators in manual assembly operations. This paper introduces a Mixed Reality environment for assembly operations and describes how the process can be supported by virtual sensors. The structure of the environment allows seamless adaption from a fully virtual training scenario, only using virtual assets, to a full production scenario supporting operators in assembling physical products in actual production. The training system which has been developed together with the company Skandia Elevator in Sweden enables the operators to train with much less disturbance to the real production line compared to training using the actual production equipment. In fact, the training can be done only using virtual assets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
augmented reality, mixed reality, manual assembly, operator training
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
INF201 Virtual Production Development; Virtual Production Development (VPD); VF-KDO
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23452 (URN)
Conference
17th CIRP Conference on Intelligent Computation in Manufacturing Engineering - CIRP ICME '23, Gulf of Naples, Italy, 12 - 14 July 2023
Projects
ACCURATE
Note

CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 DEED

Corresponding author. Tel.: +46-500-448551; E-mail address: magnus.holm@his.se

Available from: 2023-12-11 Created: 2023-12-11 Last updated: 2023-12-27
Danielsson, O., Syberfeldt, A., Holm, M. & Thorvald, P. (2023). Integration of Augmented Reality Smart Glasses as Assembly Support: A Framework Implementation in a Quick Evaluation Tool. International Journal of Manufacturing Research, 18(2), 144-164
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of Augmented Reality Smart Glasses as Assembly Support: A Framework Implementation in a Quick Evaluation Tool
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Manufacturing Research, ISSN 1750-0591, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 144-164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Augmented reality smart glasses (ARSG) have been successfully used as operator support in production. However, their use is not yet widespread, likely in part due to a lack of knowledge about how to integrate ARSG into production. This lack of knowledge can also make it hard to estimate whether this is a worthwhile investment. Our solution is to provide an online evaluation tool to help production planners estimate the likelihood that ARSG will be worth the investment cost in specific production cases. Based on a strawman design, multiple design iterations were followed by a pilot test performed by participants from different manufacturing companies involved in planning production for operators. A Likert scale survey was used to evaluate the tool. The results show a slightly positive evaluation of the tool with suggestions for improvement, including widening the scope and granularity of the tool. Future works include further iterations and case studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2023
Keywords
augmented reality, AR, augmented reality smart glasses, ARSG, assembly operator, framework, evaluation tool, focus groups
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Virtual Production Development (VPD); User Centred Product Design; VF-KDO
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-22639 (URN)10.1504/IJMR.2023.131583 (DOI)001016319500002 ()2-s2.0-85165228322 (Scopus ID)
Note

Published online: 20 Jun 2023

Available from: 2023-06-02 Created: 2023-06-02 Last updated: 2023-08-16Bibliographically approved
Holm, M. & Strand, M. (2023). Möta studenterna mitt i yrkeslivet. In: Joel Midemalm; Amir Vadiee; Elisabeth Uhlemann; Fredrik Georgsson; Gunilla Carlsson-Kvarnlöf; Jonas Månsson; Kristina Edström; Lennart Pettersson; Pedher Johansson (Ed.), Bidrag från den 9:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar: . Paper presented at 9:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar, 22-23 november 2023, Mälardalens universitet, Västerås (pp. 136-149). Västerås: Mälardalens universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Möta studenterna mitt i yrkeslivet
2023 (Swedish)In: Bidrag från den 9:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar / [ed] Joel Midemalm; Amir Vadiee; Elisabeth Uhlemann; Fredrik Georgsson; Gunilla Carlsson-Kvarnlöf; Jonas Månsson; Kristina Edström; Lennart Pettersson; Pedher Johansson, Västerås: Mälardalens universitet, 2023, p. 136-149Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Dagens situation, med mycket snabb teknisk utveckling samt globaliserings- och hållbarhetsfrågor som påtagligt påverkar vårt samhälle omkullkastar många av de tidigare sanningar som format bilden av högre utbildning i allmänhet och utbildning som är arbetsmarknadsanknuten i synnerhet. Ett gällande synsätt där yrkesliv följer kronologiskt efter en inledande utbildningsfas i unga människors liv blir allt merdaterad. Begreppet ”det livslånga lärandet” omfattar ett synsätt där utbildning ochyrkesliv verkar växelvis under ett helt arbetsliv, där individen återkommande behöverfylla på, reflektera över och därigenom få stöd att implementera ny kunskap. Det ärav stor vikt att akademin tar till sig och möjliggör för människor mitt i livet att ta del av och reflektera över ny kunskap och de möjligheter som den ger. Inte minst ärdetta viktigt inom teknikintensiva yrkesroller där påverkan från disruptiv teknisk utvecklingen är påtaglig. Med utgångspunkt i vårt arbete under 15 år riktar vi oss med denna artikel till kollegor inom det livslånga lärandet och presenterar upplägg och genomförande av onlinekurser där studenterna är mitt i yrkeslivet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalens universitet, 2023
Keywords
Livslångt lärande, Onlinekurser
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Virtual Production Development (VPD)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23454 (URN)978-91-7485-620-0 (ISBN)
Conference
9:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar, 22-23 november 2023, Mälardalens universitet, Västerås
Projects
WISER
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2023-12-12 Created: 2023-12-12 Last updated: 2023-12-12Bibliographically approved
Sempere Maciá, N., Redondo Verdú, C., Schmidt, B. & Holm, M. (2023). Programming Environment for cobots using MR technology. Paper presented at 17th CIRP Conference on Intelligent Computation in Manufacturing Engineering - CIRP ICME '23, Gulf of Naples, Italy, 12 - 14 July 2023. Procedia CIRP
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Programming Environment for cobots using MR technology
2023 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a Mixed reality (MR) environment to support industrial cobots programming for welding purposes. Several intuitive menus allow a user to program the path, which can be configured and simulated in the virtual environment with reachability checking. A guide can be activated to show recommended steps and allows validation of the created program on the virtual robot to aid the learning process. The MR application is integrated with a robot programming platform and a robot controller, that allows the user to test paths on a real robot. Moreover, results from spatial accuracy and user experience evaluations are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Mixed reality, augmented reality, human-robot interaction, safety
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Virtual Production Development (VPD); VF-KDO
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23449 (URN)
Conference
17th CIRP Conference on Intelligent Computation in Manufacturing Engineering - CIRP ICME '23, Gulf of Naples, Italy, 12 - 14 July 2023
Projects
ACCURATE
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 DEED

Corresponding author: Tel.: +46-500-44-8547; fax: +46-500-44-8598. E-mail address: bernard.schmidt@his.se

The authors thank Tommy Y. Svensson from ABB Robotics for the kind support. This work was partially financed by the Knowledge Foundation (KKS), Sweden, through the ACCURATE project (2021-2025) and VF-KDO project (2019-2026). The work was located at ASSAR Industrial Innovation Arena Skövde as part of a Bachelor's Degree Project.

Available from: 2023-12-11 Created: 2023-12-11 Last updated: 2023-12-27
Holm, M., Ng, A. H. C., Högberg, D. & Syberfeldt, A. (Eds.). (2023). Special Issue: Digital Transformation Towards a Sustainable Human Centric and Resilient Production. Paper presented at Swedish Production Symposium 2022. InderScience Publishers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Special Issue: Digital Transformation Towards a Sustainable Human Centric and Resilient Production
2023 (English)Collection (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The realisation of a successful product requires collaboration between developers andproducers, taking account of stakeholder value, reinforcing the contribution of industry tosociety and enhancing the wellbeing of workers while respecting planetary boundaries.Founded in 2006, the Swedish Production Academy (SPA) aims to drive and developproduction research and education and to increase cooperation within the production area.SPA initiated and hosts the conference Swedish Production Symposium. This specialissue is based on invited papers from the 10th Swedish Production Symposium(SPS2022), held in Skövde, Sweden, from 26–29 April 2022. The overall theme forSPS2022 was ‘Industry 5.0 transformation – towards a sustainable, human-centric, andresilient production’.As stated by the European Commission the vision of Industry 5.0 recognises societalgoals. It goes beyond a techno-economic vision, industrial value chains and growthaiming for the industry to become a resilient provider of prosperity, respecting ourplanets boundaries, and placing the industrial worker, her well-being, at the centre of theproduction process.In this special issue, we set out to explore the transition to a resilient, sustainable andhuman centric industry. The first paper explores the need for a joint strategical vision thatinclude technology (selection, development, and implementation), organisation(structure, agility, management, stakeholder collaborations, work environment) andpeople (skills and competences, participation, innovation and creative collaborativeculture, and change readiness), to achieve a resilient and sustainable production systemeffectively and efficiently. The second paper discusses how reconfigurable manufacturingsystems can enable sustainable manufacturing and circularity, achieving highresponsiveness and cost efficiency. The third paper, a synthesis of universal workplacedesign in assembly, explores how human assembly workplaces can be designed in abetter way in regard to inclusion of diverse worker populations. The fourth paperdiscusses different meanings of digital transformation in manufacturing industry fromboth a theoretical and industrial perspective. The fifth paper explores challenges to designa product service system at an SME as an approach to support transition to Industry 5.0.The concluding paper in this special issue discusses a knowledge extraction platform forreproducible decision support based on data from multi-objective experiments.The organiser of SPS2022 has found these six outstanding papers to perfectly alignwith the theme ‘Industry 5.0 transformation’ and express their gratitude to theEditor-in-Chief of IJMR for accepting them for publication in this special issue.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2023
Series
International Journal of Manufacturing Research, ISSN 1750-0591, E-ISSN 1750-0605 ; Vol. 18(4)
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
VF-KDO; User Centred Product Design; Virtual Production Development (VPD)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23455 (URN)
Conference
Swedish Production Symposium 2022
Available from: 2023-12-12 Created: 2023-12-12 Last updated: 2023-12-27Bibliographically approved
Thorvald, P., Holm, M., Strand, M. & Romero, D. (2023). The Augmented Welder Profile: Augmenting Craftmanship with Digital and Collaborative Tools. In: Tareq Ahram; Waldemar Karwowski (Ed.), Augmented, Virtual and Mixed Reality Simulation: Proceedings of the AHFE International Conference on Human Factors in Design, Engineering, and Computing (AHFE 2023 Hawaii Edition), Hawaii, USA, 4-6 December, 2023. Paper presented at AHFE International Conference on Human Factors in Design, Engineering, and Computing (AHFE 2023 Hawaii Edition), Hawaii, USA, 4-6 December, 2023 (pp. 9-18). New York: AHFE International Open Access
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Augmented Welder Profile: Augmenting Craftmanship with Digital and Collaborative Tools
2023 (English)In: Augmented, Virtual and Mixed Reality Simulation: Proceedings of the AHFE International Conference on Human Factors in Design, Engineering, and Computing (AHFE 2023 Hawaii Edition), Hawaii, USA, 4-6 December, 2023 / [ed] Tareq Ahram; Waldemar Karwowski, New York: AHFE International Open Access , 2023, p. 9-18Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

More and more applications of Augmented Reality (AR) in manufacturing industries are introduced every day and while recent research has shown that one of the more popular applications, high volume assembly instructions, might not offer the best setting for this technology, many other applications exist that do. For assembly, remote guidance or training, rare assemblies, low takt time and high mix production, do still show promise. This article introduces the role of the Augmented Welder, a role utilizing AR technology for the programming of a welding robot. An operator support system in the form of a custom application programmed in Unity and visualized with a pair of Hololens2, connected to an ABB robot through RobotStudio. The robot is equipped with a welding gun dummy. The operator can, through the Hololens2, set safety boundaries, introduce work pieces, place targets in a 3D space, simulate the robot path, send the program to the robot, and activate the physical robot, among other things. We performed a modified pluralistic walkthrough to evaluate the operator support system both with respect to our application but also to search valuable insight to the general use of AR in the use of such applications. Results showed that while the subjects were generally positive towards the support system, several issues were identified and raised by various degrees of severity. The primary issues arose around the navigation and interaction with 2D menus and 3D objects in a 3D Mixed Reality (MR) space. The absence of physics confused the subjects as they could not interact with the virtual objects as they would have with physical objects. The lack of physics simply meant that they didn't act the same. Furthermore the interaction with 2D menus in a 3D space was both reported and observed as being very difficult as the 2D representations probably led to problems with depth perception. The general results of the debriefing indicated that using AR for robot programming was challenging although some of this can be attributed to the fact that this was the participants first use of such a system. The users indicated that the menus were appropriate and that the interaction was intuitive while the navigation within the system was not experienced as natural which confirms the above-mentioned issues with menus disappearing from the line of sight and feedback around generated target points being absent.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: AHFE International Open Access, 2023
Series
Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics International, E-ISSN 2771-0718 ; 118
Keywords
AR, MR, Operator 4.0, welding, augmented welder, user experience, evaluation, inspection method
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
User Centred Product Design; Virtual Production Development (VPD)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23457 (URN)10.54941/ahfe1004436 (DOI)978-1-958651-94-0 (ISBN)
Conference
AHFE International Conference on Human Factors in Design, Engineering, and Computing (AHFE 2023 Hawaii Edition), Hawaii, USA, 4-6 December, 2023
Note

CC BY 4.0 DEED

Thanks to Antonio, Erich, and Miguel for your participation during the AR welding system evaluation. The work was done at ASSAR IndustrialInnovation Arena in Skövde, Sweden. 

Available from: 2023-12-12 Created: 2023-12-12 Last updated: 2023-12-12
Sempere Maciá, N., Redondo Verdú, C., Schmidt, B. & Holm, M. (2023). Toward safer Human-Robot collaboration in MR environment. Paper presented at 17th CIRP Conference on Intelligent Computation in Manufacturing Engineering - CIRP ICME '23, Gulf of Naples, Italy, 12 - 14 July 2023. Procedia CIRP
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward safer Human-Robot collaboration in MR environment
2023 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a Mixed Reality (MR) approach to extend the Safe Move tool from ABB Robot Studio (RS) to view and intuitively edit the safety configuration, allowing the import of existing configurations and the export of modified ones to RS for certification by the expert. The added virtual sensor can detect the user's position allowing collision detection and avoidance. The robot's motion is not only adjusted to the safety zone in which the robot is but also to its relative position to the operator by monitoring in real-time positions of the operator’s hands as well as head and triggering appropriate action in the robot.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Mixed reality, augmented reality, human-robot interaction, safety
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
INF201 Virtual Production Development; VF-KDO; Virtual Production Development (VPD)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23451 (URN)
Conference
17th CIRP Conference on Intelligent Computation in Manufacturing Engineering - CIRP ICME '23, Gulf of Naples, Italy, 12 - 14 July 2023
Projects
ACCURATE
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 DEED

Corresponding author: Tel.: +46-500-44-8547; fax: +46-500-44-8598. E-mail address: bernard.schmidt@his.se

The authors thank Tommy Y. Svensson from ABB Robotics for the kind support. This work was partially financed by the Knowledge Foundation (KKS), Sweden, through the ACCURATE project (2021-2025) and the VF-KDO project (2019-2026). The presented work was located at ASSAR Industrial Innovation Arena Skövde based on a Bachelor's Degree Project by Natalaia and Celia and further developed thereafter.

Available from: 2023-12-11 Created: 2023-12-11 Last updated: 2023-12-27
Gustavsson, P., Syberfeldt, A. & Holm, M. (2023). Virtual reality platform for design and evaluation of human-robot collaboration in assembly manufacturing. International Journal of Manufacturing Research, 18(1), 28-49
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Virtual reality platform for design and evaluation of human-robot collaboration in assembly manufacturing
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Manufacturing Research, ISSN 1750-0591, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 28-49Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents 'virtual collaborative robot', a virtual reality platform for designing and evaluating collaboration between operators and industrial robots. Within the platform, human-robot collaboration scenarios can be created and a user can interact with a robot without the safety risks that might arise with physical industrial robots. In an initial evaluation of the platform a scenario was implemented combining speech recognition, haptic control, and augmented reality to assemble a car model. The results from this evaluation indicate that the suggested platform can be used to successfully test new applications with the standard equipment of virtual reality headsets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2023
Keywords
human-robot collaboration, HRC, human-robot interaction, HRI, virtual reality, augmented reality, speech recognition
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Virtual Production Development (VPD)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-22362 (URN)10.1504/IJMR.2023.129303 (DOI)000944150000002 ()2-s2.0-85153476675 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-04-03 Created: 2023-04-03 Last updated: 2023-09-25Bibliographically approved
Schnell, M. & Holm, M. (2022). Challenges for Manufacturing SMEs in the Introduction of Collaborative Robots. In: Amos H. C. Ng; Anna Syberfeldt; Dan Högberg; Magnus Holm (Ed.), SPS2022: Proceedings of the 10th Swedish Production Symposium. Paper presented at 10th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS2022), Skövde, April 26–29 2022 (pp. 173-183). Amsterdam; Berlin; Washington, DC: IOS Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges for Manufacturing SMEs in the Introduction of Collaborative Robots
2022 (English)In: SPS2022: Proceedings of the 10th Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Amos H. C. Ng; Anna Syberfeldt; Dan Högberg; Magnus Holm, Amsterdam; Berlin; Washington, DC: IOS Press, 2022, p. 173-183Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Collaborative robots, cobots can be an alternative to traditional industrial robots, but for small and medium-sized enterprises, SMEs, the adoption still is in an early stage. This study, a combination of literature study and interviews with staff at companies and reserachers, aims to identify the challenges for manufacturing SMEs when introducing cobots in the business so that future work in companies can be based on these finding facilitating a smooth implementation. The mainchallenges identified are related to safety, performance, strategy, involvement, and training. Safety aspects are crucial since human operators work closely with collaborative robots and risk serious injuries even though the managers and operators in the case study do not seem to worry since they perceive the current cobots as relatively slow and safe. Other high-prioritised challenges are related to performance and strategy, e.g., how to achieve cost-effectiveness with small production volumes and get the robotic investment to pay off in the long turn, but also to choose a proper cobot solution and a reliable supplier, find suitable work tasks and obtain quality if the cobot fails to recognize a defective product or skewed inputs on the production line. Employee involvement is another success factor since early involvement of the operators leads to better acceptance and understanding of the new technology and the changed work situation. There is a need for skilled, educated workers as well, although the case study shows that the SMEs highlight the importance of choosing a robot system that is easy to learn and easy to use for everyone. This paper will discuss challenges when introducing cobots in manufacturing SMEs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam; Berlin; Washington, DC: IOS Press, 2022
Series
Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, ISSN 2352-751X, E-ISSN 2352-7528 ; 21
Keywords
Human-robot collaboration, HRC, collaborative robots, cobots, SME
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Robotics
Research subject
Production and Automation Engineering; VF-KDO
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-21094 (URN)10.3233/ATDE220137 (DOI)2-s2.0-85132827891 (Scopus ID)978-1-64368-268-6 (ISBN)978-1-64368-269-3 (ISBN)
Conference
10th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS2022), Skövde, April 26–29 2022
Note

CC BY-NC 4.0

Corresponding Author, Marie Schnell; University of Skövde, Box 64, 541 28 SKÖVDE, SWEDEN  E-mail: marie.schnell@his.se

Available from: 2022-04-29 Created: 2022-04-29 Last updated: 2023-02-23Bibliographically approved
Ng, A. H. C., Syberfeldt, A., Högberg, D. & Holm, M. (Eds.). (2022). SPS2022: Proceedings of the 10th Swedish Production Symposium. Paper presented at 10th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS2022), Skövde, April 26–29 2022. Amsterdam; Berlin; Washington, DC: IOS Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SPS2022: Proceedings of the 10th Swedish Production Symposium
2022 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The realization of a successful product requires collaboration between developers and producers, taking account of stakeholder value, reinforcing the contribution of industry to society and enhancing the wellbeing of workers while respecting planetary boundaries. Founded in 2006, the Swedish Production Academy (SPA) aims to drive and develop production research and education and to increase cooperation within the production area.

This book presents the proceedings of the 10th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS2022), held in Skövde, Sweden, from 26-29 April 2022. The overall theme of the symposium was ‘Industry 5.0 Transformation – Towards a Sustainable, Human-Centric, and Resilient Production’. Since its inception in 2007, the purpose of SPS has been to facilitate an event at which members and interested participants from industry and academia can meet to exchange ideas. The 69 papers accepted for presentation here are grouped into ten sections: resource-efficient production; flexible production; humans in the production system; circular production systems and maintenance; integrated product and production development; industrial optimization and decision-making; cyber-physical production systems and digital twins; innovative production processes and additive manufacturing; smart and resilient supply chains; and linking research and education. Also included are three sections covering the Special Sessions at SPS2022: artificial intelligence and industrial analytics in industry 4.0; development of resilient and sustainable production systems; and boundary crossing and boundary objects in product and production development.

The book will be of interest to all those involved in the development and production of future products.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam; Berlin; Washington, DC: IOS Press, 2022. p. 849
Series
Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, ISSN 2352-751X, E-ISSN 2352-7528 ; 21
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Production and Automation Engineering; User Centred Product Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-21111 (URN)10.3233/ATDE21 (DOI)978-1-64368-268-6 (ISBN)978-1-64368-269-3 (ISBN)
Conference
10th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS2022), Skövde, April 26–29 2022
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

CC BY-NC 4.0

This book is published online with Open Access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC 4.0).

Available from: 2022-05-02 Created: 2022-05-02 Last updated: 2022-09-14Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1699-3778

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