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Fogelberg, E., Kolbeinsson, A., Kurdve, M., Mattsson, S., Salunkhe, O., Thorvald, P. & Thuresson, U. (2024). Current and best practices in information presentation. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Current and best practices in information presentation
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2024 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Digitalization and automation in industry can have both positive and negative effects on social sustainability. On one hand it can be a basis for monotonous, uncreative, and even dangerous workplaces and in some cases might even result in people losing their work. On the other hand, it can be a base for ergonomically sound and inclusive work, engaging everyone in improvements. This project aims for moving the focus on positive effects for social sustainability while still staying cost efficient and effective in economic and ecologic sustainability for digitalization and automation of work instructions and training in manual operations like assembly, machine operation & setup, maintenance, and material handling. The Industry 4.0 paradigm offers radically increased opportunities for doing just that. For example, increased digitization can create efficiency improvements through shorter lead times and reduced disruptions to production. New generations of technology and software as well as information dissemination can be accelerated and the traceability of products and materials in the industrial systems can be greatly increased. Digitization also provides opportunities to increase industrial resilience to challenges coming from elsewhere, such as demographic change and climate threats. Advanced application of digitization is seen by industries and decision-makers as the most important enabler for achieving the strategic sustainability goals and Agenda2030. A crucial factor for competitiveness is the human contribution. Here too, digitalisation is radically changing the conditions. In the last 20 years, work instructions have been transformed from printed text on paper into an increasingly digital representation. As knowledge increases about how work instructions for the manufacturing industry should be designed, they are rarely designed according to user conditions. At best, this results in a missed opportunity for performance improvements and at worst, it could potentially result in quality deficiencies, efficiency deficiencies and a lower degree of inclusion of staff groups. Digitization and automation permeate both society and industry more and more and there are many different technologies on the market. These can contribute to both increased efficiency and flexibility for the industry. However, there are a lot of challenges to both implement, design, and use instructions. Studies conducted in industry 2014–2018 show that operators and assembly workers only use instructions in 20–25% of cases in the operational phase when they are perceived as inefficient (Fast-Berglund & Stahre, 2013; Mattsson et al., 2018). Of course, this also increases the risks of, for example, assembly errors by not using instructions to the extent that they should be used. The corporate culture and standards are also an important part of how instructions are created and used. Depending on the structure and condition of the company and the production unit, for example, an assembly instruction at one company may include information about the product, process, and work environment, while an assembly instruction at another company includes completely different or only parts of this information. Of course, this is a natural consequence of sometimes far-inherited corporate cultures and traditions, but experience has also shown that it is to a very large extent the nature of work that defines the type of support system needed. In line with increased automation and increasing product variation as a result of increased customisation, operators’ tasks will require more creative work than before where the aim is to enable and handle the results of individual workers' creative thoughts about improvements in their own work situation, increasing cognitive load (Taylor et al., 2020). The development of digitalisation has created new opportunities for improved communication among employees in the manufacturing industry (Oesterreich & Teuteberg, 2016). Therefore, this technological development can and should support operators cognitively (Kaasinen et al., 2020; Mattsson et al., 2016). Although many new digital technologies are being developed and are available (Romero et al., 2016), it is still difficult to implement these so that people's cognitive work is supported. This is often due to the fact that the implementation does not take place in a way that people are comfortable with (Parasuraman & Riley, 1997). In many cases, humans are expected to adapt to technology and not the other way around (Thorvald et al., 2021). To implement better support for their operators, companies should focus on identifying the information needs that exist (Haghi et al., 2018) and then visualize it in a way that is useful to operators. The central aim for the project is to demonstrate how knowledge and systematic development of cognitive support and information design can increase quality and flexibility in future production and how this can be considered in the implementation of digital work instructions. In the industrial case studies, current state-of-practice in information presentation will be investigated and analysed together with state-of-the art knowledge and technology to map successful efforts in industry, identify what it is that makes them successful, or how a particularly challenging situation can be further improved through our knowledge of cognitive work in production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, 2024. p. 39
Series
RISE Report ; 2024:5
Keywords
instructions, digitalisation, learning.
National Category
Mechanical Engineering Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
User Centred Product Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23543 (URN)978-91-89896-46-8 (ISBN)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

CC BY 4.0 DEED

First year report of DIGITALIS1 (DIGITAL work InStructions for cognitive work)1 The project is funded by Swedish innovation agency Vinnova through the strategic innovation program Produktion2030. The following partners are included in DIGITALIS: Skövde University [University of Skövde], Research Institutes of Sweden, Chalmers University of Technology, Husmuttern AB, SAAB AB, Volvo Powertrain, Swegon AB, CEJN AB, Hitech & Development Wireless Sweden and ESI Group.

Available from: 2024-01-17 Created: 2024-01-17 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Kolbeinsson, A., Fogelberg, E. & Thorvald, P. (2023). Information display preferences for assembly instructions in 6 industrial settings. In: Lucas Paletta; Hasan Ayaz; Umer Asgher (Ed.), Cognitive Computing and Internet of Things: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics and the Affiliated Conferences, San Francisco, USA, 20-24 July, 2023. Paper presented at 14th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) and the Affiliated Conferences, San Francisco, USA, 20-24 July, 2023 (pp. 152-161). New York: AHFE International Open Access
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Information display preferences for assembly instructions in 6 industrial settings
2023 (English)In: Cognitive Computing and Internet of Things: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics and the Affiliated Conferences, San Francisco, USA, 20-24 July, 2023 / [ed] Lucas Paletta; Hasan Ayaz; Umer Asgher, New York: AHFE International Open Access , 2023, p. 152-161Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We detail the results of an ongoing study into the preference of workers in 6 different industrial companies for assembly instruction display types and modalities for their tasks. This study is performed as a part of a project that aims to create a theoretical framework for understanding requirements for instruction presentation in industry, and providing guidance to the creators of assembly instructions. The study, as well as the project as a whole, aims to expand on approaches from the Industry 4.0 framework, with a particular focus on the more recent Operator 4.0 approach that adds a focus on more human-centric aspects of digitalisation in industry. The study being presented is comprised of facility visits to each partner company where the current state of practice was presented by each company, an examination of information presentation and ope- rating procedures by the authors, and in-depth interviews with assembly workers at each site. All companies examined deal with variants in production, and the comple- xity of assembly spans from low to extremely high. The companies involved mostly rely on experienced workers, with high training, and relatively long times to train new personnel. The interviews led to findings such as simplified images being strongly pre- ferred for both beginners and experienced workers, with an emphasis on the image matching the worker’s viewpoint to the product, and experienced workers preferring simplified images with highlighted markings for details that can be seen from where the task is performed, and more. The findings will be used in further work to create a theoretical framework around digital work instructions, as well as used directly to help partner companies better standardise their instructions to support the cognitive abilities and limitations of their assembly workers. The goal with this is to create safe, comfortable and profitable workplaces that fulfil goals of social sustainability in the long term.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: AHFE International Open Access, 2023
Series
Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics International, E-ISSN 2771-0718 ; 73
Keywords
Cognitive ergonomics, Instructions, Assembly instructions, Assembly, Operator 4.0, Digitalization, Digitalisation
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
User Centred Product Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23197 (URN)10.54941/ahfe1003292 (DOI)978-1-958651-49-0 (ISBN)
Conference
14th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) and the Affiliated Conferences, San Francisco, USA, 20-24 July, 2023
Projects
DIGITALIS (DIGITALa arbetsInStruktioner för kognitivt arbete)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

CC BY 4.0

Integrated Product Design

Available from: 2023-09-12 Created: 2023-09-12 Last updated: 2023-10-10Bibliographically approved
Danielsson, O., Syberfeldt, A., Holm, M. & Thorvald, P. (2023). Integration of Augmented Reality Smart Glasses as Assembly Support: A Framework Implementation in a Quick Evaluation Tool. International Journal of Manufacturing Research, 18(2), 144-164
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of Augmented Reality Smart Glasses as Assembly Support: A Framework Implementation in a Quick Evaluation Tool
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Manufacturing Research, ISSN 1750-0591, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 144-164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Augmented reality smart glasses (ARSG) have been successfully used as operator support in production. However, their use is not yet widespread, likely in part due to a lack of knowledge about how to integrate ARSG into production. This lack of knowledge can also make it hard to estimate whether this is a worthwhile investment. Our solution is to provide an online evaluation tool to help production planners estimate the likelihood that ARSG will be worth the investment cost in specific production cases. Based on a strawman design, multiple design iterations were followed by a pilot test performed by participants from different manufacturing companies involved in planning production for operators. A Likert scale survey was used to evaluate the tool. The results show a slightly positive evaluation of the tool with suggestions for improvement, including widening the scope and granularity of the tool. Future works include further iterations and case studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2023
Keywords
augmented reality, AR, augmented reality smart glasses, ARSG, assembly operator, framework, evaluation tool, focus groups
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Virtual Production Development (VPD); User Centred Product Design; VF-KDO
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-22639 (URN)10.1504/IJMR.2023.131583 (DOI)001016319500002 ()2-s2.0-85165228322 (Scopus ID)
Note

Published online: 20 Jun 2023

Available from: 2023-06-02 Created: 2023-06-02 Last updated: 2023-08-16Bibliographically approved
Thorvald, P., Holm, M., Strand, M. & Romero, D. (2023). The Augmented Welder Profile: Augmenting Craftmanship with Digital and Collaborative Tools. In: Tareq Ahram; Waldemar Karwowski (Ed.), Augmented, Virtual and Mixed Reality Simulation: Proceedings of the AHFE International Conference on Human Factors in Design, Engineering, and Computing (AHFE 2023 Hawaii Edition), Hawaii, USA, 4-6 December, 2023. Paper presented at AHFE International Conference on Human Factors in Design, Engineering, and Computing (AHFE 2023 Hawaii Edition), Hawaii, USA, 4-6 December, 2023 (pp. 9-18). New York: AHFE International Open Access
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Augmented Welder Profile: Augmenting Craftmanship with Digital and Collaborative Tools
2023 (English)In: Augmented, Virtual and Mixed Reality Simulation: Proceedings of the AHFE International Conference on Human Factors in Design, Engineering, and Computing (AHFE 2023 Hawaii Edition), Hawaii, USA, 4-6 December, 2023 / [ed] Tareq Ahram; Waldemar Karwowski, New York: AHFE International Open Access , 2023, p. 9-18Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

More and more applications of Augmented Reality (AR) in manufacturing industries are introduced every day and while recent research has shown that one of the more popular applications, high volume assembly instructions, might not offer the best setting for this technology, many other applications exist that do. For assembly, remote guidance or training, rare assemblies, low takt time and high mix production, do still show promise. This article introduces the role of the Augmented Welder, a role utilizing AR technology for the programming of a welding robot. An operator support system in the form of a custom application programmed in Unity and visualized with a pair of Hololens2, connected to an ABB robot through RobotStudio. The robot is equipped with a welding gun dummy. The operator can, through the Hololens2, set safety boundaries, introduce work pieces, place targets in a 3D space, simulate the robot path, send the program to the robot, and activate the physical robot, among other things. We performed a modified pluralistic walkthrough to evaluate the operator support system both with respect to our application but also to search valuable insight to the general use of AR in the use of such applications. Results showed that while the subjects were generally positive towards the support system, several issues were identified and raised by various degrees of severity. The primary issues arose around the navigation and interaction with 2D menus and 3D objects in a 3D Mixed Reality (MR) space. The absence of physics confused the subjects as they could not interact with the virtual objects as they would have with physical objects. The lack of physics simply meant that they didn't act the same. Furthermore the interaction with 2D menus in a 3D space was both reported and observed as being very difficult as the 2D representations probably led to problems with depth perception. The general results of the debriefing indicated that using AR for robot programming was challenging although some of this can be attributed to the fact that this was the participants first use of such a system. The users indicated that the menus were appropriate and that the interaction was intuitive while the navigation within the system was not experienced as natural which confirms the above-mentioned issues with menus disappearing from the line of sight and feedback around generated target points being absent.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: AHFE International Open Access, 2023
Series
Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics International, E-ISSN 2771-0718 ; 118
Keywords
AR, MR, Operator 4.0, welding, augmented welder, user experience, evaluation, inspection method
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
User Centred Product Design; Virtual Production Development (VPD)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23457 (URN)10.54941/ahfe1004436 (DOI)978-1-958651-94-0 (ISBN)
Conference
AHFE International Conference on Human Factors in Design, Engineering, and Computing (AHFE 2023 Hawaii Edition), Hawaii, USA, 4-6 December, 2023
Note

CC BY 4.0 DEED

Thanks to Antonio, Erich, and Miguel for your participation during the AR welding system evaluation. The work was done at ASSAR IndustrialInnovation Arena in Skövde, Sweden. 

Available from: 2023-12-12 Created: 2023-12-12 Last updated: 2023-12-12
Thorvald, P., Kolbeinsson, A. & Fogelberg, E. (2022). A Review on Communicative Mechanisms of External HMIs in Human-Technology Interaction. In: 2022 IEEE 27th International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA): . Paper presented at 2022 IEEE 27th International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), Stuttgart, 6-9 Sept. 2022. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Review on Communicative Mechanisms of External HMIs in Human-Technology Interaction
2022 (English)In: 2022 IEEE 27th International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), IEEE, 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Operator 4.0 typology depicts the collaborative operator as one of eight operator working scenarios of operators in Industry 4.0. It signifies collaborative robot applications and the interaction between humans and robots working collaboratively or cooperatively towards a common goal. For this collaboration to run seamlessly and effortlessly, human-robot communication is essential. We briefly discuss what trust, predictability, and intentions are, before investigating the communicative features of both self-driving cars and collaborative robots. We found that although communicative external HMIs could arguably provide some benefits in both domains, an abundance of clues to what an autonomous car or a robot is about to do are easily accessible through the environment or could be created simply by understanding and designing legible motions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2022
Series
IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ISSN 1946-0740, E-ISSN 1946-0759
Keywords
Operator 4.0, Collaborative Robot Applications, Autonomous Driving, Legible Motion, Human-Machine Trust
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems) Applied Psychology
Research subject
User Centred Product Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-21777 (URN)10.1109/ETFA52439.2022.9921454 (DOI)000934103900033 ()2-s2.0-85141387145 (Scopus ID)978-1-6654-9996-5 (ISBN)978-1-6654-9997-2 (ISBN)
Conference
2022 IEEE 27th International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), Stuttgart, 6-9 Sept. 2022
Available from: 2022-09-30 Created: 2022-09-30 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Li, D., Fast-Berglund, Å., Paulin, D. & Thorvald, P. (2022). Exploration of Digitalized Presentation of Information for Operator 4.0: Five Industrial Cases. Computers & industrial engineering, 168, Article ID 108048.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploration of Digitalized Presentation of Information for Operator 4.0: Five Industrial Cases
2022 (English)In: Computers & industrial engineering, ISSN 0360-8352, E-ISSN 1879-0550, Vol. 168, article id 108048Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the digital transformation of manufacturing companies towards Industry 4.0, shop-floor operators of the future, Operator 4.0, will require digitalized presentation of information as cognitive support for their work. This paper explores five industrial cases where Information Support Technology have been conceptualized and developed. These cases have exemplified how digitalized presentation of information can be approached with considerations of operators with varying cognitive work situations and production characteristics. Furthermore, these new technical capabilities have increased the level of cognitive automation to support operators’ individual abilities to perform their work in an increasingly more complex production environment. In conclusion, Information Support Technology in the service of Operator 4.0 is intimately linked with digitalization strategies for transformation towards Industry 4.0.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Industry 4.0, Operator 4.0, Information Support Technology, digitalization, information, manufacturing
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
User Centred Product Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-20958 (URN)10.1016/j.cie.2022.108048 (DOI)000806647100003 ()2-s2.0-85126621988 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-03119Swedish National Space Board
Note

Available online 28 February 2022

Corresponding author Dan Li, dan.li@chalmers.se

The research has been carried out within the framework of the research projects Instruction Innovation for Cognitive Optimisation (TACO) and Future Manufacturing of the Space Industry II, funded by the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (Vinnova) and the Swedish National Space Agency, respectively. This financial support is gratefully acknowledged.

Available from: 2022-03-07 Created: 2022-03-07 Last updated: 2022-06-23Bibliographically approved
Kuipers, N., Kolbeinsson, A. & Thorvald, P. (2021). Appropriate Assembly Instruction Modes: Factors to Consider. In: Mahmoud Shafik; Keith Case (Ed.), Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXIV: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 35th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, 7–10 September 2021, University of Derby, Derby, UK. Paper presented at 18th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 35th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, 7–10 September 2021, University of Derby, Derby, UK (pp. 27-32). Amsterdam: IOS Press, 15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Appropriate Assembly Instruction Modes: Factors to Consider
2021 (English)In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXIV: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 35th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, 7–10 September 2021, University of Derby, Derby, UK / [ed] Mahmoud Shafik; Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2021, Vol. 15, p. 27-32Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Presented is a literature study into the importance of how information in assembly instructions in manual assembly is presented, more specifically how various factors such as the complexity of the assembly itself, the mental and physical workload of the worker, as well as the experience and skill level of the worker affect the requirements for information presentation. The requirements made by Industry 4.0 on flexibility in production lines and an increased number of variants produced causes increased demands on workers, which leads to more cognitive demands being made on assembly workers. Studies exist around assembly instruction modes, but have in many cases ignored factors such as worker skill level, mental workload, and task complexity and how these affect the requirements for information presentation, which is a major contribution of this study. The findings are that no single solution fits all requirements, but that the aforementioned factors should be taken into account.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2021
Series
Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, ISSN 2352-751X, E-ISSN 2352-7528 ; 15
Keywords
Assembly Process, Assembly Instructions, Assembly Guidance, Design for Assembly, Augmented Reality, Poka-Yoke, Cognition
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
User Centred Product Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-20542 (URN)10.3233/ATDE210007 (DOI)2-s2.0-85116396617 (Scopus ID)978-1-64368-198-6 (ISBN)978-1-64368-199-3 (ISBN)
Conference
18th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 35th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, 7–10 September 2021, University of Derby, Derby, UK
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-03119
Note

CC BY-NC 4.0

This work was supported by the TACO project (insTruction innovAtion for Cognitive Optimisation), funded by the Swedish innovation agency, Vinnova.

Available from: 2021-09-09 Created: 2021-09-09 Last updated: 2022-04-01Bibliographically approved
Thorvald, P., Fast Berglund, Å. & Romero, D. (2021). The Cognitive Operator 4.0. In: Mahmoud Shafik; Keith Case (Ed.), Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXIV: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 35th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, 7–10 September 2021, University of Derby, Derby, UK. Paper presented at 18th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, ICMR 2021, incorporating the 35th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, 7–10 September 2021, University of Derby, Derby, UK (pp. 3-8). Amsterdam: IOS Press, 15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Cognitive Operator 4.0
2021 (English)In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXIV: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 35th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, 7–10 September 2021, University of Derby, Derby, UK / [ed] Mahmoud Shafik; Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2021, Vol. 15, p. 3-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

While previous Industrial Revolutions have increasingly seen the human as a cog in the system, each step reducing the cognitive content of work, Industry 4.0 contrarily views the human as a knowledge worker putting increased focus on cognitive skills and specialised craftsmanship. The opportunities that technological advancement provide are in abundance and to be able to fully take advantage of them, understanding how humans interact with increasingly complex technology is crucial. The Operator 4.0, a framework of eight plausible scenarios attempting to highlight what Industry 4.0 entails for the human worker, takes advantage of extended reality technology; having real-time access to large amounts of data and information; being physically enhanced using powered exoskeletons or through collaboration with automation; and finally real-time monitoring of operator status and health as well as the possibility to collaborate socially with other agents in the Industrial Internet of Things, Services, and People. Some of these will impose larger cognitive challenges than others and this paper presents and discusses parts of the Operator 4.0 projections that will have implications on cognitive work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2021
Series
Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, ISSN 2352-751X, E-ISSN 2352-7528 ; 15
Keywords
Operator 4.0, Cognitive Work, Human Factors, Cognitive Operator 4.0
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
User Centred Product Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-20533 (URN)10.3233/ATDE210003 (DOI)2-s2.0-85116329469 (Scopus ID)978-1-64368-198-6 (ISBN)978-1-64368-199-3 (ISBN)
Conference
18th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, ICMR 2021, incorporating the 35th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, 7–10 September 2021, University of Derby, Derby, UK
Note

CC BY-NC 4.0

Available from: 2021-09-08 Created: 2021-09-08 Last updated: 2021-10-26Bibliographically approved
Fast-Berglund, Å. & Thorvald, P. (2021). Variations in cycle-time when using knowledge-based tasks for humans and robots. Paper presented at INCOM 2021, the 17th IFAC Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing Budapest, Hungary, June 7-9, 2021. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 54(1), 152-157
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variations in cycle-time when using knowledge-based tasks for humans and robots
2021 (English)In: IFAC-PapersOnLine, E-ISSN 2405-8963, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 152-157Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Operator4.0 was coined in 2016 to create a research arena to understand how the physical, cognitive, and sensorial capabilities of an operator could be enhanced by automation. To create an interaction between operator and robots, there are important factors that needs to be defined. Two important factors are the task and function allocation. Without well-defined tasks it is hard to allocate the tasks between the robot and the human to create resource flexibility. Furthermore, it the tasks are knowledge-based rather than rule-based, the cycle time between operators can differ a lot. Two assumptions are discussed regarding knowledge-based tasks and automation. These are also tested in an experiment. Results show that it is a large variation of the cycle time for both humans (between 1,58 minutes up to 4,40 minutes) and robots (between 1,94 minutes up to 4,49 minutes) when it comes to knowledge-based and machine learning systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Cognitive Automation, complex tasks, assembly, operator
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Robotics
Research subject
User Centred Product Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-19761 (URN)10.1016/j.ifacol.2021.08.017 (DOI)000716937600027 ()2-s2.0-85120677711 (Scopus ID)
Conference
INCOM 2021, the 17th IFAC Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing Budapest, Hungary, June 7-9, 2021
Funder
Vinnova
Note

CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

The authors will give their deepest gratitude to VINNOVA for founding the projects FAKTA, TACO and National testbed which this study is a result in.

Available from: 2021-06-09 Created: 2021-06-09 Last updated: 2022-09-15Bibliographically approved
Tarrar, M., Thorvald, P., Fast-Berglund, Å. & Romero, D. (2020). Challenges for the Operator 3.0 Addressed Through the Enabling Technologies of the Operator 4.0. In: Bojan Lalic, Vidosav Majstorovic, Ugljesa Marjanovic, Gregor von Cieminski, David Romero (Ed.), Advances in Production Management Systems. Towards Smart and Digital Manufacturing: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2020, Novi Sad, Serbia, August 30 – September 3, 2020, Proceedings, Part II. Paper presented at IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2020, Novi Sad, Serbia, August 30 – September 3, 2020 (pp. 37-45). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges for the Operator 3.0 Addressed Through the Enabling Technologies of the Operator 4.0
2020 (English)In: Advances in Production Management Systems. Towards Smart and Digital Manufacturing: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2020, Novi Sad, Serbia, August 30 – September 3, 2020, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Bojan Lalic, Vidosav Majstorovic, Ugljesa Marjanovic, Gregor von Cieminski, David Romero, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 37-45Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Just as human operators are important production enablers in the factories of today, they are expected to stay key enablers also in future manufacturing. In today’s factories, operators often meet challenges related to poor information and communication design, which affects their possibilities to perform with higher efficiency levels. Therefore, they need to be provided with better cognitive support tools that are relevant to the challenges to be met. To ensure efficient and effective operator work in the factories of the future, operator support needs to be adequate for the new tasks arising from the evolving operators’ roles and work. Within this paper, the results of current operators’ work and challenges, based on six case studies, are combined with an outlook of the future of work of operators, based on the Operator 4.0 vision. The challenges categorized in this paper can be used to identify opportunities for improvement in the operators’ cognitive support in present factories as well as for researchers and developers of Operator 3.0 support solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2020
Series
IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology book series, ISSN 1868-4238, E-ISSN 1868-422X ; 592
Keywords
Cognitive ergonomics, Operator support, Operator 4.0, Tasks
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
User Centred Product Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-18969 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-57997-5_5 (DOI)000681218300005 ()2-s2.0-85090175721 (Scopus ID)978-3-030-57996-8 (ISBN)978-3-030-57997-5 (ISBN)
Conference
IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2020, Novi Sad, Serbia, August 30 – September 3, 2020
Available from: 2020-09-01 Created: 2020-09-01 Last updated: 2021-08-20Bibliographically approved
Projects
TACO - insTruction innovAtion for Cognitive Optimisation [2019-03119]; Publications
Li, D., Fast-Berglund, Å., Paulin, D. & Thorvald, P. (2022). Exploration of Digitalized Presentation of Information for Operator 4.0: Five Industrial Cases. Computers & industrial engineering, 168, Article ID 108048. Kuipers, N., Kolbeinsson, A. & Thorvald, P. (2021). Appropriate Assembly Instruction Modes: Factors to Consider. In: Mahmoud Shafik; Keith Case (Ed.), Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXIV: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 35th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, 7–10 September 2021, University of Derby, Derby, UK. Paper presented at 18th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 35th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, 7–10 September 2021, University of Derby, Derby, UK (pp. 27-32). Amsterdam: IOS Press, 15Fast-Berglund, Å. & Thorvald, P. (2021). Variations in cycle-time when using knowledge-based tasks for humans and robots. Paper presented at INCOM 2021, the 17th IFAC Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing Budapest, Hungary, June 7-9, 2021. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 54(1), 152-157
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8369-5471

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