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Sikka, P., Tuominen, J., Ezquerro Nassar, A., Kirberg, M., Loukola, V., Revonsuo, A., . . . Noreika, V. (2024). COVID-19 on mind: Daily worry about the coronavirus is linked to negative affect experienced during mind-wandering and dreaming. Emotion, 24(1), 177-195
Open this publication in new window or tab >>COVID-19 on mind: Daily worry about the coronavirus is linked to negative affect experienced during mind-wandering and dreaming
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2024 (English)In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 177-195Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite a surge of studies on the effects of COVID-19 on our well-being, we know little about how the pandemic is reflected in people's spontaneous thoughts and experiences, such as mind-wandering (or daydreaming) during wakefulness and dreaming during sleep. We investigated whether and how COVID-19-related general concern, anxiety, and daily worry are associated with the daily fluctuation of the affective quality of mind-wandering and dreaming, and to what extent these associations can be explained by poor sleep quality. We used ecological momentary assessment by asking participants to rate the affect they experienced during mind-wandering and dreaming in daily logs over a 2-week period. Our preregistered analyses based on 1,755 dream logs from 172 individuals and 1,496 mind-wandering logs from 152 individuals showed that, on days when people reported higher levels of negative affect and lower levels of positive affect during mind-wandering, they experienced more worry. Only daily sleep quality was associated with affect experienced during dreaming at the within-person level: on nights with poorer sleep quality people reported experiencing more negative and less positive affect in dreams and were more likely to experience nightmares. However, at the between-person level, individuals who experienced more daily COVID-19 worry during the study period also reported experiencing more negative affect during mind-wandering and during dreaming. As such, the continuity between daily and nightly experiences seems to rely more on stable trait-like individual differences in affective processing. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association (APA), 2024
Keywords
COVID-19, emotion, spontaneous thought, mind-wandering, dreaming
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Natural Sciences
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23029 (URN)10.1037/emo0001255 (DOI)001019066500001 ()37347885 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85170223093 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Pilleriin Sikka, Department of Psychology, Stanford University, 450 Jane Stanford Way, Stanford, CA 94305, United States. Email: sikka@stanford.edu

Available from: 2023-07-13 Created: 2023-07-13 Last updated: 2024-02-14Bibliographically approved
Loukola, V., Tuominen, J., Kirsilä, S., Kyyhkynen, A., Lahdenperä, M., Parkkali, L., . . . Valli, K. (2024). Viral simulations in dreams: The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on threatening dream content in a Finnish sample of diary dreams. Consciousness and Cognition, 119, Article ID 103651.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Viral simulations in dreams: The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on threatening dream content in a Finnish sample of diary dreams
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2024 (English)In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 119, article id 103651Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research indicates that the COVID-19 pandemic has affected dreaming negatively. We compared 1132 dreams collected with prospective two-week dream diary during the pandemic to 166 dreams collected before the pandemic. We hypothesized that the pandemic would increase the number of threatening events, threats related to diseases, and the severity of threats. We also hypothesized that dreams that include direct references to the pandemic will include more threatening events, more disease-related threats, and more severe threats. In contradiction with our hypotheses, results showed no differences between pandemic and pre-pandemic samples in the number of threats, threats related to diseases, or severe threats. However, dreams with direct references to the pandemic had more threats, disease-related threats, and severe threats. Our results thus do not suggest a significant overall increase in nightmarish or threatening dream content during the pandemic but show a more profound effect on a minority of dreams. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
COVID-19 pandemic, Dream threat scale, Dreaming, Prospective dream diary, Threat simulation theory
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23624 (URN)10.1016/j.concog.2024.103651 (DOI)38335898 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85184751660 (Scopus ID)
Note

CC BY 4.0 DEED

© 2024 The Authors

Correspondence Address: V. Loukola; Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Turku, Assistentinkatu 7, FIN-20014, Finland; email: vitalo@utu.fi; CODEN: COCOF

This work was supported by research grants from Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation (grant numbers 5306 and 5774), TOP Foundation (grant number 20210206) and Turku University Foundation (grant numbers 080985 and 081199) (V.L). 

Available from: 2024-02-22 Created: 2024-02-22 Last updated: 2024-02-26Bibliographically approved
Bergman, M., MacGregor, O., Olkoniemi, H., Redgård, R., Revonsuo, A. & Valli, K. (2023). Dangerous Waters: The Impact of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami on Survivor Dream Content. Dreaming (New York, N.Y.), 33(4), 369-387
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dangerous Waters: The Impact of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami on Survivor Dream Content
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2023 (English)In: Dreaming (New York, N.Y.), ISSN 1053-0797, E-ISSN 1573-3351, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 369-387Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Episodic memories of emotionally salient and personally significant events are often incorporated into dreams, although rarely replayed identically to the original waking event except in replicative posttraumatic nightmares. We investigated, in five Swedish female 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami survivors, how episodic memories of the catastrophe were reflected in their dreams after trauma, both in retrospectively recalled nightmares and bad dreams, and in prospective dream diaries completed several months after the catastrophe. We also assessed whether the emotional and threatening dream content differed between the trauma and a matched control group. Based on the threat simulation theory, we predicted that the trauma group dreams would portray notable similarities with elements related to the original tsunami trauma, and that the trauma group would demonstrate a higher prevalence of negative emotional states, and a higher frequency of threatening dream events as well as more severe threats in their dreams. Only the first hypothesis was partially supported, with retrospective nightmares bearing higher similarity to the trauma experience than the prospective dream diary dreams. However, we observed no statistically significant differences in emotional or threatening dream content between the groups, suggesting that the trauma group participants were not suffering from significant posttraumatic dreaming at the time of systematic dream data collection. Yet, specific features of the trauma group dreams might be interpreted as remnants of episodic tsunami-related memories: Their dreams had a higher percentage of life-threatening events depicting realistic but improbable threats, and an analysis of water-related themes evidenced stressful themes related to waves.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association (APA), 2023
Keywords
dreaming, episodic memory, Indian Ocean tsunami, nightmare, threat simulation theory
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23474 (URN)10.1037/drm0000254 (DOI)001108547500001 ()2-s2.0-85184900370 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Monica Bergman, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, P.O. Box 408, 54128 Skövde, Sweden. Email: monica.bergman@his.se

Available from: 2023-12-15 Created: 2023-12-15 Last updated: 2024-02-22Bibliographically approved
Kantonen, O., Laaksonen, L., Alkire, M., Scheinin, A., Långsjö, J., Kallionpää, R. E., . . . Scheinin, H. (2023). Decreased Thalamic Activity Is a Correlate for Disconnectedness during Anesthesia with Propofol, Dexmedetomidine and Sevoflurane But Not S-Ketamine. Journal of Neuroscience, 43(26), 4884-4895
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decreased Thalamic Activity Is a Correlate for Disconnectedness during Anesthesia with Propofol, Dexmedetomidine and Sevoflurane But Not S-Ketamine
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 43, no 26, p. 4884-4895Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Establishing the neural mechanisms responsible for the altered global states of consciousness during anesthesia and dissociating these from other drug-related effects remains a challenge in consciousness research. We investigated differences in brain activity between connectedness and disconnectedness by administering various anesthetics at concentrations designed to render 50% of the subjects unresponsive. One hundred and sixty healthy male subjects were randomized to receive either propofol (1.7 μg/ml; n = 40), dexmedetomidine (1.5 ng/ml; n = 40), sevoflurane (0.9% end-tidal; n = 40), S-ketamine (0.75 μg/ml; n = 20), or saline placebo (n = 20) for 60 min using target-controlled infusions or vaporizer with end-tidal monitoring. Disconnectedness was defined as unresponsiveness to verbal commands probed at 2.5-min intervals and unawareness of external events in a postanesthesia interview. High-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) was used to quantify regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRglu) utilization. Contrasting scans where the subjects were classified as connected and responsive versus disconnected and unresponsive revealed that for all anesthetics, except S-ketamine, the level of thalamic activity differed between these states. A conjunction analysis across the propofol, dexmedetomidine and sevoflurane groups confirmed the thalamus as the primary structure where reduced metabolic activity was related to disconnectedness. Widespread cortical metabolic suppression was observed when these subjects, classified as either connected or disconnected, were compared with the placebo group, suggesting that these findings may represent necessary but alone insufficient mechanisms for the change in the state of consciousness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society for Neuroscience, 2023
Keywords
Anesthesia, connected, consciousness, disconnected, neuroimaging, positron emission tomography
National Category
Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Pharmaceutical Sciences Neurosciences
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23047 (URN)10.1523/jneurosci.2339-22.2023 (DOI)001032235600003 ()37225435 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85163612479 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Academy of Finland, 266467Academy of Finland, 266434
Note

CC BY 4.0

Correspondence should be addressed to Harry Scheinin at harry.scheinin@utu.fi

This work was supported by Academy of Finland, Helsinki, Finland Grant Numbers 266467 and 266434; Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation, Helsinki, Finland; VSSHP-EVO Grant Numbers 13323 and L3824, Turku, Finland; Doctoral Programme of Clinical Investigation, University of Turku Graduate School, Turku, Finland (O.K., A.S., L.R.); Paulo Foundation, Espoo, Finland (A.S.); Finnish Medical Foundation, Helsinki, Finland (O.K., A.S.); The Orion Research Foundation, Espoo, Finland (A.S.); Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation (O.K.); and Emil Aaltonen Foundation (O.K.,L.L., R.E.K.). We thank the radiographers and anesthesia nurses at Turku PET Centre for excellent technical assistance and Ms. Saija Sirén, Lic. Phil., for the analysis of drug concentrations in plasma.

Available from: 2023-07-20 Created: 2023-07-20 Last updated: 2023-12-19Bibliographically approved
Valli, K., Radek, L., Kallionpää, R. E., Scheinin, A., Långsjö, J., Kaisti, K., . . . Scheinin, H. (2023). Subjective experiences during dexmedetomidine- or propofol-induced unresponsiveness and non-rapid eye movement sleep in healthy male subjects. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 131(2), 348-359
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subjective experiences during dexmedetomidine- or propofol-induced unresponsiveness and non-rapid eye movement sleep in healthy male subjects
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2023 (English)In: British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, E-ISSN 1471-6771, Vol. 131, no 2, p. 348-359Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Anaesthetic-induced unresponsiveness and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep share common neural pathways and neurophysiological features. We hypothesised that these states bear resemblance also at the experiential level. Methods: We compared, in a within-subject design, the prevalence and content of experiences in reports obtained after anaesthetic-induced unresponsiveness and NREM sleep. Healthy males (N=39) received dexmedetomidine (n=20) or propofol (n=19) in stepwise doses to induce unresponsiveness. Those rousable were interviewed and left unstimulated, and the procedure was repeated. Finally, the anaesthetic dose was increased 50%, and the participants were interviewed after recovery. The same participants (N=37) were also later interviewed after NREM sleep awakenings. Results: Most subjects were rousable, with no difference between anaesthetic agents (P=0.480). Lower drug plasma concentrations were associated with being rousable for both dexmedetomidine (P=0.007) and propofol (P=0.002) but not with recall of experiences in either drug group (dexmedetomidine: P=0.543; propofol: P=0.460). Of the 76 and 73 interviews performed after anaesthetic-induced unresponsiveness and NREM sleep, 69.7% and 64.4% included experiences, respectively. Recall did not differ between anaesthetic-induced unresponsiveness and NREM sleep (P=0.581), or between dexmedetomidine and propofol in any of the three awakening rounds (P>0.05). Disconnected dream-like experiences (62.3% vs 51.1%; P=0.418) and memory incorporation of the research setting (88.7% vs 78.7%; P=0.204) were equally often present in anaesthesia and sleep interviews, respectively, whereas awareness, signifying connected consciousness, was rarely reported in either state. Conclusions: Anaesthetic-induced unresponsiveness and NREM sleep are characterised by disconnected conscious experiences with corresponding recall frequencies and content. Clinical trial registration: Clinical trial registration. This study was part of a larger study registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01889004). 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
anaesthesia, awareness, consciousness, dexmedetomidine, dreaming, propofol, sleep, unresponsiveness
National Category
Neurosciences Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Applied Psychology
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-22701 (URN)10.1016/j.bja.2023.04.026 (DOI)37268445 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85160625753 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Academy of Finland, 266467Academy of Finland, 266434
Note

CC BY 4.0

© 2023 The Authors

Available online 31 May 2023

Corresponding author: E-mail: katval@utu.fi

Funding

Academy of Finland, Helsinki, Finland (266467 and 266434); Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation, Helsinki, Finland; VSSHP-EVO (13323 and L3824); Doctoral Program of Clinical Investigation, University of Turku Graduate School, Turku, Finland to LR and AS; The Paulo Foundation, Espoo, Finland to AS; The Finnish Medical Foundation, Helsinki, Finland to AS; The Orion Research Foundation, Espoo, Finland to AS; Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation, Helsinki, Finland to KV.

Available from: 2023-06-15 Created: 2023-06-15 Last updated: 2023-08-15Bibliographically approved
Nummela, A., Laaksonen, L., Scheinin, A., Kaisti, K., Vahlberg, T., Neuvonen, M., . . . Laitio, T. (2022). Circulating oxylipin and bile acid profiles of dexmedetomidine, propofol, sevoflurane, and S-ketamine: a randomised controlled trial using tandem mass spectrometry. BJA Open, 4, Article ID 100114.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Circulating oxylipin and bile acid profiles of dexmedetomidine, propofol, sevoflurane, and S-ketamine: a randomised controlled trial using tandem mass spectrometry
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2022 (English)In: BJA Open, ISSN 2772-6096, Vol. 4, article id 100114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

This exploratory study aimed to investigate whether dexmedetomidine, propofol, sevoflurane, and S-ketamine affect oxylipins and bile acids, which are functionally diverse molecules with possible connections to cellular bioenergetics, immune modulation, and organ protection.

Methods

In this randomised, open-label, controlled, parallel group, Phase IV clinical drug trial, healthy male subjects (n=160) received equipotent doses (EC50 for verbal command) of dexmedetomidine (1.5 ng ml−1; n=40), propofol (1.7 μg ml−1; n=40), sevoflurane (0.9% end-tidal; n=40), S-ketamine (0.75 μg ml−1; n=20), or placebo (n=20). Blood samples for tandem mass spectrometry were obtained at baseline, after study drug administration at 60 and 130 min from baseline; 40 metabolites were analysed.

Results

Statistically significant changes vs placebo were observed in 62.5%, 12.5%, 5.0%, and 2.5% of analytes in dexmedetomidine, propofol, sevoflurane, and S-ketamine groups, respectively. Data are presented as standard deviation score, 95% confidence interval, and P-value. Dexmedetomidine induced wide-ranging decreases in oxylipins and bile acids. Amongst others, 9,10-dihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (DiHOME) –1.19 (–1.6; –0.78), P<0.001 and 12,13-DiHOME –1.22 (–1.66; –0.77), P<0.001 were affected. Propofol elevated 9,10-DiHOME 2.29 (1.62; 2.96), P<0.001 and 12,13-DiHOME 2.13 (1.42; 2.84), P<0.001. Analytes were mostly unaffected by S-ketamine. Sevoflurane decreased tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) –2.7 (–3.84; –1.55), P=0.015.

Conclusions

Dexmedetomidine-induced oxylipin alterations may be connected to pathways associated with organ protection. In contrast to dexmedetomidine, propofol emulsion elevated DiHOMEs, oxylipins associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and mitochondrial dysfunction in high concentrations. Further research is needed to establish the behaviour of DIHOMEs during prolonged propofol/dexmedetomidine infusions and to verify the sevoflurane-induced reduction in TUDCA, a suggested neuroprotective agent.

Clinical trial registration

NCT02624401.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
National Category
Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Pharmaceutical Sciences
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23544 (URN)10.1016/j.bjao.2022.100114 (DOI)37588789 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85181203394 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Academy of Finland, 266467Academy of Finland, 266434
Note

CC BY 4.0 DEED

Corresponding author: Aleksi Nummela, Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. E-mail: aljunu@utu.fi

Funding:

Academy of Finland (266467 and 266434); Emil Aaltonen Foundation to LL; Finnish Medical Foundation, Eero Matti Raninen Fund to AN; Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation; Orion Research Foundation to LL; The Paulo Foundation to LL; Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation to KV; University of Turku Graduate School, University of Turku to AN.

Available from: 2024-01-18 Created: 2024-01-18 Last updated: 2024-01-18Bibliographically approved
Nummela, A. J., Laaksonen, L. T., Laitio, T. T., Kallionpää, R. E., Långsjö, J. W., Scheinin, J. M., . . . Scheinin, H. (2022). Effects of dexmedetomidine, propofol, sevoflurane and S-ketamine on the human metabolome: A randomised trial using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 39(6), 521-532
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of dexmedetomidine, propofol, sevoflurane and S-ketamine on the human metabolome: A randomised trial using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
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2022 (English)In: European Journal of Anaesthesiology, ISSN 0265-0215, E-ISSN 1365-2346, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 521-532Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Pharmacometabolomics uses large-scale data capturing methods to uncover drug-induced shifts in the metabolic profile. The specific effects of anaesthetics on the human metabolome are largely unknown.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to discover whether exposure to routinely used anaesthetics have an acute effect on the human metabolic profile.

DESIGN: Randomised, open-label, controlled, parallel group, phase IV clinical drug trial.

SETTING: The study was conducted at Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Finland, 2016 to 2017.

PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and sixty healthy male volunteers were recruited. The metabolomic data of 159 were evaluable.

INTERVENTIONS: Volunteers were randomised to receive a 1-h exposure to equipotent doses (EC50 for verbal command) of dexmedetomidine (1.5 ng ml-1; n = 40), propofol (1.7 μg ml-1; n = 40), sevoflurane (0.9% end-tidal; n = 39), S-ketamine (0.75 μg ml-1; n = 20) or placebo (n = 20).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Metabolite subgroups of apolipoproteins and lipoproteins, cholesterol, glycerides and phospholipids, fatty acids, glycolysis, amino acids, ketone bodies, creatinine and albumin and the inflammatory marker GlycA, were analysed with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy from arterial blood samples collected at baseline, after anaesthetic administration and 70 min postanaesthesia.

RESULTS: All metabolite subgroups were affected. Statistically significant changes vs. placebo were observed in 11.0, 41.3, 0.65 and 3.9% of the 155 analytes in the dexmedetomidine, propofol, sevoflurane and S-ketamine groups, respectively. Dexmedetomidine increased glucose, decreased ketone bodies and affected lipoproteins and apolipoproteins. Propofol altered lipoproteins, fatty acids, glycerides and phospholipids and slightly increased inflammatory marker glycoprotein acetylation. Sevoflurane was relatively inert. S-ketamine increased glucose and lactate, whereas branched chain amino acids and tyrosine decreased.

CONCLUSION: A 1-h exposure to moderate doses of routinely used anaesthetics led to significant and characteristic alterations in the metabolic profile. Dexmedetomidine-induced alterations mirror α2-adrenoceptor agonism. Propofol emulsion altered the lipid profile. The inertness of sevoflurane might prove useful in vulnerable patients. S-ketamine induced amino acid alterations might be linked to its suggested antidepressive properties.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02624401. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02624401.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2022
National Category
Anesthesiology and Intensive Care
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-20791 (URN)10.1097/EJA.0000000000001591 (DOI)000799376700005 ()34534172 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85131017481 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Academy of Finland, 266467Academy of Finland, 266434
Note

CC BY 4.0

September 15, 2021

Correspondence to Aleksi J. Nummela, Department of Internal Medicine, Turku University Hospital, 20521 Turku, Finland E-mail: aljunu@utu.fi

Financial support and sponsorship: this work was supported by Academy of Finland, Helsinki, Finland (grant numbers 266467, 266434); Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation, Helsinki, Finland; The Finnish Medical Foundation, Helsinki, Finland (JWL); The Emil Aaltonen Foundation, Tampere, Finland (JWL); and The Paulo Foundation, Espoo, Finland (LTL) and Orion Research Foundation, Espoo, Finland (LTL); Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation, Helsinki, Finland (KJV); The Finnish Medical Foundation, Eero Matti Raninen Fund, Helsinki, Finland (AJN) and University of Turku, Finland (AJN).

Available from: 2021-12-16 Created: 2021-12-16 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Tuominen, J., Olkoniemi, H., Revonsuo, A. & Valli, K. (2022). ‘No Man is an Island’: Effects of social seclusion on social dream content and REM sleep. British Journal of Psychology, 113(1), 84-104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>‘No Man is an Island’: Effects of social seclusion on social dream content and REM sleep
2022 (English)In: British Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0007-1269, E-ISSN 2044-8295, Vol. 113, no 1, p. 84-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Based on the Social Simulation Theory of dreaming (SST), we studied the effects of voluntary social seclusion on dream content and sleep structure. Specifically, we studied the Compensation Hypothesis, which predicts social dream contents to increase during social seclusion, the Sociality Bias – a ratio between dream and wake interactions – and the Strengthening Hypothesis, which predicts an increase in familiar dream characters during seclusion. Additionally, we assessed changes in the proportion of REM sleep. Sleep data and dream reports from 18 participants were collected preceding (n = 94), during (n = 90) and after (n = 119) a seclusion retreat. Data were analysed using linear mixed-effects models. We failed to support the Compensation Hypothesis, with dreams evidencing fewer social interactions during seclusion. The Strengthening Hypothesis was supported, with more familiar characters present in seclusion dreams. Dream social interactions maintained the Sociality Bias even under seclusion. Additionally, REM sleep increased during seclusion, coinciding with previous literature and tentatively supporting the proposed attachment function for social REM sleep. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Keywords
compensation hypothesis, dreaming, REM sleep, social seclusion, Social Simulation Theory, adult, article, compensation, controlled study, human, human experiment, major clinical study, male, simulation, social interaction, theoretical study
National Category
Psychology Neurosciences
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-19971 (URN)10.1111/bjop.12515 (DOI)000659241900001 ()34107065 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85107589070 (Scopus ID)
Note

CC BY 4.0

© 2021 The Authors. British Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society

First published: 09 June 2021

Available from: 2021-06-24 Created: 2021-06-24 Last updated: 2022-01-17Bibliographically approved
Blagrove, M., Lockheart, J., Carr, M., Basra, S., Graham, H., Lewis, H., . . . Valli, K. (2021). Dream Sharing and the Enhancement of Empathy: Theoretical and Applied Implications. Dreaming (New York, N.Y.), 31(2), 128-139
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dream Sharing and the Enhancement of Empathy: Theoretical and Applied Implications
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2021 (English)In: Dreaming (New York, N.Y.), ISSN 1053-0797, E-ISSN 1573-3351, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 128-139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study replicated and extended a previous finding that the discussion of dreams increases the level of empathy toward the dreamer from those with whom the dream is discussed. The study addressed mediating variables for the empathy effect. Participants who already knew each other were recruited in dyads and were assigned dream-sharer and discusser roles. Each dyad used the Ullman dream appreciation technique to explore the relationship of the sharer’s dreams to recent experiences in the sharer’s life, with a maximum of 4 dream discussions per dyad (mean length of dreams = 140.15 words, mean discussion length = 23.72 min). The empathy of each member of a dyad toward the other was assessed using a 12-item state empathy questionnaire. A total of 44 participants (females = 26, males = 18, Mage = 26.70) provided empathy scores at baseline and after each dream discussion. For below median baseline empathy scorers, empathy of discussers toward their dream-sharer increased significantly as a result of the dream discussions, with medium effect size, η² = .39. Dream-sharers had a nonsignificant increase in empathy toward their discusser. Change in empathy was not linear across successive discussions, and was not related to length of dream reports, nor length of discussions. These findings of postsleep, social effects of dreaming, with possibly a group bonding function, go beyond theories of dreaming that have a within-sleep emotional or memory processing function for the individual. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association (APA), 2021
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-20405 (URN)10.1037/drm0000165 (DOI)000680200800004 ()
Note

© 2021 American Psychological Association

Available from: 2021-08-12 Created: 2021-08-12 Last updated: 2021-10-26Bibliographically approved
Scheinin, A., Kantonen, O., Alkire, M., Långsjö, J., Kallionpää, R. E., Kaisti, K., . . . Scheinin, H. (2021). Foundations of human consciousness: Imaging the twilight zone. Journal of Neuroscience, 41(8), 1769-1778, Article ID JN-RM-0775-20.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Foundations of human consciousness: Imaging the twilight zone
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1769-1778, article id JN-RM-0775-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

What happens in the brain when conscious awareness of the surrounding world fades? We manipulated consciousness in two experiments in a group of healthy males and measured brain activity with positron emission tomography. Measurements were made during wakefulness, escalating and constant levels of two anesthetic agents (Experiment 1, n=39) and during sleep-deprived wakefulness and Non-Rapid Eye Movement sleep (Experiment 2, n=37). In Experiment 1, the subjects were randomized to receive either propofol or dexmedetomidine until unresponsiveness. In both experiments, forced awakenings were applied to achieve rapid recovery from an unresponsive to a responsive state, followed by immediate and detailed interviews of subjective experiences during the preceding unresponsive condition. Unresponsiveness rarely denoted unconsciousness, as the majority of the subjects had internally generated experiences. Unresponsive anesthetic states and verified sleep stages, where a subsequent report of mental content included no signs of awareness of the surrounding world, indicated a disconnected state. Functional brain imaging comparing responsive and connected vs. unresponsive and disconnected states of consciousness during constant anesthetic exposure revealed that activity of the thalamus, cingulate cortices and angular gyri are fundamental for human consciousness. These brain structures were affected independent from the pharmacologic agent, drug concentration and direction of change in the state of consciousness. Analogous findings were obtained when consciousness was regulated by physiological sleep. State-specific findings were distinct and separable from the overall effects of the interventions, which included widespread depression of brain activity across cortical areas. These findings identify a central core brain network critical for human consciousness. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Trying to understand the biological basis of human consciousness is currently one of the greatest challenges of neuroscience. While the loss and return of consciousness regulated by anesthetic drugs and physiological sleep are employed as model systems in experimental studies on consciousness, previous research results have been confounded by drug effects, by confusing behavioral "unresponsiveness" and internally generated consciousness, and by comparing brain activity levels across states that differ in several other respects than only consciousness. Here, we present carefully designed studies that overcome many previous confounders and for the first time reveal the neural mechanisms underlying human consciousness and its disconnection from behavioral responsiveness, both during anesthesia and during normal sleep, and in the same study subjects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Society for Neuroscience, 2021
Keywords
anesthesia mechanisms, consciousness, dexmedetomidine, positron emission tomography, propofol, sleep
National Category
Neurosciences
Research subject
Consciousness and Cognitive Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-19384 (URN)10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0775-20.2020 (DOI)000621624200003 ()33372062 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85102322067 (Scopus ID)
Note

CC BY 4.0

Corresponding Author: harry.scheinin@utu.fi

Available from: 2021-01-14 Created: 2021-01-14 Last updated: 2021-04-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5133-8664

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