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Ljungkvist, TorbjörnORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8337-3472
Publications (10 of 32) Show all publications
Boers, B. & Ljungkvist, T. (2019). A founder's heritage: the development of organizational identity. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 31(1), 73-95
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A founder's heritage: the development of organizational identity
2019 (English)In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 73-95Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to understand how a former family firm strategically makes use of the founder's legacy to preserve its organizational identity. Following a single case study approach, it draws on rich empirical material from semi-structured interviews and extensive archival data. We show how central organizational activities are affected by a founder's heritage long after the formal exit has taken place, illustrating the central, enduring, and distinctive elements of organizational identity a founder has. Regardless of ownership forms, the family company founder's legacy is used to legitimize new owners and maintain the organization's identity. However, centripetal moves complicate the preservation of the organizational identity, whereas a high focus on value leveraging in another ownership form opens up for centrifugal approaches which strengthen the entrepreneurial dimension of organizational identity.

Abstract [fr]

L'objectif de cet article est de contribuer à l’élargissement des connaissances sur la manière dont une ancienne entreprise familiale utilize stratégiquement l'héritage du fondateur pour préserver son identité organisationnelle. En analysant une étude de cas, il utilize une riche matière empirique issue d'entretiens semi-structurés et d'un grand nombre de données d'archives. Nous montrons comment des activités organisationnelles centrales sont influencées par l'héritage du fondateur, longtemps après le départ formel de celui-ci, et ainsi, soulignons les caractéristiques centrales, persistantes et particulières de l'identité organisationnelle que possède le fondateur d'une entreprise familiale. Indépendamment des différents types de possession, l'héritage du fondateur d'une entreprise familiale est utilisé pour légitimer les nouveaux propriétaires et conserver l'identité de l'organisation. Cependant, les mouvements centripètes compliquent la conservation de l'identité organisationnelle, bien qu'un focus important sur la valeur, mettant à profit une autre forme de propriété, s'ouvre à des approches centrifuges qui renforcent la dimension entrepreneuriale de l'identité organisationnelle.

Keywords
entrepreneurial founder heritage, organizational identity, case study, Sweden, héritage entrepreneurial du fondateur, identité organisationnelle, étude de cas, Suède
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15144 (URN)10.1080/08276331.2018.1466849 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052052476 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-11 Created: 2018-05-11 Last updated: 2019-02-06Bibliographically approved
Ljungkvist, T. & Boers, B. (2019). A theory of venture capital family business (VCFB): professionalization trajectories. In: : . Paper presented at 15th EASIM Workshop on Family Firm Management Research, Family Entrepreneurship and Society, Nantes, France, May 23-25, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A theory of venture capital family business (VCFB): professionalization trajectories
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Venture capital as well as family firms are very heterogeneous populations of firms. Extant literature has studied the interaction and connection between the groups of firms. However, only recently, researcher began to look at those firms which are part of both group at the same. Firms which are labeled venture capital family businesses (VCFB) (Ljungkvist & Boers, 2017). Recent research suggests that the interaction of family firms and VC firms can be distinguished into three separate phases (Schickinger, et al., 2018). Based on these phases, the paper develops propositions on how VCFB firms develop their professionalization trajectories in these phases. Thus, the presented propositions highlight how the family owners’ actions and behavior are related to professionalism and how it influences the three phases of investing.

National Category
Social Sciences Economics and Business
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17036 (URN)
Conference
15th EASIM Workshop on Family Firm Management Research, Family Entrepreneurship and Society, Nantes, France, May 23-25, 2019
Available from: 2019-06-12 Created: 2019-06-12 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Andersén, J., Jansson, C. & Ljungkvist, T. (2019). Can environmentally oriented CEOs and environmentally friendly suppliers boost the growth of small firms?. Business Strategy and the Environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can environmentally oriented CEOs and environmentally friendly suppliers boost the growth of small firms?
2019 (English)In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The core question addressed in the natural resource‐based view (NRBV) of the firm is how to develop and exploit resources beneficial for both the natural environment and firm performance. Due to the resource constraints and increased competition facing small manufacturing firms, achieving this is a challenge for such companies. Building on the NRBV and resource orchestration literatures, we examine the relationship between green purchasing capabilities (GPCs), CEO's environmental orientation(EO), and firm growth. Results from 304 Swedish small manufacturing firms indicate a significant relationship between GPC and growth, and this relationship is positively moderated by the EO of the CEO.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
green purchasing, natural resource‐based view, resource orchestration, small firm growth, sustainable entrepreneurship
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17389 (URN)10.1002/bse.2366 (DOI)2-s2.0-8506968489 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Hållbar lönsamhet och lönsam hållbarhet
Funder
The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation, P16-0183The Kamprad Family Foundation, 20180048
Available from: 2019-07-17 Created: 2019-07-17 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
Ljungkvist, T., Boers, B., Andersén, J. & Nordqvist, M. (2019). Rapid growth of founder-led companies: the role of resource orchestration. In: : . Paper presented at International Academy of Business and Economics (IABE)-2019, Los Angeles, June 14-16, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rapid growth of founder-led companies: the role of resource orchestration
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of resource orchestration in rapidly growing founder-led companies.  

Design/methodology/approach – Based on a comparative case study of founder-led companies, the resource orchestration in a founder-led family firm is compared with a founder-led one. To comprehend the complexity of resource orchestration, a large amount of archival data and interviews are used. By using data derived from a period of ten years, the present study has a longitudinal approach.

Findings – By uncovering the resource management process, the findings indicate a difference in focus between the founder-led family firm and the founder-led firm. The resource orchestration in the family firm focuses to a greater extent on the early stages of the resource management process, i.e. the recruitment of new staff, the incorporation and the control of “right” values and norms. On the other hand, the founder-led business puts a higher focus on performance metrics and the documented coordination of teams and customers. However, both companies rely largely on self-organizing teams. By revealing the management role in a dynamic industry, the present study criticizes and extends general findings of the resource orchestration literature. Moreover, it contributes to the organizational culture and firm growth entrepreneurship literature.      

Practical implications – The study shows how founder-based companies can grow successfully in a dynamic environment. Furthermore, it reveals how software companies’ resources can be managed and bundled in a successful manner.

Originality/value – the present study conveys fine-grained insights in complex management processes operating in a dynamic environment.

Keywords
resource orchestration, growth, medium-sized companies, case study, Sweden
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17428 (URN)
Conference
International Academy of Business and Economics (IABE)-2019, Los Angeles, June 14-16, 2019
Available from: 2019-07-10 Created: 2019-07-10 Last updated: 2019-09-04
Boers, B., Ljungkvist, T. & Brunninge, O. (2018). Giving Up The Family Name While Staying A Family Business: The Family Business As Acquirer. In: : . Paper presented at 14th Workshop on Family Firm Management Research: 'Entrepreneurial Families Across Generations, Larnaca, Cyprus, May 17-19, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Giving Up The Family Name While Staying A Family Business: The Family Business As Acquirer
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15470 (URN)
Conference
14th Workshop on Family Firm Management Research: 'Entrepreneurial Families Across Generations, Larnaca, Cyprus, May 17-19, 2018
Available from: 2018-06-08 Created: 2018-06-08 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Ljungkvist, T. & Österlund, U. (2018). Quasi-markets and abnormal growth: The case of the Swedish personal assistant industry. In: : . Paper presented at International Academy of Business and Public Administration Disciplines (IABPAD) Conference, Orlando, Florida, USA, January 2-5, 2018. IABPAD
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quasi-markets and abnormal growth: The case of the Swedish personal assistant industry
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand the growth of a quasi-market industry and the distribution of capital generated by the industry´s private companies.

Methodology: Using a longitudinal case study approach, descriptive panel data and a regression analysis highlight the development of medium-sized companies within the personal care assistance (PA) industry.

Findings: This study shows a quasi-market growth cycle and how the hierarchical organizational dimension explains key figure differences between the business types of independent firms (undivisionalized) and conglomerate subsidiaries.

Originality: This study is the first to reveal that quasi-market conditions open up for broad redistributions of capital to non-related conglomerate-owned industries. Thereby, non-intended industries receive public funding advantages.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IABPAD, 2018
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15468 (URN)
Conference
International Academy of Business and Public Administration Disciplines (IABPAD) Conference, Orlando, Florida, USA, January 2-5, 2018
Available from: 2018-06-08 Created: 2018-06-08 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
Ljungkvist, T. & Österlund, U. (2018). Quasi-markets and abnormal growth: The case of the Swedish personal care assistance industry. International Journal of Business Strategy, 18(2), 5-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quasi-markets and abnormal growth: The case of the Swedish personal care assistance industry
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Business Strategy, ISSN 1553-9563, E-ISSN 2378-8585, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 5-22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand the growth of a quasi-market industry and the distribution of capital generated by the industry´s private companies. Methodology: Using a longitudinal case study approach, descriptive panel data and a regression analysis highlight the development of medium-sized Swedish companies within the personal care assistance (PA) industry. Findings: This study demonstrates a quasi-market growth cycle and how the hierarchical organizational dimension explains key figure differences between the business types of independent firms (undivisionalized) and conglomerate subsidiaries. Originality: This study is the first to reveal that quasi-market conditions open up for broad redistributions of capital to non-related conglomerate-owned industries. Thereby, non-intended industries receive public funding advantages.

Keywords
Quasi-market, distributable capital, personal care assistance industry, panel data, Sweden
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16268 (URN)10.18374/IJBS-18-2.1 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2019-02-11Bibliographically approved
Edström, A., Oudhuis, M., Ljungkvist, T. & Brorström, B. (2018). Regional Resilience. In: Stefan Tengblad, Margareta Oudhuis (Ed.), The Resilience Framework: Organizing for Sustained Viability (pp. 213-229). Singapore: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regional Resilience
2018 (English)In: The Resilience Framework: Organizing for Sustained Viability / [ed] Stefan Tengblad, Margareta Oudhuis, Singapore: Springer, 2018, p. 213-229Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: Springer, 2018
Series
Work, Organization, and Employment, ISSN 2520-8837, E-ISSN 2520-8845
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15492 (URN)978-981-10-5314-6 (ISBN)978-981-10-5313-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-11 Created: 2018-06-11 Last updated: 2018-07-02Bibliographically approved
Evansluong, Q., Boers, B., Ljungkvist, T. & Ujvari, S. (2018). The family influences of EO development in immigrant family businesses. In: Sustainable entrepreneurship: A win-win strategy for the future. Paper presented at Research in Entrepreneurship and Small Business, RENT XXXII, Toledo, Spain, November (14) 15-16, 2018. Toledo
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The family influences of EO development in immigrant family businesses
2018 (English)In: Sustainable entrepreneurship: A win-win strategy for the future, Toledo, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper explores how family influences the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) process in immigrant family business. To fulfill the purpose, we employ inductive multiple case studies with in-depth interviews.  We rely on seven cases of immigrant entrepreneurs of Chinese, Icelandic, Turkish, Cameroonian, Mexican and Lebanese who established firms in Sweden. Our results suggest that EO development trajectories vary in regard to first and second immigrant entrepreneurs, low and high-tech sectors and host and home countries. Thus, family dynamics facilitates the development of entrepreneurial orientation over time through transforming, translating and transferring across generations and contexts. Our study indicates that, through family dynamics, EO is developed as a (1) transferring process of the founders’ proactiveness between the family in the home and host country; (2) translating process of risk-taking between the family companies in the home country to immigrant family company in the host country and (3) transforming process of innovativeness between the home and the host country.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Toledo: , 2018
Series
Research in Entrepreneurship and Small Business (RENT), ISSN 2219-5572
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16327 (URN)
Conference
Research in Entrepreneurship and Small Business, RENT XXXII, Toledo, Spain, November (14) 15-16, 2018
Available from: 2018-10-22 Created: 2018-10-22 Last updated: 2019-06-05Bibliographically approved
Boers, B. & Ljungkvist, T. (2017). A founder’s heritage: the development of psychological ownership. In: : . Paper presented at 13th Workshop on Family Firm Management Research Creativity and Family Businesses, Bilbao, Spain, May 25-27, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A founder’s heritage: the development of psychological ownership
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

ObjectivesIs a founder “leaving” an organization by selling it, or are there aspects of the founder left even though, the founder does not have a formal occupation or ownership in the organization?Will there be a legacy of the founder and how will this affect the psychological ownership? What is the founder’s heritage from a psychological ownership perspective?The purpose is to understand the consequences of a business sale of the founder and from a psychological ownership perspective.

Prior WorkDrawing on the work of psychological ownership and founder heritage, the work combines important literatures to shed light on an important empirical phenomenon, i.e. the exit of a founder/entrepreneur and its consequences for the organization.

ApproachThis study follows a single case study approach and draws on rich empirical material from semi-structured interviews and extensive archival data.

ResultsWe show how central activities are affected by a founder’s heritage over long time after the formal exit has taken place. We illustrate the development of a founder’s psychological ownership before and after he has formally sold the legal ownership.

Implications and ValueThe paper aims at contributing to the entrepreneurial and founder exit-literature by adding a process perspective. Unlike it is sometimes assumed in the entrepreneurship literature is an exit not necessarily a clear-cut and once and for all decision. The paper contributes also psychological ownership literature by highlighting its continuity after the formal sale of the legal ownership and its consequences for the organization.

Keywords
entrepreneurial founder exit, ownership and leadership change, organizational identity, founder heritage
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13561 (URN)
Conference
13th Workshop on Family Firm Management Research Creativity and Family Businesses, Bilbao, Spain, May 25-27, 2017
Available from: 2017-05-17 Created: 2017-05-17 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8337-3472

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