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Backlund, P., Maurin Söderholm, H., Engström, H., Andersson Hagiwara, M. & Lebram, M. (2018). Breaking Out of the Bubble Putting Simulation Into Context to Increase Immersion and Performance. Journal Simulation & Gaming, 49(6), 642-660
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Breaking Out of the Bubble Putting Simulation Into Context to Increase Immersion and Performance
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2018 (English)In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 642-660Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective. Simulation based training with full-size mannequins is a prominent means of training within the healthcare sector. Prehospital missions include all parts of the healthcare process which take place before a patient is handed over to the receiving hospital. This implies that the context for prehospital care is varied and potentially challenging or dangerous in several ways. In this article we present a study which explores immersion and performance by emergency medical services (EMS) professionals in in a training situation which takes the specifics of prehospital interventions into account.

Methods. The study was carried out as a field experiment at an ambulance unit. The experiment was designed to compare the differences between two types of medical scenarios: basic and contextualized. We analyzed the levels of immersion throughout the scenarios and then team performance was evaluated by independent experts. Both analyses were made by observing video recordings from multiple camera angles with a custom made analysis tool.

Results. Our results show that the contextualization of a medical scenario increases both immersion as measured by the Immersion Score Rating Instrument (ISRI) and team performance as measured by the Global Rating Scale (GRS). The overall ISRI score was higher in the contextualized condition as compared to the basic condition, with an average team wise difference of 2.94 (sd = 1.45). This difference is significant using a paired, two-tailed t-test (p<.001). The GRS score was higher for overall clinical performance in the contextualized scenario with an average team wise difference of 0.83 (sd = 0.83, p=.005).

Conclusions. Full-size mannequin simulation based training for EMS professionals may be enhanced by contextualizing the medical scenarios. The main benefits are that the contextualized scenarios better take prehospital medical challenges into account and allow participants to perform better.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
immersion, prehospital medicine, simulation-based training
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15165 (URN)10.1177/1046878118772612 (DOI)000453535000004 ()2-s2.0-85047428895 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-24 Created: 2018-05-24 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Thill, S., Riveiro, M., Lagerstedt, E., Lebram, M., Hemeren, P., Habibovic, A. & Klingegård, M. (2018). Driver adherence to recommendations from support systems improves if the systems explain why they are given: A simulator study. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 56, 420-435
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driver adherence to recommendations from support systems improves if the systems explain why they are given: A simulator study
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2018 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 56, p. 420-435Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a large-scale simulator study on driver adherence to recommendationsgiven by driver support systems, specifically eco-driving support and navigation support.123 participants took part in this study, and drove a vehicle simulator through a pre-defined environment for a duration of approximately 10 min. Depending on the experi-mental condition, participants were either given no eco-driving recommendations, or asystem whose provided support was either basic (recommendations were given in theform of an icon displayed in a manner that simulates a heads-up display) or informative(the system additionally displayed a line of text justifying its recommendations). A naviga-tion system that likewise provided either basic or informative support, depending on thecondition, was also provided.

Effects are measured in terms of estimated simulated fuel savings as well as engine brak-ing/coasting behaviour and gear change efficiency. Results indicate improvements in allvariables. In particular, participants who had the support of an eco-driving system spenta significantly higher proportion of the time coasting. Participants also changed gears atlower engine RPM when using an eco-driving support system, and significantly more sowhen the system provided justifications. Overall, the results support the notion that pro-viding reasons why a support system puts forward a certain recommendation improvesadherence to it over mere presentation of the recommendation.

Finally, results indicate that participants’ driving style was less eco-friendly if the navi-gation system provided justifications but the eco-system did not. This may be due to par-ticipants considering the two systems as one whole rather than separate entities withindividual merits. This has implications for how to design and evaluate a given driver sup-port system since its effectiveness may depend on the performance of other systems in thevehicle.

Keywords
Driver behaviour, System awareness, Eco-friendly behaviour, Driver recommendation systems
National Category
Psychology Human Computer Interaction Information Systems
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL); INF301 Data Science; INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15279 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2018.05.009 (DOI)000437997700037 ()2-s2.0-85048505654 (Scopus ID)
Projects
TIEB
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2018-06-04 Created: 2018-06-04 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Riveiro, M., Lebram, M. & Elmer, M. (2017). Anomaly Detection for Road Traffic: A Visual Analytics Framework. IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), 18(8), 2260-2270, Article ID 7887700.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anomaly Detection for Road Traffic: A Visual Analytics Framework
2017 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 2260-2270, article id 7887700Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The analysis of large amounts of multidimensional road traffic data for anomaly detection is a complex task. Visual analytics can bridge the gap between computational and human approaches to detecting anomalous behavior in road traffic, making the data analysis process more transparent. In this paper, we present a visual analytics framework that provides support for: 1) the exploration of multidimensional road traffic data; 2) the analysis of normal behavioral models built from data; 3) the detection of anomalous events; and 4) the explanation of anomalous events. We illustrate the use of this framework with examples from a large database of real road traffic data collected from several areas in Europe. Finally, we report on feedback provided by expert analysts from Volvo Group Trucks Technology, regarding its design and usability.

Keywords
Anomaly detection, visual analytics, normal traffic model, intelligent transport systems
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL); Interaction Lab (ILAB); INF301 Data Science; INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14111 (URN)10.1109/TITS.2017.2675710 (DOI)000407347300022 ()2-s2.0-85017131904 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20140294
Available from: 2017-09-14 Created: 2017-09-14 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved
Hemeren, P. E., Johannesson, M., Lebram, M. & Eriksson, F. (2017). Detecting Cyclists at Night: visibility effects of reflector placement and different lighting conditions. In: Proceedings of the 6th Annual International Cycling Safety Conference: . Paper presented at 6th Annual International Cycling Safety Conference. Davis, California, USA, September 21-22, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detecting Cyclists at Night: visibility effects of reflector placement and different lighting conditions
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 6th Annual International Cycling Safety Conference, 2017Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Keywords
biological motion, cyclist visibility, reflectors, attention, night driving
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14706 (URN)
Conference
6th Annual International Cycling Safety Conference. Davis, California, USA, September 21-22, 2017
Available from: 2018-02-01 Created: 2018-02-01 Last updated: 2018-03-26Bibliographically approved
Backlund, P., Engström, H., Johannesson, M., Lebram, M., Danielsson, M., Andersson Hagiwara, M., . . . Maurin Söderholm, H. (2017). The S.A.R.E.K Simulation Environment: Technical description of a flexible training environment for prehospital care..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The S.A.R.E.K Simulation Environment: Technical description of a flexible training environment for prehospital care.
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2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report contains a technical description of the result of the S.A.R.E.K (Simulation – Ambulance – Research – Education - Kinship) collaboration project and the Sim2020 project. The projects are collaborations between researchers in healthcare and IT, and prehospital care practitioners, with the aim to design, develop and test a contextualized simulation environment for prehospital care. We built a simulation environment representing the full depth and width of a prehospital care process. Breadth refers to including all phases of a prehospital mission, from dispatch to handover; while depth refers to detailed representations and recreation of artefacts, information and context for each of these phases. This report outlines the details of the overall design, all equipment and practical solutions used to create this.  

Apart from the installation which is described in this report we have also developed methods and carried out a variety of tests and experiments which are reported elsewhere. The focus of this report is the system and its components.

Publisher
p. 12
Series
IIT Technical Reports ; HS-IIT-TR-17-001
Keywords
prehospital simulation
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13558 (URN)
Projects
Sim2020SAREK
Funder
Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional GrowthRegion Västra Götaland
Available from: 2017-05-12 Created: 2017-05-12 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Riveiro, M., Gustavsson, P. M., Lebram, M., Bengstsson, M., Blomqvist, P. & Wallinius, M. (2016). Enhanced Training through Interactive Visualization of Training Objectives and Models. In: Proceedings of the STO-MP-MSG-143, Ready for the Predictable, Prepared for the Unexpected: M&S for Collective Defence in Hybrid Environments and Hybrid Conflicts. Paper presented at 2016 NATO Modelling & Simulation Group (NMSG) Symposium, Bucharest, Romania, October 20-21, 2016. NATO Science & Technology Organization (STO)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced Training through Interactive Visualization of Training Objectives and Models
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2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the STO-MP-MSG-143, Ready for the Predictable, Prepared for the Unexpected: M&S for Collective Defence in Hybrid Environments and Hybrid Conflicts, NATO Science & Technology Organization (STO) , 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Military forces operate in complex and dynamic environments [1] where bad decisions might have fatal consequences. A key ability of the commander, team and individual warfighter is to quickly adapt to novel situations. Live, Virtual and Constructive training environments all provide elements of best practices for this type of training. However, many of the virtual training are designed without thorough consideration of the effectiveness and efficiency of embedded instructional strategies [2], and without considering the cognitive capabilities and limitations of trainees. As highlighted recently by Stacy and Freeman [3], large military training exercises require a significant commitment of resources, and to net a return on that investment, training scenarios for these events should systematically address well-specified training objectives, even if they often, do not.

In order to overcome these shortcomings with both Live and Virtual training systems and following our previous work [4,5,6], this paper presents a design solution for a proof-of-concept prototype that visualizes and manages training objectives and performance measures, at individual and collective levels. To illustrate its functionality we use real-world data from Live training exercises. Finally, this paper discusses how to learn from previous training experiences using data mining methods in order to build training models to provide instructional personalized feedback to trainees.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATO Science & Technology Organization (STO), 2016
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Technology; Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL); Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13129 (URN)978-92-837-2060-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2016 NATO Modelling & Simulation Group (NMSG) Symposium, Bucharest, Romania, October 20-21, 2016
Projects
NOVA 20140294 (Knowledge Foundation)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20140294
Available from: 2016-11-22 Created: 2016-11-22 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved
Riveiro, M., Lebram, M., Andersson, C. X., Sartipy, P. & Synnergren, J. (2016). Interactive visualization of large-scale gene expression data. In: Ebad Banissi, Mark W. McK. Bannatyne, Fatma Bouali, Remo Burkhard, John Counsell, Urska Cvek, Martin J. Eppler, Georges Grinstein, Wei Dong Huang, Sebastian Kernbach, Chun-Cheng Lin, Feng Lin, Francis T. Marchese, Chi Man Pun, Muhammad Sarfraz, Marjan Trutschl, Anna Ursyn, Gilles Venturini, Theodor G. Wyeld, and Jian J. Zhang (Ed.), Information Visualisation: Computer Graphics, Imaging and Visualisation. Paper presented at 20th International Conference Information Visualisation, 19-22 July 2016, Lisbon, Portugal (pp. 348-354). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactive visualization of large-scale gene expression data
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2016 (English)In: Information Visualisation: Computer Graphics, Imaging and Visualisation / [ed] Ebad Banissi, Mark W. McK. Bannatyne, Fatma Bouali, Remo Burkhard, John Counsell, Urska Cvek, Martin J. Eppler, Georges Grinstein, Wei Dong Huang, Sebastian Kernbach, Chun-Cheng Lin, Feng Lin, Francis T. Marchese, Chi Man Pun, Muhammad Sarfraz, Marjan Trutschl, Anna Ursyn, Gilles Venturini, Theodor G. Wyeld, and Jian J. Zhang, IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 348-354Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this article, we present an interactive prototype that aids the interpretation of large-scale gene expression data, showing how visualization techniques can be applied to support knowledge extraction from large datasets. The developed prototype was evaluated on a dataset of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. The visualization approach presented here supports the analyst in finding genes with high similarity or dissimilarity across different experimental groups. By using an external overview in combination with filter windows, and various color scales for showing the degree of similarity, our interactive visual prototype is able to intuitively guide the exploration processes over the large amount of gene expression data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2016
Series
Proceedings [IEEE], E-ISSN 2375-0138
Keywords
decision-making, gene expression data, similarity, visual analytics
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Technology; Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL); Interaction Lab (ILAB); Bioinformatics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12959 (URN)10.1109/IV.2016.58 (DOI)000389494200057 ()2-s2.0-84989862491 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-8942-6 (ISBN)978-1-4673-8943-3 (ISBN)
Conference
20th International Conference Information Visualisation, 19-22 July 2016, Lisbon, Portugal
Projects
NOVA and BISON
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20140294
Available from: 2016-09-24 Created: 2016-09-24 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved
Andersson Hagiwara, M., Backlund, P., Maurin Söderholm, H., Lundberg, L., Lebram, M. & Engström, H. (2016). Measuring participants’ immersion in healthcare simulation: the development of an instrument. Advances in Simulation, 2016(1), Article ID 17.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring participants’ immersion in healthcare simulation: the development of an instrument
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2016 (English)In: Advances in Simulation, ISSN 2059-0628, Vol. 2016, no 1, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Immersion is important for simulation-based education; however, questionnaire-based instruments to measure immersion have some limitations. The aim of the present work is to develop a new instrument to measure immersion among participants in healthcare simulation scenarios.

Methods

The instrument was developed in four phases: trigger identification, content validity scores, inter-rater reliability analysis and comparison with an existing immersion measure instrument. A modified Delphi process was used to develop the instrument and to establish validity and reliability. The expert panel consisted of 10 researchers. All the researchers in the team had previous experience of simulation in the health and/or fire and rescue services as researchers and/or educators and simulation designers. To identify triggers, the panel members independently screened video recordings from simulation scenarios. Here, a trigger is an event in a simulation that is considered a sign of reduced or enhanced immersion among simulation participants.

Results

The result consists of the Immersion Score Rating Instrument (ISRI). It contains 10 triggers, of which seven indicate reduced and three enhanced immersion. When using ISRI, a rater identifies trigger occurrences and assigns them strength between 1 and 3. The content validity analysis shows that all the 10 triggers meet an acceptable content validity index for items (I-CVI) standard. The inter-rater reliability (IRR) among raters was assessed using a two-way mixed, consistency, average-measures intra-class correlation (ICC). The ICC for the difference between weighted positive and negative triggers was 0.92, which indicates that the raters are in agreement. Comparison with results from an immersion questionnaire mirrors the ISRI results.

Conclusions

In conclusion, we present a novel and non-intrusive instrument for identifying and rating the level of immersion among participants in healthcare simulation scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2016
Keywords
Healthcare simulation, Immersion, Measure, Instrument
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Technology; Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12293 (URN)10.1186/s41077-016-0018-x (DOI)29449986 (PubMedID)
Projects
Sarek
Funder
Region Västra Götaland
Available from: 2016-05-24 Created: 2016-05-24 Last updated: 2018-08-31Bibliographically approved
Engström, H., Andersson Hagiwara, M., Backlund, P., Lebram, M., Lundberg, L., Johannesson, M., . . . Maurin Söderholm, H. (2016). The impact of contextualization on immersion in healthcare simulation. Advances in Simulation, 1, Article ID 8.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of contextualization on immersion in healthcare simulation
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2016 (English)In: Advances in Simulation, ISSN 2059-0628, Vol. 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

The aim of this paper is to explore how contextualization of a healthcare simulation scenarios impacts immersion, by using a novel objective instrument, the Immersion Score Rating Instrument. This instrument consists of 10 triggers that indicate reduced or enhanced immersion among participants in a simulation scenario. Triggers refer to events such as jumps in time or space (sign of reduced immersion) and natural interaction with the manikin (sign of enhanced immersion) and can be used to calculate an immersion score.

Methods

An experiment using a randomized controlled crossover design was conducted to compare immersion between two simulation training conditions for prehospital care: one basic and one contextualized. The Immersion Score Rating Instrument was used to compare the total immersion score for the whole scenario, the immersion score for individual mission phases, and to analyze differences in trigger occurrences. A paired t test was used to test for significance.

Results

The comparison shows that the overall immersion score for the simulation was higher in the contextualized condition. The average immersion score was 2.17 (sd = 1.67) in the contextualized condition and −0.77 (sd = 2.01) in the basic condition (p < .001). The immersion score was significantly higher in the contextualized condition in five out of six mission phases. Events that might be disruptive for the simulation participants’ immersion, such as interventions of the instructor and illogical jumps in time or space, are present to a higher degree in the basic scenario condition; while events that signal enhanced immersion, such as natural interaction with the manikin, are more frequently observed in the contextualized condition.

ConclusionsThe results suggest that contextualization of simulation training with respect to increased equipment and environmental fidelity as well as functional task alignment might affect immersion positively and thus contribute to an improved training experience.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2016
Keywords
Medical simulation, Immersion, Fidelity, Contextualized
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12024 (URN)10.1186/s41077-016-0009-y (DOI)29449977 (PubMedID)
Projects
TIKT (ambulans)
Available from: 2016-03-09 Created: 2016-03-09 Last updated: 2018-09-04Bibliographically approved
Backlund, P., Engström, H., Johannesson, M., Lebram, M., Andersson Hagiwara, M. & Maurin Söderholm, H. (2015). Enhancing Immersion with Contextualized Scenarios: Role-playing in prehospital care training. In: Per Backlund, Henrik Engström & Fotis Liarokapis (Ed.), VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications. Paper presented at IEEE 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games), Skövde, September 16-18, 2015 (pp. 167-170). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancing Immersion with Contextualized Scenarios: Role-playing in prehospital care training
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2015 (English)In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications / [ed] Per Backlund, Henrik Engström & Fotis Liarokapis, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 167-170Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2015
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Technology; Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11563 (URN)10.1109/VS-GAMES.2015.7295772 (DOI)000380426500015 ()2-s2.0-84954554458 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-8102-1 (ISBN)978-1-4799-8101-4 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games), Skövde, September 16-18, 2015
Available from: 2015-09-25 Created: 2015-09-25 Last updated: 2018-08-01Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6310-346X

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