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Åhlfeldt, Rose-MharieORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8607-948X
Publications (10 of 85) Show all publications
Bärkås, A., Kharko, A., Åhlfeldt, R.-M. & Hägglund, M. (2024). Patients' Experiences of Demanded Access to Online Health Records. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 310, 1424-1425
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patients' Experiences of Demanded Access to Online Health Records
2024 (English)In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365, Vol. 310, p. 1424-1425Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Patient-Accessible Electronic Health Records (PAEHR) is particularly controversial in mental healthcare. We aim to explore if there is any association between patients with mental health conditions and the experience of someone demanding access to their PAEHR. A chi-square test showed a significant association between group belonging and experiences of someone demanding access to the PAEHR.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS Press, 2024
Keywords
Mental health, patient accessible electronic health record (PAEHR), Electronics, Health Facilities, Health Records, Personal, Humans, Medical Records Systems, Computerized, Mental Disorders, electronic medical record system, health care facility, human, medical record, mental disease
National Category
Information Systems Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23584 (URN)10.3233/SHTI231226 (DOI)38269678 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85183589584 (Scopus ID)
Note

CC BY-NC 4.0 DEED

Corresponding Author: Annika Bärkås, email: annika.barkas@kbh.uu.se.

Available from: 2024-02-08 Created: 2024-02-08 Last updated: 2024-02-12Bibliographically approved
Hagström, J., Åhlfeldt, R.-M., Blease, C., Cajander, Å., Rexhepi, H., Moll, J., . . . Hägglund, M. (2024). Security and Privacy of Online Record Access: A Survey of Adolescents' Views and Experiences in Sweden. Journal of Adolescent Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Security and Privacy of Online Record Access: A Survey of Adolescents' Views and Experiences in Sweden
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2024 (English)In: Journal of Adolescent Health, ISSN 1054-139X, E-ISSN 1879-1972Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Ensuring security of online health records and patients' perceptions of security are concerns in adolescent healthcare. Little is known about adolescents' perceptions about healthcare's ability to protect online health records. This article explores adolescents' perspectives on security and privacy of their online health records, potential differences based on gender and health, attitudes to sharing information, and perceptions of what constitutes sensitive information. Methods: This study included a subset of items from a national online patient survey conducted in Sweden (January-February 2022), focusing on respondents aged 15–19 years. Gender and health status differences were calculated using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Of 218 adolescent respondents (77.1% female), a minority had security and privacy concerns. A notable proportion (41.3%) wished to control who could see their records, and those who reported better perceived health were more likely to want to manage access to their electronic health record (H = 13.569, p = .009). Most had not experienced unauthorized access to their records (75.2%) and had never shared health information on other online applications (85.8%). More than half (56.0%) perceived some information as sensitive, where mental health was the most common (76.0%). Most felt that reading their notes improved their trust for their healthcare professional (65.6%) and supported better communication with healthcare professionals (66.5%). Discussion: In this national survey, adolescents generally reported few concerns about patient portals. Findings emphasize the need for security and privacy protection and to empower adolescents with greater control over access to their health information housed in electronic health record systems. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Adolescent health, Adolescents, eHealth, Electronic health record (EHR), National survey, Patient portal, Security, Privacy, Patient accessible electronic health record (PAEHR), Usability
National Category
Information Systems Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23626 (URN)10.1016/j.jadohealth.2023.12.027 (DOI)38349307 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85184824583 (Scopus ID)
Note

CC BY 4.0 DEED

© 2024 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine

Address correspondence to: Josefin Hagström, M.Sc., Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 14B, 752 37, Uppsala, Sweden.

This work was supported by NordForsk through the funding to Nordic eHealth for Patients: Benchmarking and Developing for the Future, NORDeHEALTH [Project #100477]; and the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (FORTE) through the funding to Beyond Implementation of eHealth [Project #2020-01229]. C.B. was supported by a Keane Scholar Award.

Available from: 2024-02-22 Created: 2024-02-22 Last updated: 2024-02-29Bibliographically approved
Bärkås, A., Kharko, A., Åhlfeldt, R.-M. & Hägglund, M. (2023). Patients' Experiences of Unwanted Access to Their Online Health Records. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 302, 356-357
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patients' Experiences of Unwanted Access to Their Online Health Records
2023 (English)In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365, Vol. 302, p. 356-357Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Patient-Accessible Electronic Health Records (PAEHR) are particularly disputed in mental healthcare. We aim to explore if there is any association between patients having a mental health condition and someone unwanted seeing their PAEHR. A chi-square test showed a statistically significant association between group belonging and experiences of someone unwanted seeing their PAEHR.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS Press, 2023
Keywords
mental health, patient-accessible electronic health record (PAEHR), Delivery of Health Care, Electronic Health Records, Electronics, Health Facilities, Health Records, Personal, Humans, electronic health record, health care delivery, health care facility, human, medical record
National Category
Information Systems Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-22629 (URN)10.3233/SHTI230138 (DOI)001071432900083 ()37203682 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85159770604 (Scopus ID)
Note

CC BY-NC 4.0

978-1-64368-388-1 (print) | 978-1-64368-389-8 (online)

Available from: 2023-06-01 Created: 2023-06-01 Last updated: 2023-11-06Bibliographically approved
Hägglund, M., Kharko, A., Hagström, J., Bärkås, A., Blease, C., Cajander, Å., . . . Johansen, M. A. (2023). The NORDeHEALTH 2022 Patient Survey: Cross-Sectional Study of National Patient Portal Users in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Estonia. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 25, Article ID e47573.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The NORDeHEALTH 2022 Patient Survey: Cross-Sectional Study of National Patient Portal Users in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Estonia
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 25, article id e47573Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Although many surveys have been conducted on patients accessing their own health records in recent years, there is a limited amount of nationwide cross-country data available on patients' views and preferences. To address this gap, an international survey of patient users was conducted in the Nordic eHealth project, NORDeHEALTH. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the sociodemographic characteristics and experiences of patients who accessed their electronic health records (EHRs) through national patient portals in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Estonia. METHODS: A cross-sectional web-based survey was distributed using the national online health portals. The target participants were patients who accessed the national patient portals at the start of 2022 and who were aged ≥15 years. The survey included a mixture of close-ended and free-text questions about participant sociodemographics, usability experience, experiences with health care and the EHR, reasons for reading health records online, experience with errors, omissions and offense, opinions about security and privacy, and the usefulness of portal functions. In this paper, we summarized the data on participant demographics, past experience with health care, and the patient portal through descriptive statistics. RESULTS: In total, 29,334 users completed the survey, of which 9503 (32.40%) were from Norway, 13,008 (44.35%) from Sweden, 4713 (16.07%) from Finland, and 2104 (7.17%) from Estonia. National samples were comparable according to reported gender, with about two-thirds identifying as women (19,904/29,302, 67.93%). Age distributions were similar across the countries, but Finland had older users while Estonia had younger users. The highest attained education and presence of health care education varied among the national samples. In all 4 countries, patients most commonly rated their health as "fair" (11,279/29,302, 38.48%). In Estonia, participants were more often inclined to rate their health positively, whereas Norway and Sweden had the highest proportion of negative health ratings. Across the whole sample, most patients received some care in the last 2 years (25,318/29,254, 86.55%). Mental health care was more common (6214/29,254, 21.24%) than oncological care (3664/29,254, 12.52%). Overall, most patients had accessed their health record "2 to 9 times" (11,546/29,306, 39.4%), with the most frequent users residing in Sweden, where about one-third of patients accessed it "more than 20 times" (4571/13,008, 35.14%). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale international survey to compare patient users' sociodemographics and experiences with accessing their EHRs. Although the countries are in close geographic proximity and demonstrate similar advancements in giving their residents online records access, patient users in this survey differed. We will continue to investigate patients' experiences and opinions about national patient-accessible EHRs through focused analyses of the national and combined data sets from the NORDeHEALTH 2022 Patient Survey. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
JMIR Publications, 2023
Keywords
electronic health record, health data, national survey, online medical record, online records access, patient access, patient portal, patient-accessible electronic health record, Cross-Sectional Studies, Electronic Health Records, Estonia, Female, Finland, Humans, Norway, Patient Portals, Sweden, cross-sectional study, epidemiology, human, medical record
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Information Systems
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23380 (URN)10.2196/47573 (DOI)001106906500004 ()37955963 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85176787931 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Nordic eHealth project, NORDeHEALTH
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, #2020-01229Academy of Finland, #352501Academy of Finland, #352503
Note

CC BY 4.0 DEED

©Maria Hägglund, Anna Kharko, Josefin Hagström, Annika Bärkås, Charlotte Blease, Åsa Cajander, Catherine DesRoches, Asbjørn Johansen Fagerlund, Barbara Haage, Isto Huvila, Iiris Hörhammer, Bridget Kane, Gunnar O Klein, Eli Kristiansen, Kerli Luks, Jonas Moll, Irene Muli, Eline Hovstad Raphaug, Hanife Rexhepi, Sara Riggare, Peeter Ross, Isabella Scandurra, Saija Simola, Hedvig Soone, Bo Wang, Mae

Corresponding Author: Maria Hägglund, PhD, Participatory eHealth and Health Data Research Group, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Mtc-huset, Dag Hammarskjölds Väg 14b, 1 Tr, Uppsala, 752 37 Sweden. Phone: 46 729999381. Email: maria.hagglund@kbh.uu.se 

This work was supported by NordForsk through funding to Nordic eHealth for Patients: Benchmarking and Developing for theFuture, NORDeHEALTH (project #100477), the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (Forskningsrådetför hälsa, arbetsliv och välfärd [FORTE]) through the funding to Beyond Implementation of eHealth (project #2020-01229), the Strategic Research Council at the Academy of Finland (project #352501 and #352503), and the Norwegian Centre for E-health Research. CB was supported by a Keane Scholar Award. The funders played no role in the study design, data interpretation,writing of the results, or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Available from: 2023-11-23 Created: 2023-11-23 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Rexhepi, H., Huvila, I., Åhlfeldt, R.-M. & Cajander, Å. (2022). Cancer patients' information seeking behaviour related to online electronic healthcare records. In: Peter Bath; Päivi Jokela; Laura Sbaffi (Ed.), Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Health Information Management Research: . Paper presented at The 18th International Symposium on Health Information Management Research, iSHIMR, Using digital information for better patient health, care and well-being, Kalmar, Sweden (Online) 17-18 October 2020. Kalmar: Linnaeus University; University of Sheffield
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cancer patients' information seeking behaviour related to online electronic healthcare records
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Health Information Management Research / [ed] Peter Bath; Päivi Jokela; Laura Sbaffi, Kalmar: Linnaeus University; University of Sheffield , 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Patients’ online access to their EHR together with the rapid proliferation of medical information on theInternet has changed the way patients use the information to learn about their health. It is welldocumented that patients often turn to the Internet to find information about their health and care.However, little is known about patients´ information seeking behaviour when using online EHRs. Byusing information horizons as an analytical tool this paper aims to investigate the informationbehaviour of cancer patients who have chosen to view their EHRs (readers) and to those who havenot made that option (non-readers). Thirty interviews were conducted with patients. Based oninformation horizons, it seems that non-reading is associated with living in a narrower informationworld in comparison to readers. The findings do not suggest that the smallness would be a result of anactive avoidance of information, or that it would be counterproductive for the patients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kalmar: Linnaeus University; University of Sheffield, 2022
Keywords
Electronic healthcare records, information behavior, health information, information horizons, patients
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-19485 (URN)10.15626/ishimr.2020.05 (DOI)978-91-89081-09-3 (ISBN)
Conference
The 18th International Symposium on Health Information Management Research, iSHIMR, Using digital information for better patient health, care and well-being, Kalmar, Sweden (Online) 17-18 October 2020
Note

CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Available from: 2021-02-22 Created: 2021-02-22 Last updated: 2022-05-05Bibliographically approved
Rexhepi, H., Moll, J., Huvila, I. & Åhlfeldt, R.-M. (2022). Do you want to receive bad news through your patient accessible electronic health record?: A national survey on receiving bad news in an era of digital health. In: Peter Bath; Päivi Jokela; Laura Sbaffi (Ed.), Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Health Information Management Research: . Paper presented at The 18th International Symposium on Health Information Management Research, iSHIMR, Using digital information for better patient health, care and well-being, Kalmar, Sweden (Online) 17-18 October 2020. Kalmar: Linnaeus University; University of Sheffield
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do you want to receive bad news through your patient accessible electronic health record?: A national survey on receiving bad news in an era of digital health
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Health Information Management Research / [ed] Peter Bath; Päivi Jokela; Laura Sbaffi, Kalmar: Linnaeus University; University of Sheffield , 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Despite the fact that patient accessible electronic health records (PAEHRs) have been around for manyyears in several countries, there is a lack of research investigating patient´ preferences for receiving badnews, including through PAEHRs. Little is also known about the characteristics of the patients who preferto receive bad news through the PAEHR in terms of e.g. medical diagnosis, age and educational level.This study, based on a national patient survey in Sweden (N=2587), investigated this. Results showthat, generally, receiving bad news by reading in the PAEHR is still among the least preferred options.Additionally, a higher proportion of men want to receive bad news in the PAEHR compared to women(p=0.001), and the same goes for those who are not working/have worked in healthcare (p=0.007). Aneffect of disease groups was also found, showing that diabetes patients in particular, want to receivebad news through the PAEHR.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kalmar: Linnaeus University; University of Sheffield, 2022
Keywords
abnormal test results, bad news, patient accessible electronic health record, patient, physician
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-19486 (URN)10.15626/ishimr.2020.17 (DOI)978-91-89081-09-3 (ISBN)
Conference
The 18th International Symposium on Health Information Management Research, iSHIMR, Using digital information for better patient health, care and well-being, Kalmar, Sweden (Online) 17-18 October 2020
Note

CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Available from: 2021-02-22 Created: 2021-02-22 Last updated: 2022-05-05Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, N., Söderström, E. & Åhlfeldt, R.-M. (2022). Patient Empowerment and its Connection to Trust. In: Peter Bath; Päivi Jokela; Laura Sbaffi (Ed.), Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Health Information Management Research: . Paper presented at The 18th International Symposium on Health Information Management Research, iSHIMR, Using digital information for better patient health, care and well-being, Kalmar, Sweden (Online) 17-18 October 2020. Kalmar: Linnaeus University; University of Sheffield
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patient Empowerment and its Connection to Trust
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Health Information Management Research / [ed] Peter Bath; Päivi Jokela; Laura Sbaffi, Kalmar: Linnaeus University; University of Sheffield , 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Patient Empowerment (PE) allows patients to be more active in managing their own health and quality of life. The aim of this paper is to analyze how trust affects PE, in the context of healthcare information systems. An interview study was conducted concerning patients’ online access to electronic healthcare records. Results show that PE requires that patients trust the information that healthcare professionals and their electronic health record systems provide. Without trust, patients cannot control their own participation in relation to the healthcare professionals. This may result in a diminished ability to participate in the healthcare processes regarding their own care. Practical implications include acquired knowledge about and awareness of how trust influences PE, with particular emphasis on healthcare professionals. A trust model is presented that illustrates the trustor-trustee dimensions of PE. This model has both theoretical and practical implications in its illustration of how trust and PE connect.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kalmar: Linnaeus University; University of Sheffield, 2022
Keywords
EHR, online medical records, patient empowerment, trust
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Information Systems; Followership and Organizational Resilience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-19422 (URN)10.15626/ishimr.2020.06 (DOI)978-91-89081-09-3 (ISBN)
Conference
The 18th International Symposium on Health Information Management Research, iSHIMR, Using digital information for better patient health, care and well-being, Kalmar, Sweden (Online) 17-18 October 2020
Note

CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Available from: 2021-01-22 Created: 2021-01-22 Last updated: 2022-05-05Bibliographically approved
Söderström, E., Eriksson, N. & Åhlfeldt, R.-M. (2021). A Holistic Approach of how to handle Patient Information to support Seamless and Secure care. In: Peter Bednar; Alexander Nolte; Mikko Rajanen; Anna Sigridur Islind; Helena Vallo Hult; Fatema Zaghloul; Aurelio Ravarini; Alessio Maria Braccini (Ed.), Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Socio-Technical Perspective in IS Development (STPIS 2021): Virtual conference in Trento, Italy, October 11-12, 2021. Paper presented at The 7th International Workshop on Socio-Technical Perspective in IS Development (STPIS 2021). 11-12 October 2021, Trento, Italy. (pp. 198-203). CEUR-WS, 3016, Article ID 17.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Holistic Approach of how to handle Patient Information to support Seamless and Secure care
2021 (English)In: Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Socio-Technical Perspective in IS Development (STPIS 2021): Virtual conference in Trento, Italy, October 11-12, 2021 / [ed] Peter Bednar; Alexander Nolte; Mikko Rajanen; Anna Sigridur Islind; Helena Vallo Hult; Fatema Zaghloul; Aurelio Ravarini; Alessio Maria Braccini, CEUR-WS , 2021, Vol. 3016, p. 198-203, article id 17Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Healthcare, like society in general, is facing great changes and challenges. Rapid development and uptake of digital technologies bring about the need to change. With the COVID-19 pandemic, the amount of healthcare meetings taking place online has surged. This means, among other things, that there are more healthcare actors involved in a patient’s care, and that information relating to a patient needs to be shared across borders now more than ever need to be improved. However, this is currently not done seamlessly, and there are many hinders and obstacles to overcome. This research aims at enabling a holistic approach on how to handle patient information in order to support seamless and secure care along the whole patient process. In doing so, drivers and hinders need to be identified, and a socio-technical framework with concrete guidelines will be developed. These results will be a first step towards filling this research gap, and will connect several perspectives in order to make the results truly actionable and holistic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CEUR-WS, 2021
Series
CEUR Workshop Proceedings, E-ISSN 1613-0073 ; 3016
Keywords
patient information, seamless patient process, information security, socio-technical framework
National Category
Information Systems Business Administration
Research subject
INF303 Information Security; Followership and Organizational Resilience; Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-20731 (URN)2-s2.0-85121006016 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The 7th International Workshop on Socio-Technical Perspective in IS Development (STPIS 2021). 11-12 October 2021, Trento, Italy.
Note

CC BY 4.0

CEUR Workshop Proceedings (CEUR-WS.org) is a free open-access publication service at Sun SITE Central Europe operated under the umbrella of RWTH Aachen University.

Available from: 2021-11-30 Created: 2021-11-30 Last updated: 2022-04-11Bibliographically approved
Rexhepi, H., Huvila, I., Åhlfeldt, R.-M. & Cajander, Å. (2021). Cancer patients’ information seeking behavior related to online electronic healthcare records. Health Informatics Journal, 27(3), 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cancer patients’ information seeking behavior related to online electronic healthcare records
2021 (English)In: Health Informatics Journal, ISSN 1460-4582, E-ISSN 1741-2811, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Patients’ online access to their EHR together with the rapid proliferation of medical information on the Internet has changed how patients use information to learn about their health. Patients’ tendency to turn to the Internet to find information about their health and care is well-documented. However, little is known about patients’ information seeking behavior when using online EHRs. By using information horizons as an analytical tool this paper aims to investigate the information behavior of cancer patients who have chosen to view their EHRs (readers) and to those who have not made that option (non-readers). Thirty interviews were conducted with patients. Based on information horizons, it seems that non-reading is associated with living in a narrower information world in comparison to readers. The findings do not suggest that the smallness would be a result of active avoidance of information, or that it would be counterproductive for the patients. The findings suggest, however, that EHRs would benefit from comprehensive linking to authoritative health information sources to help users to understand their contents. In parallel, healthcare professionals should be more aware of their personal role as a key source of health information to those who choose not to read their EHRs. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2021
Keywords
Electronic healthcare records, health information, information behavior, information horizons, patients, adult, article, avoidance behavior, cancer patient, human, information seeking, interview, medical information
National Category
Nursing Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy Computer and Information Sciences Information Systems
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-20263 (URN)10.1177/14604582211024708 (DOI)000691405200001 ()34296650 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85111118167 (Scopus ID)
Funder
NordForsk, 100477
Note

CC BY 4.0

© The Author(s) 2021.

Corresponding author: Isto Huvila, Department of ALM, Uppsala University, Thunbergsvägen 3H, Uppsala 75105, Sweden. Email: isto.huvila@abm.uu.se

The author(s) disclosed of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. This work was partly supported by NordForsk through the funding to Nordic eHealth for Patients: Benchmarking and Developing for the Future (NORDeHEALTH), project number 100477.

Available from: 2021-08-05 Created: 2021-08-05 Last updated: 2021-10-29Bibliographically approved
Bergström, E., Karlsson, F. & Åhlfeldt, R.-M. (2021). Developing an information classification method. Information and Computer Security, 29(2), 209-239
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing an information classification method
2021 (English)In: Information and Computer Security, E-ISSN 2056-4961, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 209-239Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for information classification. The proposed method draws on established standards, such as the ISO/IEC 27002 and information classification practices. The long-term goal of the method is to decrease the subjective judgement in the implementation of information classification in organisations, which can lead to information security breaches because the information is under- or over-classified. Design/methodology/approach: The results are based on a design science research approach, implemented as five iterations spanning the years 2013 to 2019. Findings: The paper presents a method for information classification and the design principles underpinning the method. The empirical demonstration shows that senior and novice information security managers perceive the method as a useful tool for classifying information assets in an organisation. Research limitations/implications: Existing research has, to a limited extent, provided extensive advice on how to approach information classification in organisations systematically. The method presented in this paper can act as a starting point for further research in this area, aiming at decreasing subjectivity in the information classification process. Additional research is needed to fully validate the proposed method for information classification and its potential to reduce the subjective judgement. Practical implications: The research contributes to practice by offering a method for information classification. It provides a hands-on-tool for how to implement an information classification process. Besides, this research proves that it is possible to devise a method to support information classification. This is important, because, even if an organisation chooses not to adopt the proposed method, the very fact that this method has proved useful should encourage any similar endeavour. Originality/value: The proposed method offers a detailed and well-elaborated tool for information classification. The method is generic and adaptable, depending on organisational needs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2021
Keywords
Information classification, Information classification method, Information security management, Information security management systems, ISO Standards, Security of data, Design Principles, Design-science researches, Design/methodology/approach, Information assets, Long-term goals, Organisational, Subjective judgement, Classification (of information)
National Category
Information Systems Information Systems, Social aspects Computer Sciences
Research subject
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-19309 (URN)10.1108/ICS-07-2020-0110 (DOI)000595848200001 ()2-s2.0-85097088962 (Scopus ID)
Note

Article publication date: 3 December 2020.

Issue publication date: 3 August 2021.

Available from: 2020-12-10 Created: 2020-12-10 Last updated: 2023-05-02Bibliographically approved
Projects
INSIDE - INformation SecurIty anD E-health [2011-03454_Vinnova]; University of Skövde
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8607-948X

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