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Mårtensson, S., Knutsson, S., Hodges, E. A., Sherwood, G., Broström, A. & Björk, M. (2024). Development of caring behaviour in undergraduate nursing students participating in a caring behaviour course. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 38(1), 47-56
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of caring behaviour in undergraduate nursing students participating in a caring behaviour course
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2024 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 47-56Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In today's complex healthcare organisations there is an increasing recognition of the need to enhance care quality and patient safety. Nurses' competence in demonstrating caring behaviour during patient encounters affects how patients experience and participate in their care. Nurse educators are faced with the challenge of balancing the demand for increasingly complex knowledge and skills with facilitating students' abilities essential to becoming compassionate and caring nurses. Aim: The aim was to describe undergraduate nursing students' development of caring behaviour while participating in a caring behaviour course. Method: This pilot study used a quantitative observational design. At a university in Sweden, video-recorded observational data from twenty-five students were collected in the first and last weeks of a full-time five-week Caring Behaviour Course (the CBC). In total, 56-min video-recorded simulation interactions between a student and a standardised patient were coded by a credentialed coder using a timed-event sequential continuous coding method based on the Caring Behaviour Coding Scheme (the CBCS). The CBCS maps the five conceptual domains described in Swanson's Theory of Caring with related sub-domains that align with Swanson's qualities of the Compassionate Healer and the Competent Practitioner. The CBCS contains seventeen verbal and eight non-verbal behavioural codes, categorised as caring or non-caring. Results: Between the two simulations, most verbal caring behaviours increased, and most non-verbal caring behaviours decreased. Statistically significant differences between the simulations occurred in the sub-domains Avoiding assumptions and Performing competently/skilfully in the quality of the Competent Practitioner. Most observed caring behaviours aligned with the Compassionate Healer. Conclusion: Generally, the students' development of caring behaviours increased while participating in the CBC. Using a structured observational behavioural coding scheme can assist educators in assessing caring behaviour both in education and in practice, supporting caring as the universal foundation of nursing and a key to patient safety.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2024
Keywords
caring behaviour, nursing education, observational coding scheme, observational method, simulation, standardised patient, Swanson's theory of caring, adult, article, care behavior, clinical article, drug safety, education, female, human, male, nursing student, patient safety, physician, pilot study, quantitative analysis, Sweden, videorecording
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Wellbeing in long-term health problems (WeLHP)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-22979 (URN)10.1111/scs.13189 (DOI)001019278500001 ()37350361 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85162910262 (Scopus ID)
Note

CC BY 4.0

First published: 23 June 2023

Correspondence: Sophie Mårtensson, School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde, Box 408, SE-541 28, Skövde, Sweden. Email: sophie.martensson@his.se

This study was supported by School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University.

Available from: 2023-07-06 Created: 2023-07-06 Last updated: 2024-02-14Bibliographically approved
Mårtensson, S. K., Knutsson, S., Hodges, E. A., Sherwood, G., Broström, A. & Björk, M. (2022). Undergraduate Nursing Students’ Experiences of Learning Caring Using a Variety of Learning Didactics. International journal for human caring, 26(3), 145-158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Undergraduate Nursing Students’ Experiences of Learning Caring Using a Variety of Learning Didactics
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2022 (English)In: International journal for human caring, ISSN 1091-5710, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 145-158Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

This study examines undergraduate nursing students’ experiences of participating in a Caring Behavior Course using various learning didactics. Twenty-five students participated in one of five focus group interviews with data analyzed according to qualitative content analysis. The main theme to emerge, an insightful and sudden awakening that caring is not only theoretical words, was further explained with three themes and nine subthemes. The Caring Behavior Course demonstrates effective learning didactics to develop awareness of values that influence caring behaviors and can contribute to patient well-being, particularly relevant for the care challenges in the time of COVID-19 and beyond.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Publishing Company, 2022
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23535 (URN)10.20467/humancaring-d-21-00012 (DOI)2-s2.0-85138724469 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-01-15 Created: 2024-01-15 Last updated: 2024-01-22Bibliographically approved
Mårtensson, S., Hodges, E. A., Knutsson, S., Hjelm, C., Broström, A., Swanson, K. M. & Björk, M. (2020). Caring Behavior Coding Scheme based on Swanson’s Theory of Caring – development and testing among undergraduate nursing students. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 35(4), 1123-1133
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Caring Behavior Coding Scheme based on Swanson’s Theory of Caring – development and testing among undergraduate nursing students
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2020 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 1123-1133Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rationale

To maintain patients’ dignity and well-being and alleviate suffering, it is essential that healthcare providers engage in caring behaviours. Yet, every year patient boards receive an increasing number of complaints from patients and significant others regarding healthcare providers’ non-caring behaviours. Defining and measuring both verbal and nonverbal caring and non-caring behaviour in healthcare delivery is vital to address such complaints. However, no studies were found that incorporated a comprehensive theory of caring to code encounters between healthcare providers and patients.

Aim

The aim was to develop and test a Caring Behavior Coding Scheme based on Swanson’s Theory of Caring.

Method

An instrument development process was used for behavioural coding including observational data from thirty-eight video recordings collected in an undergraduate nursing course at a Swedish University. The observational data involved interactions between undergraduate nursing students and a standardised patient.

Result

The Caring Behavior Coding Scheme (the CBCS), contains seventeen verbal and eight nonverbal behavioural codes, categorised as caring and non-caring in accordance with Swanson’s Theory of Caring. Content and face validity were assessed. Timed-event sequential continuous coding was performed in INTERACT software. The coder achieved excellent agreement with the developed gold standard (k = 0.87) and excellent mean inter-rater reliability (k = 0.82). All domains in Swanson’s Theory of Caring were observed and coded in the interaction.

Discussion/Conclusion

The CBCS is a theory-based instrument that contributes to research on healthcare providers’ behavioural encounters. It uses verbal and nonverbal caring and non-caring behavioural codes to assess the alignment of both the theory and practice of caring. The CBCS can contribute to both development and measurement of interventions focused on improving healthcare providers’ caring behaviour with the intended outcome of patient well-being.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
behavioural coding, caring behaviour, observational methods, Swanson’s Theory of Caring, simulation, healthcare providers, undergraduate nursing student
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23536 (URN)10.1111/scs.12927 (DOI)000585037300001 ()33124708 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85094639968 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Jönköping University
Note

CC BY 4.0 DEED

This study was supported by School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Available from: 2024-01-15 Created: 2024-01-15 Last updated: 2024-01-22Bibliographically approved
Darcy, L., Björk, M., Knutsson, S., Granlund, M. & Enskär, K. (2016). Following Young Children's Health and Functioning in Everyday Life Through Their Cancer Trajectory. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 33(3), 173-189
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Following Young Children's Health and Functioning in Everyday Life Through Their Cancer Trajectory
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 173-189Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Knowledge of living with childhood cancer, through the trajectory, is sparse. Aim: The aim of this study was to follow young children's health and functioning in everyday life through their cancer trajectory. Methods: Data were gathered longitudinally from a group of 13 young children and their parents connected to a pediatric oncology unit in Sweden. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth structure was used to identify difficulties in health and functioning in everyday life, in interview and questionnaire data. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed to show patterns of difficulty over a 3-year period from diagnosis. Results: Difficulties experienced by children declined and changed over time. An increase in difficulties with personal interactions with others and access to and support from health care professionals was seen 2 to 3 years after diagnosis and start of treatment. Similar patterns are seen within individual children's trajectories in relation to diagnosis but individual patterns were seen for each child. Conclusions and Clinical Implications: Health care professionals need to plan for ongoing contact with school services and information and support pathways, beyond the treatment period. A person-centered philosophy of care is required throughout the cancer trajectory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2016
Keywords
young children, cancer, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth, ICF-CY, health, everyday life
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Woman, Child and Family (WomFam)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14216 (URN)10.1177/1043454215610489 (DOI)000373837100002 ()26655332 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84962691659 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-10-09 Created: 2017-10-09 Last updated: 2018-02-16Bibliographically approved
Björk, M., Sundler, A. J., Hallström, I. & Hammarlund, K. (2016). Like being covered in a wet and dark blanket: Parents' lived experiences of losing a child to cancer. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 25, 40-45
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Like being covered in a wet and dark blanket: Parents' lived experiences of losing a child to cancer
2016 (English)In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 25, p. 40-45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The aim of this study was to illuminate parents' lived experiences of losing a child to cancer. Method: Interviews and a narrative about parents' experiences of losing a child to cancer were gathered from six parents of children whom had participated in a longitudinal study across the child's illness trajectory. The analysis of the data was inspired by van Manen's hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Results: One essential theme emerged: Like being covered in a wet and dark blanket, as well as six related themes: Feeling conflicting emotions, Preparing for the moment of death, Continuing parenting after death, Recollecting and sharing memories, Working through the sorrow and New perspectives in life. Conclusion: There is a need for good palliative care. If not, there is a risk that the parent will perseverate and blame themselves for not being a good parent during the suffering child's last time in life. Meetings with the parents six months and two years after the child's death might facilitate healing through the grief process. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Parents, Paediatric cancer, Palliative care, Death, Lived experience, Nursing
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Woman, Child and Family (WomFam)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13269 (URN)10.1016/j.ejon.2016.08.007 (DOI)000389172500006 ()27865251 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84988644276 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-29 Created: 2016-12-29 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved
Enskär, K., Björk, M., Knutsson, S., Granlund, M., Darcy, L. & Huus, K. (2015). A Swedish perspective on nursing and psychosocial research in paediatric oncology: A literature review. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 19(3), 310-317
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Swedish perspective on nursing and psychosocial research in paediatric oncology: A literature review
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2015 (English)In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 310-317Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: A dramatic improvement in outcomes of survival rates of childhood cancer has been seen. Caring science research is central in providing skills and knowledge to the health care sector, but few overviews of the content of published research have been carried out. The aim of this review was to investigate the content and methodology of published studies in paediatric oncology relevant to caring science, and also to compare possible differences in content and method of the published studies from the nursing and psychosocial perspectives. Method: A systematic literature review was performed of 137 published articles on paediatric oncology relevant to caring science in Sweden. Results: The results show that most of the studies were descriptive or comparative ones with a quantitative design. Most of them focused on parents (43%) or children (28%). Most of the studies investigated wellbeing (88%), using questionnaires (54%) or interviews (38%). Several different measurement instruments had been used. While the results were often clearly presented, the clinical implications were more diffuse. The most acknowledged research fund was the Swedish Childhood Foundation (75%). Conclusions: To reflect the children' perspectives in paediatric oncology require that future researchers take on the challenge of including children (even young ones) in research. The use of a limited number of agreed measurement instruments is desirable. The biggest challenge for the future is to make a shift from explorative to intervention studies. There is an urgent need to transform research results into clinical practice. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Cancer, Caring science, Childhood, Literature review, Nursing, Psychosocial
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Woman, Child and Family (WomFam)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13586 (URN)10.1016/j.ejon.2014.10.013 (DOI)000357905900015 ()25529934 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84930931401 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-05-23 Created: 2017-05-23 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Sundler, A. J., Ekebergh, M. & Björk, M. (2015). Altering the Parenting Role: Parents' Experience of Supporting the Health and Well-Being of Their Adolescent Girls. Child and Youth Care Forum, 44(3), 419-432
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Altering the Parenting Role: Parents' Experience of Supporting the Health and Well-Being of Their Adolescent Girls
2015 (English)In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 419-432Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

In research the relationships between parents and their adolescent daughters have been viewed from problem oriented perspectives, usually exploring negative effects and health-related problems. Health and well-being are complex phenomena and knowledge is needed on how parents can support the health and well-being of their daughter.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to illuminate parents’ experiences of supporting the health and well-being of their adolescent girls.

Methods

A descriptive design with a phenomenological approach including interviews, individually or in group with ten mothers and five fathers was conducted.

Results

Supporting the health and well-being of adolescent girls was experienced as challenging. The parents needed to altering the parenting role: from being the one who had previously set the limits they needed to rethink and be available for support. In this process interplay, communication and trust were important to support the health and well-being of the girls in an efficient way. This meaning was further illuminated by four constituents: Balancing the need for control, maintaining a trusting relationship, interplay to facilitate their daughters’ transition to independence, and an ambiguous parenting role.

Conclusions

This study highlights the importance of parents being involved in the everyday life of their adolescent daughter to support her health and well-being. The parents’ ability to contribute to the health and well-being of their girl seemed in this study dependent on their ability to communicate and alter the parenting role with sensitivity to the lifeworld of the adolescent girl.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing; Woman, Child and Family (WomFam)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10340 (URN)10.1007/s10566-014-9287-5 (DOI)000352791800006 ()2-s2.0-84939981631 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-11-25 Created: 2014-12-04 Last updated: 2019-09-25Bibliographically approved
Enskär, K., Huus, K., Björk, M., Granlund, M., Darcy, L. & Knutsson, S. (2015). An Analytic Review of Clinical Implications From Nursing and Psychosocial Research Within Swedish Pediatric Oncology. Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, 30(4), 550-559
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Analytic Review of Clinical Implications From Nursing and Psychosocial Research Within Swedish Pediatric Oncology
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, ISSN 0882-5963, E-ISSN 1532-8449, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 550-559Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Medical sciences; Woman, Child and Family (WomFam)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10411 (URN)10.1016/j.pedn.2014.11.001 (DOI)000356182300007 ()25448474 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84930808995 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-12-17 Created: 2014-12-17 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Darcy, L., Enskär, K., Granlund, M., Simeonsson, R. J., Peterson, C. & Björk, M. (2015). Health and functioning in the everyday lives of young children with cancer: documenting with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY). Child Care Health and Development, 41(3), 475-482
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health and functioning in the everyday lives of young children with cancer: documenting with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY)
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2015 (English)In: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 475-482Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Health care focus is shifting for children from surviving childhood cancer to living with it on a daily basis. There is a need to document health and function in the everyday lives of young children with cancer using the multidimensional framework and language of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY).

AIMS: The aims of this study were (1) to document health and functioning in the everyday lives of young children with cancer using ICF-CY codes and (2) to identify a comprehensive code set that can aid clinical assessment.

METHOD: Interviews with children diagnosed with cancer and their parents, were transcribed, reviewed for content and coded to the ICF-CY using linking procedures.

RESULTS: A comprehensive code set (n = 70) for childhood cancer was identified. The majority of content identified to codes was related to activity and participation describing social relations with family, peers and professionals, preschool attendance and play, as well as issues related to support and independence.

CONCLUSIONS: The ICF-CY can be used to document the nature and range of characteristics and consequences of cancer experienced by children. The identified comprehensive code set could be helpful to health care professionals, parents and teachers in assessing and supporting young children's health and everyday life through the cancer trajectory. The comprehensive code set could be developed as a clinical assessment tool for those caring for young children with cancer. The universal language of the ICF-CY means that the utility of a clinical assessment tool based on identified codes can have wide reaching effects for the care of young children with cancer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2015
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Woman, Child and Family (WomFam)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-10416 (URN)10.1111/cch.12191 (DOI)000352790500016 ()25219405 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84927056502 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-12-17 Created: 2014-12-17 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Björk, M., Ekebergh, M. & Johansson Sundler, A. (2014). Striving to Make a Positive Difference: School Nurses’ Experiences of Promoting the Health and Well-Being of Adolescent Girls. Journal of School Nursing, 30(5), 358-365
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Striving to Make a Positive Difference: School Nurses’ Experiences of Promoting the Health and Well-Being of Adolescent Girls
2014 (English)In: Journal of School Nursing, ISSN 1059-8405, E-ISSN 1546-8364, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 358-365Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, school nurses are part of the School Health Service with the main objective of health promotion to support students’ health and attainment of educational goals. The aim in this phenomenological study was to illuminate the experiences of school nurses in promoting the health and well-being of adolescent girls. Seventeen school nurses were interviewed, both in groups and individually, to facilitate personal disclosure and expressions from their lived experiences. To achieve their goal of improving the health of adolescent girls, school nurses require flexibility in their approach and in endeavoring to make a positive difference they experience many challenges. This study concluded that school nurses can tactfully provide adolescent girls with knowledge and health guidance adjusted to individual needs and empowering the individual girl to participate in her own health process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2014
Keywords
teenage, youth, child, female, women, well-being, nursing
National Category
Health Sciences Nursing
Research subject
Medical sciences; Woman, Child and Family (WomFam)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-8608 (URN)10.1177/1059840513505223 (DOI)000342234900008 ()24051582 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84907140998 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-10-31 Created: 2013-10-31 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6419-2417

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