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Boers, B. & Ljungkvist, T. (2019). A founder's heritage: the development of organizational identity. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 31(1), 73-95
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A founder's heritage: the development of organizational identity
2019 (English)In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 73-95Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to understand how a former family firm strategically makes use of the founder's legacy to preserve its organizational identity. Following a single case study approach, it draws on rich empirical material from semi-structured interviews and extensive archival data. We show how central organizational activities are affected by a founder's heritage long after the formal exit has taken place, illustrating the central, enduring, and distinctive elements of organizational identity a founder has. Regardless of ownership forms, the family company founder's legacy is used to legitimize new owners and maintain the organization's identity. However, centripetal moves complicate the preservation of the organizational identity, whereas a high focus on value leveraging in another ownership form opens up for centrifugal approaches which strengthen the entrepreneurial dimension of organizational identity.

Abstract [fr]

L'objectif de cet article est de contribuer à l’élargissement des connaissances sur la manière dont une ancienne entreprise familiale utilize stratégiquement l'héritage du fondateur pour préserver son identité organisationnelle. En analysant une étude de cas, il utilize une riche matière empirique issue d'entretiens semi-structurés et d'un grand nombre de données d'archives. Nous montrons comment des activités organisationnelles centrales sont influencées par l'héritage du fondateur, longtemps après le départ formel de celui-ci, et ainsi, soulignons les caractéristiques centrales, persistantes et particulières de l'identité organisationnelle que possède le fondateur d'une entreprise familiale. Indépendamment des différents types de possession, l'héritage du fondateur d'une entreprise familiale est utilisé pour légitimer les nouveaux propriétaires et conserver l'identité de l'organisation. Cependant, les mouvements centripètes compliquent la conservation de l'identité organisationnelle, bien qu'un focus important sur la valeur, mettant à profit une autre forme de propriété, s'ouvre à des approches centrifuges qui renforcent la dimension entrepreneuriale de l'identité organisationnelle.

Keywords
entrepreneurial founder heritage, organizational identity, case study, Sweden, héritage entrepreneurial du fondateur, identité organisationnelle, étude de cas, Suède
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15144 (URN)10.1080/08276331.2018.1466849 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052052476 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-11 Created: 2018-05-11 Last updated: 2019-02-06Bibliographically approved
Boers, B., Ljungkvist, T. & Brunninge, O. (2018). Giving Up The Family Name While Staying A Family Business: The Family Business As Acquirer. In: : . Paper presented at 14th Workshop on Family Firm Management Research: 'Entrepreneurial Families Across Generations, Larnaca, Cyprus, May 17-19, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Giving Up The Family Name While Staying A Family Business: The Family Business As Acquirer
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15470 (URN)
Conference
14th Workshop on Family Firm Management Research: 'Entrepreneurial Families Across Generations, Larnaca, Cyprus, May 17-19, 2018
Available from: 2018-06-08 Created: 2018-06-08 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Boers, Q. & Boers, B. (2018). The Construction of a Professional Identity of a Female Entrepreneur. In: Vanessa Ratten, Vitor Braga, Carla Susana Marques (Ed.), Knowledge, Learning and Innovation: Research Insights on Cross-Sector Collaborations (pp. 113-122). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Construction of a Professional Identity of a Female Entrepreneur
2018 (English)In: Knowledge, Learning and Innovation: Research Insights on Cross-Sector Collaborations / [ed] Vanessa Ratten, Vitor Braga, Carla Susana Marques, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 113-122Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The construction of professional identity of an entrepreneur involves many factors. In this chapter, the case study of a Chinese female immigrant entrepreneur in Sweden illustrates the complexity of professional identity which intertwines with the gender identity and the cultural identity in all levels from personal, professional and socio-cultural. The methods of participant observation and discourse analysis are used. The results reflect the impacts of gender and culture factors in the construction and communication of professional identity, which can contribute to the integration process of Chinese immigrants in Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2018
Series
Contributions to Management Science, ISSN 1431-1941, E-ISSN 2197-716X
Keywords
Professional identity, Gender identity, Cultural identity, Chinese entrepreneur, Female entrepreneur, Sweden, Integration
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15141 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-59282-4_8 (DOI)000430504000009 ()978-3-319-59282-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-59281-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-05-09 Created: 2018-05-09 Last updated: 2019-01-17Bibliographically approved
Evansluong, Q., Boers, B., Ljungkvist, T. & Ujvari, S. (2018). The family influences of EO development in immigrant family businesses. In: Sustainable entrepreneurship: A win-win strategy for the future. Paper presented at Research in Entrepreneurship and Small Business, RENT XXXII, Toledo, Spain, November (14) 15-16, 2018. Toledo
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The family influences of EO development in immigrant family businesses
2018 (English)In: Sustainable entrepreneurship: A win-win strategy for the future, Toledo, 2018Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper explores how family influences the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) process in immigrant family business. To fulfill the purpose, we employ inductive multiple case studies with in-depth interviews.  We rely on seven cases of immigrant entrepreneurs of Chinese, Icelandic, Turkish, Cameroonian, Mexican and Lebanese who established firms in Sweden. Our results suggest that EO development trajectories vary in regard to first and second immigrant entrepreneurs, low and high-tech sectors and host and home countries. Thus, family dynamics facilitates the development of entrepreneurial orientation over time through transforming, translating and transferring across generations and contexts. Our study indicates that, through family dynamics, EO is developed as a (1) transferring process of the founders’ proactiveness between the family in the home and host country; (2) translating process of risk-taking between the family companies in the home country to immigrant family company in the host country and (3) transforming process of innovativeness between the home and the host country.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Toledo: , 2018
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16327 (URN)
Conference
Research in Entrepreneurship and Small Business, RENT XXXII, Toledo, Spain, November (14) 15-16, 2018
Available from: 2018-10-22 Created: 2018-10-22 Last updated: 2019-02-12
Boers, B. & Ljungkvist, T. (2017). A founder’s heritage: the development of psychological ownership. In: : . Paper presented at 13th Workshop on Family Firm Management Research Creativity and Family Businesses, Bilbao, Spain, May 25-27, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A founder’s heritage: the development of psychological ownership
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

ObjectivesIs a founder “leaving” an organization by selling it, or are there aspects of the founder left even though, the founder does not have a formal occupation or ownership in the organization?Will there be a legacy of the founder and how will this affect the psychological ownership? What is the founder’s heritage from a psychological ownership perspective?The purpose is to understand the consequences of a business sale of the founder and from a psychological ownership perspective.

Prior WorkDrawing on the work of psychological ownership and founder heritage, the work combines important literatures to shed light on an important empirical phenomenon, i.e. the exit of a founder/entrepreneur and its consequences for the organization.

ApproachThis study follows a single case study approach and draws on rich empirical material from semi-structured interviews and extensive archival data.

ResultsWe show how central activities are affected by a founder’s heritage over long time after the formal exit has taken place. We illustrate the development of a founder’s psychological ownership before and after he has formally sold the legal ownership.

Implications and ValueThe paper aims at contributing to the entrepreneurial and founder exit-literature by adding a process perspective. Unlike it is sometimes assumed in the entrepreneurship literature is an exit not necessarily a clear-cut and once and for all decision. The paper contributes also psychological ownership literature by highlighting its continuity after the formal sale of the legal ownership and its consequences for the organization.

Keywords
entrepreneurial founder exit, ownership and leadership change, organizational identity, founder heritage
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13561 (URN)
Conference
13th Workshop on Family Firm Management Research Creativity and Family Businesses, Bilbao, Spain, May 25-27, 2017
Available from: 2017-05-17 Created: 2017-05-17 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Ljungkvist, T. & Boers, B. (2017). Another hybrid?: Family businesses as venture capitalists. Journal of Family Business Management, 7(3), 329-350
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Another hybrid?: Family businesses as venture capitalists
2017 (English)In: Journal of Family Business Management, ISSN 2043-6238, E-ISSN 2043-6246, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 329-350Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – This paper addresses the phenomenon of venture capital firms which are also family businesses(VCFBs). The purpose of this paper is to explore and understand the phenomenon of VCFB by answering thefollowing questions: What are the features of professionalization in VCFBs? And, how do professionalizationand types of family businesses explain the strategies and governance of VCFBs?Design/methodology/approach – As an explorative case study, it maps the Swedish venture capital (VC)industry and compares two VCFBs and their business investments with regard to strategy and governance.Findings – By suggesting two major configurations, the study explains how family business developmentand levels of professionalization relate to differences in VCFBs’ strategies, which in turn, affect theirgovernance. The personal VCFB features active owners who personally take responsibility roles and stronglyfocus on customers and relationships. The administrative VCFB strongly focuses on predetermined financialmetrics, high ethical awareness among board members, and ongoing interplay between the active familyboard members and minority shareholders.Research limitations/implications – The study was conducted in Sweden and concerns Swedish VCFBs.The paper contributes to the literature by combining the two currently separate research streams, i.e. familybusiness and VC, highlighting the importance and consequences of family ownership in VC businesses.Practical implications – The present study provides stock market investors and stock analysts with adeeper understanding of VCFBs’ strategy incentives. By identifying the kind of VCFB and its relation tostrategy, more reasonable assessments and analyses of the VCFBs’ actions will be possible. Family firms willingto accept VC-finance should consider the type of VC and the potential consequences of family ownership.Originality/value – This study is the first to classify VC firms as family businesses. Moreover, it shows thefeatures of professionalization in VCFBs by suggesting a set of configurations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017
Keywords
Sweden, Case study, Family firms, Professionalization, Venture capital industry
National Category
Social Sciences Economics and Business Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14187 (URN)10.1108/JFBM-02-2017-0006 (DOI)000411210100005 ()
Available from: 2017-10-02 Created: 2017-10-02 Last updated: 2018-02-01Bibliographically approved
Boers, B., Ljungkvist, T., Brunninge, O. & Nordqvist, M. (2017). Going private: A socioemotional wealth perspective on why family controlled companies decide to leave the stock-exchange. The Journal of Family Business Strategy, 8(2), 74-86
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Going private: A socioemotional wealth perspective on why family controlled companies decide to leave the stock-exchange
2017 (English)In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 74-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Our purpose is to understand the process of ‘going private’ decisions in family firms by applying a socioemotional wealth (SEW) perspective, specified in the following research questions: how do socioemotional wealth considerations influence owning families’ decisions to delist their publicly-listed companies? How do socioemotional wealth considerations change after the delisting of a firm? Based on case studies of two family firms, we elaborate upon the balancing of socioemotional and financial wealth considerations by the family owners, the assessment of which changes over time. Ultimately, we propose that the experiences from being listed can lead to the reevaluation of financial, as well as socioemotional, wealth considerations. By delisting, the companies reclaim independence and control, and the identity as a private family-owned firm becomes once again pronounced. We develop the SEW-perspective by viewing the decision to delist as a mixed gamble, in that owning families have to weigh personal and financial losses against SEW gains, thereby indicating how SEW-considerations change over time. We find that owning families are willing to sacrifice current SEW, accepting current financial losses for prospective increased SEW. Additionally, in this study we extend the argument that decisions to leave the stock market are tradeoffs between competing factors.

Keywords
Socioemotional wealth, Family business, Mixed gamble, Going private, Family ownership, Case study
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13334 (URN)10.1016/j.jfbs.2017.01.005 (DOI)000417670900002 ()2-s2.0-85017464265 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-14 Created: 2017-08-14 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Boers, B. (2017). Heteronormativity and the family firm: Will we ever see a queer family business? (1ed.). In: João J. Ferreira, Vanessa Ratten, Veland Ramadani, Robert D. Hisrich, Leo-Paul Dana (Ed.), Gender and Family Entrepreneurship: (pp. 171-182). London and New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heteronormativity and the family firm: Will we ever see a queer family business?
2017 (English)In: Gender and Family Entrepreneurship / [ed] João J. Ferreira, Vanessa Ratten, Veland Ramadani, Robert D. Hisrich, Leo-Paul Dana, London and New York: Routledge, 2017, 1, p. 171-182Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London and New York: Routledge, 2017 Edition: 1
Series
Routledge Frontiers of Business Management
Keywords
Gender, entrepreneurship, family firm, heteronormativity
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13564 (URN)10.4324/9781315391427 (DOI)2-s2.0-85040546823 (Scopus ID)978-1-138-22887-0 (ISBN)978-1-315-39142-7 (ISBN)978-1-315-39141-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-05-18 Created: 2017-05-18 Last updated: 2018-02-13Bibliographically approved
Boers, B. & Ljungkvist, T. (2016). Family businesses as venture capitalists: the exception that proves the rules?. In: : . Paper presented at 19th Nordic Conference on Small Business Research - NCSB 2016, May 19-20, Riga, Latvia.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Family businesses as venture capitalists: the exception that proves the rules?
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14298 (URN)
Conference
19th Nordic Conference on Small Business Research - NCSB 2016, May 19-20, Riga, Latvia
Available from: 2017-11-06 Created: 2017-11-06 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Boers, B. (2016). Go East! How family businesses choose markets and entry modes when internationalising. International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, 8(4), 333-354
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Go East! How family businesses choose markets and entry modes when internationalising
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, ISSN 1479-3059, E-ISSN 1479-3067, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 333-354Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates the choices of foreign markets, international market selection (IMS), and the respective entry modes, entry mode selection (EMS), for family firms internationalisation by using in-depth case studies of two family-owned newspaper companies. These decisions are studied from the Uppsala-stage model perspective. The purpose is to understand how and why family firms choose IMS and EMS when internationalising from a risk perspective. This study shows that IMS and EMS can at times be the consequence of one decision which may be the result of opportunistic behaviour. The decision reflects the risk preferences of owning families when selecting markets and entry modes. The explored family firms use contrasting approaches as they choose IMS and EMS according to different logics. Psychic distance leads to certain international market selection, but there is not a given preference for low distance. Instead, the entry mode selection reflects the dominant risk perception of the owning families. A preference for direct entry modes corresponds to the owning families risk perception and need for control. Accordingly, IMS and EMS are two steps, but the order of these is not given, i.e. after an entry mode is chosen this may be applied irrespective of the market to be entered. Business model and acquisition are highlighted as alternative entry modes, giving control to family firms. Thereby, this study expands those prior and increases the understanding of the peculiarities of family firm internationalisation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2016
Keywords
family business, internationalisation, acquisition, China, Czech Republic, business model, newspaper industry
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Humanities and Social sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13055 (URN)
Available from: 2016-10-27 Created: 2016-10-27 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4776-0085

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