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Thorvald, P. & Case, K. (Eds.). (2018). Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, Incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11-13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden. Paper presented at International Conference on Manufacturing Research 2018, September 11-13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden. Amsterdam: IOS Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, Incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11-13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden
2018 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018. p. 535
Series
Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, ISSN 2352-751X, E-ISSN 2352-7528 ; 8
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
User Centred Product Design; INF202 Virtual Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16204 (URN)978-1-61499-901-0 (ISBN)978-1-61499-902-7 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Manufacturing Research 2018, September 11-13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden
Available from: 2018-09-14 Created: 2018-09-14 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Fast-Berglund, Å., Thorvald, P., Billing, E., Palmquist, A., Romero, D. & Weichhart, G. (2018). Conceptualizing Embodied Automation to Increase Transfer of Tacit knowledge in the Learning Factory. In: Proceedings of IEEE 2018 International Conference on Intelligent Systems (IS): . IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptualizing Embodied Automation to Increase Transfer of Tacit knowledge in the Learning Factory
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings of IEEE 2018 International Conference on Intelligent Systems (IS), IEEE, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper will discuss how cooperative agent-based systems, deployed with social skills and embodied automation features, can be used to interact with the operators in order to facilitate sharing of tacit knowledge and its later conversion into explicit knowledge. The proposal is to combine social software robots (softbots) with industrial collaborative robots (co-bots) to create a digital apprentice for experienced operators in human- robot collaboration workstations. This is to address the problem within industry that experienced operators have difficulties in explaining how they perform their tasks and later, how to turn this procedural knowledge (knowhow) into instructions to be shared among other operators. By using social softbots and co-bots, as cooperative agents with embodied automation features, we think we can facilitate the ‘externalization’ of procedural knowledge in human-robot interaction(s). This enabled by the capabilities of social cooperative agents with embodied automation features of continuously learning by looking over the shoulder of the operators, and documenting and collaborating with them in a non-intrusive way as they perform their daily tasks. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Keywords
Embodied Automation, Agent-based Systems, Robot Systems, Collaborative Robots, Co-Bots, Software Robots, Softbots, Social Robots, Knowledge, Transfer, Tacit, Knowledge, Game-based, Activities, Motivation
Research subject
User Centred Product Design; Interaction Lab (ILAB); INF202 Virtual Ergonomics; INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16264 (URN)978-1-5386-7097-2 (ISBN)
Note

2018 Intelligent Systems: Theory, Research and Innovation in Applications, Madeira Island, Portugal 25-27 September 2018

Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2019-02-14
Mattsson, S., Fast-Berglund, Å., Li, D. & Thorvald, P. (2018). Forming a cognitive automation strategy for Operator 4.0 in complex assembly. Computers & industrial engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forming a cognitive automation strategy for Operator 4.0 in complex assembly
2018 (English)In: Computers & industrial engineering, ISSN 0360-8352, E-ISSN 1879-0550Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Due to today’s technological advances in the area of Industry 4.0, having a strategy for cognitive automation solutions is crucial. Operator 4.0, will have handle and manage different work tasks ranging from learning new tasks to solving difficult problems and initiate changes. To support the operator moving between these tasks a strategy for the design of cognitive automation solutions is needed. The suggested strategy has three steps: 1) select assembly phases, 2) choose level of cognitive automation carrier and 3) suggest cognitive automation content. It is important that the operator is part of the design and that the solution supports movement between the phases learning, operational and disruptive phases. The strategy could support manufacturing companies meeting challenges regarding social sustainability e.g. stress, attractive workplaces and demography changes as well as system transparency and complexity.

National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
User Centred Product Design; INF202 Virtual Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16052 (URN)10.1016/j.cie.2018.08.011 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-08-16 Created: 2018-08-16 Last updated: 2019-02-19Bibliographically approved
Brolin, A., Case, K. & Thorvald, P. (2018). Interaction Effects Affecting Human Performance in Manual Assembly. In: Peter Thorvald, Keith Case (Ed.), Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden. Paper presented at 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research (ICMR), incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden (pp. 265-270). Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction Effects Affecting Human Performance in Manual Assembly
2018 (English)In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press, 2018, p. 265-270Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an experimental study aimed at investigating interaction effects affecting personnel in manual assembly. The main experiment with 36 subjects used a mixed method design which included a quantitative study, including time and errors as dependent measures, and a qualitative study, including workload ratings and a questionnaire. The overall task in the experiment was to assemble components on a pedal car. The main factors involved were assembly information (text & component numbers or photographs), material presentation (using structured kits, unstructured kits and material racks) and component variation (situations with and without component variation). It was found that performance, measured in assembly time, was best when combining photographs with no component variants and when using an unstructured kit.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press, 2018
Series
Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, ISSN 2352-751X, E-ISSN 2352-7528 ; 8
Keywords
manufacturing, information design, ergonomics, kitting, human performance
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
INF202 Virtual Ergonomics; User Centred Product Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16221 (URN)10.3233/978-1-61499-902-7-265 (DOI)2-s2.0-85057428313 (Scopus ID)978-1-61499-901-0 (ISBN)978-1-61499-902-7 (ISBN)
Conference
16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research (ICMR), incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden
Available from: 2018-09-25 Created: 2018-09-25 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Thorvald, P., Lindblom, J. & Andreasson, R. (2017). CLAM – A method for cognitive load assessment in manufacturing. In: James Gao (Ed.), Gao, J., El Souri, M., Keates, S. (Ed.), Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXI: . Paper presented at 15th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 32nd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 5 – 7, 2017, University of Greenwich, UK (pp. 114-119). Amsterdam: IOS Press, 6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CLAM – A method for cognitive load assessment in manufacturing
2017 (English)In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXI / [ed] Gao, J., El Souri, M., Keates, S., Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2017, Vol. 6, p. 114-119Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The increasing complexity and demands of assembly operations in manufacturing has been shown to lead to increased cognitive load in assembly workers. Previous work has outlined the complexity of an assembly worker’s situation both in terms of difficulty and speed of work and there have been a few attempts at creating frameworks and methods for understanding the key aspects of what creates increased cognitive load. This paper presents a tool for assessing cognitive load in manufacturing, primarily assembly. The paper presents the method and an accompanying tool as well as some insights derived from this method development. The intended contribution of the work is to make a difference in reducing the cognitive load of assembly workers on the shop floor, thus focusing the development on applicability and usability of the tool in practice. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2017
Series
Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering Series, ISSN 2352-7528, E-ISSN 2352-751X ; 6
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
User Centred Product Design; Interaction Lab (ILAB); INF202 Virtual Ergonomics; INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14089 (URN)000440620700019 ()2-s2.0-85028376430 (Scopus ID)978-1-61499-791-7 (ISBN)978-1-61499-792-4 (ISBN)
Conference
15th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 32nd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 5 – 7, 2017, University of Greenwich, UK
Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-09-06 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Kolbeinsson, A., Thorvald, P. & Lindblom, J. (2017). Coordinating the interruption of assembly workers in manufacturing. Applied Ergonomics, 58, 361-371
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coordinating the interruption of assembly workers in manufacturing
2017 (English)In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 58, p. 361-371Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines how interruptions from information and communications technology systems affect errors and the time to complete tasks for assembly workers. Interruptions have previously been examined in laboratory experiments and office environments, but not much work has been performed in other authentic environments. This paper contains the results of an experiment that was performed in a simulated manufacturing assembly environment, which tested the effects of interruptions on a manual assembly task. The experiment used existing interruption coordination methods as a basis, and the results showed a difference in the effect of interruptions and interruption coordination between cognitively complex laboratory tasks and manual assembly tasks in an authentic environment. Most notably, the negative effects of interruptions delivered without consideration were smaller in this experiment. Based on these findings, recommendations were developed for designing interruption systems for minimizing the costs (errors and time) imposed by interruptions during assembly tasks in manufacturing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Interruptions, Manual assembly, Manufacturing
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Technology; User Centred Product Design; Interaction Lab (ILAB); INF202 Virtual Ergonomics; INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12770 (URN)10.1016/j.apergo.2016.07.015 (DOI)000384776100042 ()27633233 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84982833592 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Sense&React
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-314350
Available from: 2016-08-09 Created: 2016-08-09 Last updated: 2019-02-21Bibliographically approved
Brolin, A., Thorvald, P. & Case, K. (2017). Experimental study of cognitive aspects affecting human performance in manual assembly. Production & Manufacturing Research, 5(1), 141-163
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental study of cognitive aspects affecting human performance in manual assembly
2017 (English)In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 141-163Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigate different ways of presenting material and information at workstations while using mixed assembly mode with product variants. The experimental set up annotated an assembly line involving 36 subjects. The material presentation factor involved the use of a material rack compared to using an unstructured kit as well as a structured kit. The information presentation factor involved using a text and number instruction compared to a photograph instruction, and situations with and without component variation were considered. Results show that assembly times and workload ratings were lower when using a kit, whereas using a material rack resulted in perceived decreased workflow and increased stress and frustration. Moreover, assembly times and workload ratings were lower when using photographs, whereas using text and numbers increased mental workload. The results could be useful when planning work places and production systems in order to obtain a better workflow and an increased human performance. 

Keywords
manual assembly, manufacturing, information presentation, material supply, kitting, cognitive workload, human performance
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
User Centred Product Design; INF202 Virtual Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14170 (URN)10.1080/21693277.2017.1374893 (DOI)000412286800002 ()2-s2.0-85029954849 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-27 Created: 2017-09-27 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Andreasson, R., Lindblom, J. & Thorvald, P. (2017). Interruptions in the wild: portraying the handling of interruptions in manufacturing from a distributed cognition lens. Cognition, Technology & Work, 19(1), 85-108
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interruptions in the wild: portraying the handling of interruptions in manufacturing from a distributed cognition lens
2017 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 85-108Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a study examining interruptionsin the wild by portraying the handling of interruptionsin manufacturing from a distributed cognitionlens. By studying how interruptions occur and are handledin the daily activities of a work team at a large foundry forcasting heavy diesel engines, we highlight situations whenthe propagation, transformation, and representation ofinformation are not supported by prescribed work processesand propose recommendations for how this can beamended. The study was conducted by several visits to theaforementioned factory with cognitive ethnography as thebasis for the data collection. The focus was on identifyinginterruptions and analysing these through a distributedcognition framework as an initial step towards studyinginterruptions in a manufacturing environment. The keyfindings include the identification of three, previouslyundefined, types of interruptions and the conclusion thatinterruptions do indeed affect the distributed workload ofthe socio-technical system and thus the overall productionperformance at the casting line.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Manufacturing, Interruptions, Distributed cognition, Cognitive ethnography
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Technology; Interaction Lab (ILAB); User Centred Product Design; INF202 Virtual Ergonomics; INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13272 (URN)10.1007/s10111-016-0399-6 (DOI)000394999300006 ()2-s2.0-85007170452 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 314350
Available from: 2016-12-29 Created: 2016-12-29 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Lindblom, J. & Thorvald, P. (2017). Manufacturing in the wild: viewing human-based assembly through the lens of distributed cognition. Production & Manufacturing Research, 5(1), 57-80
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Manufacturing in the wild: viewing human-based assembly through the lens of distributed cognition
2017 (English)In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 57-80Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The interdisciplinary field of cognitive science has been and isbecoming increasingly central within human factors and ergonomics(HF&E) and, since at the same time, there has long been a call for a more systems perspective in the area with a somewhat wider unit of analysis. This paper argues that the theoretical framework of distributed cognition would greatly benefit the application of HF&E to manufacturing and would offer a more holistic understanding of the interactions between different entities within a greater context,including the social, cultural and materialistic. We aim to characterize and analyse manufacturing as a complex socio-technical system from a distributed cognition perspective; focusing on the use, mediation and integration of different forms of representations, tools and artefacts in this domain. We present illustrative examples fromauthentic manual assembly, showing the cognitively distributed nature of the work, ranging from scaffolding strategies of the individual worker to the emergent properties of a whole assembly line. The paper further proposes and provides benefits of using a distributed cognition framework as a novel approach in the toolboxfor the HF&E discipline, where it may have been found before, but the application to manufacturing has been absent.

Keywords
Distributed cognition, DCog, scaffolding, socio-technical systems, human-based assembly, manufacturing
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); User Centred Product Design; INF202 Virtual Ergonomics; INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13623 (URN)10.1080/21693277.2017.1322540 (DOI)000403292400003 ()2-s2.0-85020212212 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-03 Created: 2017-06-03 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Kolbeinsson, A., Lindblom, J. & Thorvald, P. (2017). Missing mediated interruptions in manual assembly: Critical aspects of breakpoint selection. Applied Ergonomics, 61, 90-101
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Missing mediated interruptions in manual assembly: Critical aspects of breakpoint selection
2017 (English)In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 61, p. 90-101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The factory of the future aims to make manufacturing more effective and easily customisable, using advanced sensors and communications to support information management. In this paper, we examine how breakpoint selection during interruption management can fail, even when using recommendations for interruption management from existing research. We present an experiment based on prior work where mediated interruptions (i.e. smart interruptions that should interrupt at opportune moments) were missed by participants when sent at one of two pre-defined breakpoints. These breakpoints were selected based on existing research to minimise the cost of interruption, which can involve longer times to complete tasks as well as making errors on tasks. Missing mediated interruptions in this way was unexpected, and the prior study was not configured to measure this effect, which has led to the experiment detailed here. We strive to explore whether there is a risk of missing notifications when mediated interruptions are used, and how this is affected by breakpoint selection. This was investigated through an experiment that uses tasks and environments that simulate a manufacturing assembly facility.

The results indicate that the effect exists, i.e. that participants miss significantly more notifications when interrupted at fine breakpoints than when interrupted at coarse breakpoints. An embodied cognition perspective was used for analysis of the tasks to understand the cause of the effect. This analysis shows that an overlap between “action” and “anticipation of action” can account for why participants miss notifications at fine breakpoints. Based on these findings, recommendations were developed for designing interruption systems that minimise the costs (errors and time) imposed by interruptions during assembly tasks in manufacturing.

Keywords
Interruptions, Mediated interruptions, Breakpoint selection, Manual assembly, Manufacturing
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Technology; User Centred Product Design; Interaction Lab (ILAB); INF202 Virtual Ergonomics; INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13346 (URN)10.1016/j.apergo.2017.01.010 (DOI)000397354200010 ()28237024 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85010452326 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Sense&React
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 314350
Available from: 2017-01-30 Created: 2017-01-30 Last updated: 2019-02-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8369-5471

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