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Thorvald, P., Lindblom, J. & Andreasson, R. (2019). On the development of a method for cognitive load assessment in manufacturing. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 59, 252-266
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the development of a method for cognitive load assessment in manufacturing
2019 (English)In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 59, p. 252-266Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing complexity and demands of assembly operations in manufacturing has been shown to lead to increased cognitive load in assembly workers. Previous work has outlined the complexity of an assembly worker's situation both in terms of difficulty and speed of work and there have been a few attempts at creating frameworks and methods for understanding the key aspects of what creates increased cognitive load. This paper presents the development of an analytic method, denoted CLAM (Cognitive Load Assessment for Manufacturing), and a tool for assessing cognitive load in manufacturing, primarily assembly. It outlines the journey of the development as well as discusses and problematizes relevant meta-methodological issues paired with method development. The intended contribution of the work is to make a difference in reducing the cognitive load of assembly workers on the shop floor, thus focusing the development on applicability and usability of the tool in practice. With this purpose in mind, focus of the method development has been on the practitioners, i.e. the method should not require any expert knowledge to be applied. The CLAM method and accompanying documentation such as a handbook containing instructions towards using the method and interpreting the results, is available in an online tool.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Cognitive load, Manufacturing, Assembly, Method development, CLAM method
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); User Centred Product Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16863 (URN)10.1016/j.rcim.2019.04.012 (DOI)000472694400022 ()2-s2.0-85064707617 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Sense&React
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-314350
Available from: 2019-05-03 Created: 2019-05-03 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
Andreasson, R., Alenljung, B., Billing, E. & Lowe, R. (2018). Affective Touch in Human–Robot Interaction: Conveying Emotion to the Nao Robot. International Journal of Social Robotics, 10(4), 473-491
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Affective Touch in Human–Robot Interaction: Conveying Emotion to the Nao Robot
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 473-491Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Affective touch has a fundamental role in human development, social bonding, and for providing emotional support in interpersonal relationships. We present, what is to our knowledge, the first HRI study of tactile conveyance of both positive and negative emotions (affective touch) on the Nao robot, and based on an experimental set-up from a study of human–human tactile communication. In the present work, participants conveyed eight emotions to a small humanoid robot via touch. We found that female participants conveyed emotions for a longer time, using more varied interaction and touching more regions on the robot’s body, compared to male participants. Several differences between emotions were found such that emotions could be classified by the valence of the emotion conveyed, by combining touch amount and duration. Overall, these results show high agreement with those reported for human–human affective tactile communication and could also have impact on the design and placement of tactile sensors on humanoid robots.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Tactile interaction, Affective touch, Human–robot interaction, Emotion encoding, Emotion decoding, Social emotions, Nao robot
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14563 (URN)10.1007/s12369-017-0446-3 (DOI)000445226600007 ()2-s2.0-85053554592 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Design, textil och hållbar utveckling
Funder
Region Västra Götaland
Available from: 2017-12-07 Created: 2017-12-07 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved
Lowe, R., Andreasson, R., Alenljung, B., Lund, A. & Billing, E. (2018). Designing for a Wearable Affective Interface for the NAO Robot: A Study of Emotion Conveyance by Touch. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, 2(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing for a Wearable Affective Interface for the NAO Robot: A Study of Emotion Conveyance by Touch
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2018 (English)In: Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, ISSN 2414-4088, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We here present results and analysis from a study of affective tactile communication between human and humanoid robot (the NAO robot). In the present work, participants conveyed eight emotions to the NAO via touch. In this study, we sought to understand the potential for using a wearable affective (tactile) interface, or WAffI. The aims of our study were to address the following: (i) how emotions and affective states can be conveyed (encoded) to such a humanoid robot, (ii) what are the effects of dressing the NAO in the WAffI on emotion conveyance and (iii) what is the potential for decoding emotion and affective states. We found that subjects conveyed touch for longer duration and over more locations on the robot when the NAO was dressed with WAffI than when it was not. Our analysis illuminates ways by which affective valence, and separate emotions, might be decoded by a humanoid robot according to the different features of touch: intensity, duration, location, type. Finally, we discuss the types of sensors and their distribution as they may be embedded within the WAffI and that would likely benefit Human-NAO (and Human-Humanoid) interaction along the affective tactile dimension.

Keywords
affective tactile interaction, emotions, human-robot interaction, touch, emotion classification
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14958 (URN)10.3390/mti2010002 (DOI)
Projects
Design, textil och hållbar utveckling
Funder
Region Västra Götaland
Available from: 2018-03-13 Created: 2018-03-13 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Thorvald, P., Lindblom, J. & Andreasson, R. (2017). CLAM – A method for cognitive load assessment in manufacturing. In: James Gao (Ed.), Gao, J., El Souri, M., Keates, S. (Ed.), Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXI: . Paper presented at 15th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 32nd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 5 – 7, 2017, University of Greenwich, UK (pp. 114-119). Amsterdam: IOS Press, 6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CLAM – A method for cognitive load assessment in manufacturing
2017 (English)In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXI / [ed] Gao, J., El Souri, M., Keates, S., Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2017, Vol. 6, p. 114-119Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The increasing complexity and demands of assembly operations in manufacturing has been shown to lead to increased cognitive load in assembly workers. Previous work has outlined the complexity of an assembly worker’s situation both in terms of difficulty and speed of work and there have been a few attempts at creating frameworks and methods for understanding the key aspects of what creates increased cognitive load. This paper presents a tool for assessing cognitive load in manufacturing, primarily assembly. The paper presents the method and an accompanying tool as well as some insights derived from this method development. The intended contribution of the work is to make a difference in reducing the cognitive load of assembly workers on the shop floor, thus focusing the development on applicability and usability of the tool in practice. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2017
Series
Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering Series, ISSN 2352-7528, E-ISSN 2352-751X ; 6
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
User Centred Product Design; Interaction Lab (ILAB); INF202 Virtual Ergonomics; INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14089 (URN)000440620700019 ()2-s2.0-85028376430 (Scopus ID)978-1-61499-791-7 (ISBN)978-1-61499-792-4 (ISBN)
Conference
15th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 32nd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 5 – 7, 2017, University of Greenwich, UK
Available from: 2017-09-06 Created: 2017-09-06 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Andreasson, R., Lindblom, J. & Thorvald, P. (2017). Interruptions in the wild: portraying the handling of interruptions in manufacturing from a distributed cognition lens. Cognition, Technology & Work, 19(1), 85-108
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interruptions in the wild: portraying the handling of interruptions in manufacturing from a distributed cognition lens
2017 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 85-108Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a study examining interruptionsin the wild by portraying the handling of interruptionsin manufacturing from a distributed cognitionlens. By studying how interruptions occur and are handledin the daily activities of a work team at a large foundry forcasting heavy diesel engines, we highlight situations whenthe propagation, transformation, and representation ofinformation are not supported by prescribed work processesand propose recommendations for how this can beamended. The study was conducted by several visits to theaforementioned factory with cognitive ethnography as thebasis for the data collection. The focus was on identifyinginterruptions and analysing these through a distributedcognition framework as an initial step towards studyinginterruptions in a manufacturing environment. The keyfindings include the identification of three, previouslyundefined, types of interruptions and the conclusion thatinterruptions do indeed affect the distributed workload ofthe socio-technical system and thus the overall productionperformance at the casting line.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Manufacturing, Interruptions, Distributed cognition, Cognitive ethnography
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Technology; Interaction Lab (ILAB); User Centred Product Design; INF202 Virtual Ergonomics; INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13272 (URN)10.1007/s10111-016-0399-6 (DOI)000394999300006 ()2-s2.0-85007170452 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 314350
Available from: 2016-12-29 Created: 2016-12-29 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Arweström Jansson, A., Axelsson, A., Andreasson, R. & Billing, E. (Eds.). (2017). Proceedings of the 13th Swecog conference. Paper presented at Swecog 2017, the 13th Swecog conference, Uppsala, Sweden, October 26-27, 2017. Skövde: Högskolan i Skövde
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proceedings of the 13th Swecog conference
2017 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skövde: Högskolan i Skövde, 2017. p. 66
Series
Skövde University Studies in Informatics, ISSN 1653-2325 ; 2017:2
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14389 (URN)978-91-983667-2-3 (ISBN)
Conference
Swecog 2017, the 13th Swecog conference, Uppsala, Sweden, October 26-27, 2017
Available from: 2017-11-10 Created: 2017-11-10 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Andreasson, R., Lindblom, J. & Thorvald, P. (2017). Tool use and collaborative work of dock assembly in practice. Production & Manufacturing Research, 5(1), 164-190
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tool use and collaborative work of dock assembly in practice
2017 (English)In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 164-190Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to deepen the understanding of the intrinsic interactions andinterplay between humans, tools, and environment from a systemsperspective, research in the wild (RITW) approaches have gainedtraction during recent decades as they provide a higher ecologicalvalidity of findings. This paper presents a RITW study, investigatinghow assembly, in this case dock assembly of forwarders, was donein practice. As our theoretical foundation, we used the framework ofdistributed cognition, which is one of the main pillars of RITW. Thefindings are presented in narrative form, describing and highlightingthat the workers achieve an efficient production outcome by beingintegral parts of the whole production process and doing so throughcoordination of activities benefitting the shared goal of the distributedsocio-technical system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
DCog, dock assembly, human factors & ergonomics, embodiment, tool use
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
User Centred Product Design; Interaction Lab (ILAB); INF202 Virtual Ergonomics; INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14169 (URN)10.1080/21693277.2017.1374890 (DOI)000412286800003 ()2-s2.0-85029912768 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-27 Created: 2017-09-27 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Alenljung, B., Lindblom, J., Andreasson, R. & Ziemke, T. (2017). User Experience in Social Human-Robot Interaction. International Journal of Ambient Computing and Intelligence (IJACI), 8(2), 12-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>User Experience in Social Human-Robot Interaction
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Ambient Computing and Intelligence (IJACI), ISSN 1941-6237, E-ISSN 1941-6245, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 12-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Socially interactive robots are expected to have an increasing importance in human society. For social robots to provide long-term added value to people’s lives, it is of major importance to stressthe need for positive user experience (UX) of such robots. The human-centered view emphasizes various aspects that emerge in the interaction between humans and robots. However, a positive UX does not appear by itself but has to be designed for and evaluated systematically. In this paper, the focus is on the role and relevance of UX in human-robot interaction (HRI) and four trends concerning the role and relevance of UX related to socially interactive robots are identified, and three challenges related to its evaluation are also presented. It is argued that current research efforts and directions are not sufficient in HRI research, and that future research needs to further address interdisciplinary research in order to achieve long-term success of socially interactive robots.

Keywords
Human-Centered HRI, Human-Robot Interaction, Human-Technology Interaction, Robotic Technology, Socially Interactive Technology, UX Design, UX Evaluation, UX Goals
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); Information Systems; INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13430 (URN)10.4018/IJACI.2017040102 (DOI)000396727500002 ()2-s2.0-85016032163 (Scopus ID)
Projects
the Knowledge Foundation, Stockholm, SIDUS grant agreement no. 20140220. (AIR, “Action and intention recognition in human interaction with autonomous systems").
Available from: 2017-03-13 Created: 2017-03-13 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved
Alenljung, B., Andreasson, R., Billing, E. A., Lindblom, J. & Lowe, R. (2017). User Experience of Conveying Emotions by Touch. In: Proceedings of the 26th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN): . Paper presented at IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN) Lisbon, Portugal, Aug 28 - Sept 1, 2017 (pp. 1240-1247). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>User Experience of Conveying Emotions by Touch
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 26th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), IEEE, 2017, p. 1240-1247Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the present study, 64 users were asked to convey eight distinct emotion to a humanoid Nao robot via touch, and were then asked to evaluate their experiences of performing that task. Large differences between emotions were revealed. Users perceived conveying of positive/pro-social emotions as significantly easier than negative emotions, with love and disgust as the two extremes. When asked whether they would act differently towards a human, compared to the robot, the users’ replies varied. A content analysis of interviews revealed a generally positive user experience (UX) while interacting with the robot, but users also found the task challenging in several ways. Three major themes with impact on the UX emerged; responsiveness, robustness, and trickiness. The results are discussed in relation to a study of human-human affective tactile interaction, with implications for human-robot interaction (HRI) and design of social and affective robotics in particular. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Series
International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, ISSN 1944-9445, E-ISSN 1944-9437
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Interaction Lab (ILAB); INF302 Autonomous Intelligent Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14082 (URN)10.1109/ROMAN.2017.8172463 (DOI)000427262400193 ()2-s2.0-85034038084 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-3517-9 (ISBN)978-1-5386-3519-3 (ISBN)978-1-5386-3518-6 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN) Lisbon, Portugal, Aug 28 - Sept 1, 2017
Projects
Design, Textil och hållbar Utveckling (VGR)
Funder
Region Västra Götaland
Available from: 2017-09-04 Created: 2017-09-04 Last updated: 2018-11-16
Lindblom, J. & Andreasson, R. (2016). Current Challenges for UX Evaluation of Human-Robot Interaction. In: Christopher Schlick and Stefan Trzcieliński (Ed.), Advances in Ergonomics of Manufacturing: Managing the Enterprise of the Future: Proceedings of the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Human Aspects of Advanced Manufacturing, July 27-31, 2016, Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA (pp. 267-277). Switzerland: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Current Challenges for UX Evaluation of Human-Robot Interaction
2016 (English)In: Advances in Ergonomics of Manufacturing: Managing the Enterprise of the Future: Proceedings of the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Human Aspects of Advanced Manufacturing, July 27-31, 2016, Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA / [ed] Christopher Schlick and Stefan Trzcieliński, Switzerland: Springer, 2016, p. 267-277Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The development of socially interactive robots is expected to have anincreasing importance in everyday life for a growing number of people. For social robots to provide long-term added value to people’s lives, it is of major importanceto stress the need for developing a positive user experience (UX). The human-centered view emphasizes various aspects including acceptance, usability,and credibility, as they emerge in the interaction between humans and robots. In current human-robot interaction (HRI) research, UX is reckoned to be important,but is often taken for granted. However, a positive user experience does not appearby itself but has to be systematically designed and evaluated. In this paper, we focus on the role and relevance of UX in HRI and present three challenges related to the evaluation of UX in interaction with robots, addressing the need for interdisciplinary research in order to achieve long-term success of socially interactive robots.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: Springer, 2016
Series
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, ISSN 2194-5357 ; 490
Keywords
Human-robot interaction, User experience, Evaluation methods, Hedonic qualities, Pragmatic qualities, Human-computer interaction
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Technology; Interaction Lab (ILAB)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-12757 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-41697-7_24 (DOI)2-s2.0-84986265062 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-41696-0 (ISBN)978-3-319-41697-7 (ISBN)
Projects
SIDUS-projektet AIR (Action and intention recognition in human interaction with autonomous systems)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-08-08 Created: 2016-08-08 Last updated: 2018-08-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0159-9628

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