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Butler, S., Gamalielsson, J., Lundell, B., Brax, C., Mattsson, A., Gustavsson, T., . . . Lönroth, E. (2020). Maintaining interoperability in open source software: A case study of the Apache PDFBox project. Journal of Systems and Software, 159, Article ID 110452.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Maintaining interoperability in open source software: A case study of the Apache PDFBox project
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2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 159, artikel-id 110452Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Software interoperability is commonly achieved through the implementation of standards for communication protocols or data representation formats. Standards documents are often complex, difficult to interpret, and may contain errors and inconsistencies, which can lead to differing interpretations and implementations that inhibit interoperability. Through a case study of two years of activity in the Apache PDFBox project we examine day-to-day decisions made concerning implementation of the PDF specifications and standards in a community open source software (OSS) project. Thematic analysis is used to identify semantic themes describing the context of observed decisions concerning interoperability. Fundamental decision types are identified including emulation of the behaviour of dominant implementations and the extent to which to implement the PDF standards. Many factors influencing the decisions are related to the sustainability of the project itself, while other influences result from decisions made by external actors, including the developers of dependencies of PDFBox. This article contributes a fine grained perspective of decision-making about software interoperability by contributors to a community OSS project. The study identifies how decisions made support the continuing technical relevance of the software, and factors that motivate and constrain project activity. 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2020
Nyckelord
Community open source software, Portable document format, Software implementation, Software interoperability, Standards, Decision making, Interoperability, Semantics, Data representations, Fine grained, Open source software projects, Portable document formats, Project activities, Thematic analysis, Open source software
Nationell ämneskategori
Programvaruteknik Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik med samhällsvetenskaplig inriktning
Forskningsämne
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17883 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2019.110452 (DOI)000502883100013 ()2-s2.0-85074353150 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2019-11-14 Skapad: 2019-11-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-01-29Bibliografiskt granskad
Lundell, B., Gamalielsson, J. & Katz, A. (2019). Implementing IT Standards in Software: Challenges and Recommendations for Organisations Planning Software Development Covering IT Standards. European Journal of Law and Technology, 10(2)
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Implementing IT Standards in Software: Challenges and Recommendations for Organisations Planning Software Development Covering IT Standards
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: European Journal of Law and Technology, ISSN 2042-115X, E-ISSN 2042-115X, Vol. 10, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

To develop software based on standards, developers will often require patent licences for the patents which impinge on those standards. This paper reports on an investigation into acquiring patent licences required to implement three specific formal standards in software, namely ISO 32000-1 (a standard based on PDF 1.7), ISO/IEC 29500 (Office Open XML), and ISO 20022 (a standard for international financial business communication). In particular, the licences were requested in the context of implementation of those standards in open source software. We elaborate on the challenges of seeking to obtain those rights, providing examples. Findings show evidence of significant practical difficulty of obtaining the necessary licences, and we examine the implications of that evidence. We make specific recommendations both in terms of the steps which an organisation should take into account prior to considering implementing such a standard in software, as well as recommendations to changes in policy and practice aimed at reducing friction in implementing such standards in open source software.

Nyckelord
IT standards, Software development, Patent licences
Nationell ämneskategori
Data- och informationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
INF304 Öppna data/Öppna system; Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-18013 (URN)
Forskningsfinansiär
KK-stiftelsen
Tillgänglig från: 2019-12-16 Skapad: 2019-12-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-01-29Bibliografiskt granskad
Butler, S., Gamalielsson, J., Lundell, B., Brax, C., Sjöberg, J., Mattsson, A., . . . Lönroth, E. (2019). On Company Contributions to Community Open Source Software Projects. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
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2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The majority of contributions to community open source software (OSS) projects are made by practitioners acting on behalf of companies and other organisations. Previous research has addressed the motivations of both individuals and companies to engage with OSS projects. However, limited research has been undertaken that examines and explains the practical mechanisms or work practices used by companies and their developers to pursue their commercial and technical objectives when engaging with OSS projects. This research investigates the variety of work practices used in public communication channels by company contributors to engage with and contribute to eight community OSS projects. Through interviews with contributors to the eight projects we draw on their experiences and insights to explore the motivations to use particular methods of contribution. We find that companies utilise work practices for contributing to community projects which are congruent with the circumstances and their capabilities that support their short- and long-term needs. We also find that companies contribute to community OSS projects in ways that may not always be apparent from public sources, such as employing core project developers, making donations, and joining project steering committees in order to advance strategic interests. The factors influencing contributor work practices can be complex and are often dynamic arising from considerations such as company and project structure, as well as technical concerns and commercial strategies. The business context in which software created by the OSS project is deployed is also found to influence contributor work practices. CCBY

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019
Nyckelord
Collaboration, Companies, company contribution, Interviews, Licenses, Open source software, Software, Technological innovation, work practices, Computer software, Industry, Motivation, Open systems
Nationell ämneskategori
Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik med samhällsvetenskaplig inriktning Programvaruteknik
Forskningsämne
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17466 (URN)10.1109/TSE.2019.2919305 (DOI)2-s2.0-85068577239 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2019-07-22 Skapad: 2019-07-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-08Bibliografiskt granskad
Feller, J., Gamalielsson, J., Hill, B. M. & Robles, G. (Eds.). (2019). Proceedings of the Doctoral Consortium at the 15th International Symposium on Open Collaboration. Paper presented at Doctoral Consortium at the 15th International Symposium on Open Collaboration 2019, Skövde, Sweden, August 19, 2019. Skövde: University of Skövde
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Proceedings of the Doctoral Consortium at the 15th International Symposium on Open Collaboration
2019 (Engelska)Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Skövde: University of Skövde, 2019. s. 15
Serie
Skövde University Studies in Informatics, ISSN 1653-2325 ; 2019:1
Nyckelord
open collaboration, doctoral consortium, OpenSym, conference
Nationell ämneskategori
Data- och informationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
INF304 Öppna data/Öppna system; Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17744 (URN)978-91-983667-4-7 (ISBN)
Konferens
Doctoral Consortium at the 15th International Symposium on Open Collaboration 2019, Skövde, Sweden, August 19, 2019
Tillgänglig från: 2019-09-30 Skapad: 2019-09-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-01Bibliografiskt granskad
Robles, G., Gamalielsson, J. & Lundell, B. (2019). Setting Up Government 3.0 Solutions Based on Open Source Software: The Case of X-Road. In: Ida Lindgren, Marijn Janssen, Habin Lee, Andrea Polini, Manuel Pedro Rodríguez Bolívar, Hans Jochen Scholl, Efthimios Tambouris (Ed.), Electronic Government: 18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019, San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019, Proceedings. Paper presented at 18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019, San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019 (pp. 69-81). Cham: Springer
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Setting Up Government 3.0 Solutions Based on Open Source Software: The Case of X-Road
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Electronic Government: 18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019, San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Ida Lindgren, Marijn Janssen, Habin Lee, Andrea Polini, Manuel Pedro Rodríguez Bolívar, Hans Jochen Scholl, Efthimios Tambouris, Cham: Springer, 2019, s. 69-81Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Government 3.0, which builds on openness and transparency, sharing, increased communication and collaboration, government reorganization through integration and interoperability, and use of new technologies, is an emerging concept in eGovernance. However, few systems that qualify as Government 3.0 have been described in detail so far. And there is a lack of research on how governments can put in place such systems. This study investigates and characterizes an innovative eGovernment project, based on Open Source Software (OSS), that could be considered as an example of a Government 3.0 project. Therefore, we report from a case study of X-Road, an originally Estonian eGovernment project for creating a data sharing infrastructure, which today is also used in other countries. We present the main characteristics of X-Road from the point of view of Government 3.0, how the X-Road project is organized, compare its organization to other OSS projects, identify who contributes to the project, and point out what challenges are perceived by their stakeholders. We conclude offering some reflections on how X-Road and other Government 3.0 projects can benefit from OSS. 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Cham: Springer, 2019
Serie
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 11685
Nyckelord
Community, eGovernment, Government 3.0, Interoperability, Open Source Software, Platform, e-government, Roads and streets, Communication and collaborations, Data sharing infrastructure, E-governance, Road projects
Nationell ämneskategori
Programvaruteknik Data- och informationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-18124 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-27325-5_6 (DOI)2-s2.0-85077135273 (Scopus ID)978-3-030-27324-8 (ISBN)978-3-030-27325-5 (ISBN)
Konferens
18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019, San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019
Anmärkning

Also part of the Information Systems and Applications, incl. Internet/Web, and HCI book sub series (LNISA, volume 11685)

Tillgänglig från: 2020-01-10 Skapad: 2020-01-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-04-22Bibliografiskt granskad
Butler, S., Gamalielsson, J., Lundell, B., Jonsson, P., Sjöberg, J., Mattsson, A., . . . Lönroth, E. (2018). An Investigation of Work Practices Used by Companies Making Contributions to Established OSS Projects. In: ICSE-SEIP '18 Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice: . Paper presented at ICSE-SEIP ’18: 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice Track, Gothenburg, Sweden — May 27 - June 03, 2018 (pp. 201-210). New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>An Investigation of Work Practices Used by Companies Making Contributions to Established OSS Projects
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2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: ICSE-SEIP '18 Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, s. 201-210Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Professionals contribute to open source software (OSS) projects aspart of their employment. Previous research has addressed motivationsof individuals and the ways they engage with OSS projects.However, there is a lack of research which examines and explainswork practices used by companies in their engagement with projects.Work practices used by companies to contribute to five establishedOSS projects are investigated through examination of the actions ofemployees in public communication channels and draw on our experienceswhen analysing engagement with the same projects. Wefind that companies utilise work practices for contributing whichare congruent with the circumstances and their capabilities thatsupport their short and long term needs. We find that companiescontribute to OSS projects in different ways, such as employing coreproject developers, making donations, and joining project steeringcommittees in order to advance strategic interests.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018
Nyckelord
Open source software, company contribution, work practices
Nationell ämneskategori
Programvaruteknik
Forskningsämne
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15585 (URN)10.1145/3183519.3183531 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049698497 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-5659-6 (ISBN)
Konferens
ICSE-SEIP ’18: 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice Track, Gothenburg, Sweden — May 27 - June 03, 2018
Forskningsfinansiär
KK-stiftelsen
Tillgänglig från: 2018-06-14 Skapad: 2018-06-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-10-09Bibliografiskt granskad
Lundell, B., Gamalielsson, J. & Katz, A. (2018). On Challenges for Implementing ISO Standards in Software: Can Both Open and Closed Standards Be Implemented in Open Source Software? (1ed.). In: Kai Jakobs (Ed.), Corporate and Global Standardization Initiatives in Contemporary Society: (pp. 219-251). Hershey: IGI Global
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>On Challenges for Implementing ISO Standards in Software: Can Both Open and Closed Standards Be Implemented in Open Source Software?
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Corporate and Global Standardization Initiatives in Contemporary Society / [ed] Kai Jakobs, Hershey: IGI Global, 2018, 1, s. 219-251Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Over the years, the importance of open standards has been acknowledged in EU and national policies. Formal (e.g., ISO) standards are often referred to in software development and procurement. Use of formal (ISO) standards and to what extent ISO standards can be implemented in open source software is considered, with particular reference to patent licensing. It is shown that not all formal standards are open standards and that FRAND commitments may impose major challenges for use of such standards. Further policies and procedures set by standards setting organisations (SSOs) regarding the notification of standards-essential patents (SEPs) present challenges for organisations wishing to implement standards in software. This chapter elaborates implications and suggests ways of addressing the challenges identified. Use of formal standards may create barriers for implementation in open source software and inhibit an open and inclusive business-friendly ecosystem.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Hershey: IGI Global, 2018 Upplaga: 1
Serie
Advances in Human and Social Aspects of Technology, ISSN 2328-1316, E-ISSN 2328-1324
Nyckelord
Open Standards, Closed Standards, Open Source Software
Nationell ämneskategori
Data- och informationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Teknik; Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-14690 (URN)10.4018/978-1-5225-5320-5.ch010 (DOI)978-1-5225-5320-5 (ISBN)1-5225-5320-7 (ISBN)978-1-5225-5321-2 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2018-01-26 Skapad: 2018-01-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-12-16Bibliografiskt granskad
Lundell, B. & Gamalielsson, J. (2018). Sustainable digitalisation through different dimensions of openness: how can lock-in, interoperability, and long-term maintenance of IT systems be addressed?. In: OpenSym '18: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Open Collaboration. Paper presented at OpenSym '18, 14th International Symposium on Open Collaboration, Paris, France, August 22-24, 2018 (pp. 3:1-3:10). New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Article ID 3.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Sustainable digitalisation through different dimensions of openness: how can lock-in, interoperability, and long-term maintenance of IT systems be addressed?
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: OpenSym '18: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Open Collaboration, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, s. 3:1-3:10, artikel-id 3Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Lock-in, interoperability, and long-term maintenance are three fundamental challenges that need to be addressed by any organisation involved in development, use and procurement of IT systems. This paper clarifies fundamental concepts and key dimensions of openness and provides examples of work-practices and recommendations for achieving sustainable digitalisation through addressing the fundamental challenges. Specifically, there are three main contributions. First, the concepts open standard, open source software, and open content are clarified and elaborated. Second, the associated three dimensions standard, software, and content are elaborated through examples of how different combinations along the dimensions can enable and inhibit sustainable digitalisation when IT-systems are developed and procured. Third, work-practices used by public sector organisations in specific projects for development and procurement of IT-systems are elaborated with the view to discuss how the three fundamental challenges are being addressed and provide guidance for how organisations can achieve a sustainable digitalisation.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018
Nyckelord
IT systems, interoperability, lock-in, long-term maintenance, open content, open source, open standard
Nationell ämneskategori
Data- och informationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16037 (URN)10.1145/3233391.3233527 (DOI)2-s2.0-85056696228 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-5936-8 (ISBN)
Konferens
OpenSym '18, 14th International Symposium on Open Collaboration, Paris, France, August 22-24, 2018
Forskningsfinansiär
KK-stiftelsen
Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-06 Skapad: 2018-08-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-02-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Lundell, B., Gamalielsson, J., Tengblad, S., Hooshyar Yousefi, B., Fischer, T., Johansson, G., . . . Lönroth, E. (2017). Addressing Lock-in, Interoperability, and Long-Term Maintenance Challenges Through Open Source: How Can Companies Strategically Use Open Source?. In: Federico Balaguer, Roberto Di Cosmo, Alejandra Garrido, Fabio Kon, Gregorio Robles, Stefano Zacchiroli (Ed.), Open Source Systems: Towards Robust Practices. Paper presented at 13th IFIP WG 2.13 International Conference on Open Source Systems, OSS 2017; Buenos Aires; Argentina; 22 May 2017 through 23 May 2017; Code 191819 (pp. 80-88). Cham: Springer
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Addressing Lock-in, Interoperability, and Long-Term Maintenance Challenges Through Open Source: How Can Companies Strategically Use Open Source?
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2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Open Source Systems: Towards Robust Practices / [ed] Federico Balaguer, Roberto Di Cosmo, Alejandra Garrido, Fabio Kon, Gregorio Robles, Stefano Zacchiroli, Cham: Springer, 2017, s. 80-88Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

This industry paper reports on how strategic use of open source in company contexts can provide effective support for addressing the fundamental challenges of lock-in, interoperability, and longevity of software and associated digital assets. The fundamental challenges and an overview of an ongoing collaborative research project are presented. Through a conceptual model for open source usage in company contexts we characterise how companies engage with open source and elaborate on how the fundamental challenges can be effectively addressed through open source usage in company contexts.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Cham: Springer, 2017
Serie
IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, ISSN 1868-4238, E-ISSN 1868-422X ; 496
Nationell ämneskategori
Data- och informationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG); Medarbetarskap och organisatorisk resiliens (FORE); Knowledge and Innovation Management (KIM); INF304 Öppna data/Öppna system
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13610 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-57735-7_9 (DOI)2-s2.0-85019625844 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-57734-0 (ISBN)978-3-319-57735-7 (ISBN)
Konferens
13th IFIP WG 2.13 International Conference on Open Source Systems, OSS 2017; Buenos Aires; Argentina; 22 May 2017 through 23 May 2017; Code 191819
Forskningsfinansiär
KK-stiftelsen
Tillgänglig från: 2017-06-01 Skapad: 2017-06-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-07-15Bibliografiskt granskad
Lundell, B. & Gamalielsson, J. (2017). Collaborative research involving small companies: Experiences from co-production of knowledge for research and practice through use of an action case approach. In: SER&IP '17 Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Software Engineering Research and Industrial Practice: . Paper presented at 2017 IEEE/ACM 4th International Workshop on Software Engineering Research and Industrial Practice (SER&IP), May 21, 2017 - May 21, 2017, Buenes Aires, Argentina (pp. 24-30). IEEE Press
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Collaborative research involving small companies: Experiences from co-production of knowledge for research and practice through use of an action case approach
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: SER&IP '17 Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Software Engineering Research and Industrial Practice, IEEE Press, 2017, s. 24-30Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

In order for the conduct of collaborative research projects and their outcomes to be valuable for both research and practice it is necessary to successfully address a number of sociotechnical challenges in the field of software engineering. Collaborative research involving researchers and practitionersrelated to software systems have utilised a variety of different research approaches. Adoption of an effective research approach for the situation at hand in a research project may significantly contribute to project success. Experiences from collaborative research show that action case can be an appropriate choice of approach for addressing socio-technical challenges in the software domain, which is appealing to both practitioners and researchers. This paper elaborates on a number of challenges for successful conduct of collaborative research projects and reports on experiences from use of action case as a research approach for conduct of collaborative research related to software systems.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE Press, 2017
Nationell ämneskategori
Data- och informationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG); INF304 Öppna data/Öppna system
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-13611 (URN)10.1109/SER-IP.2017..4 (DOI)000425916600005 ()2-s2.0-85026741813 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-2797-6 (ISBN)978-1-5386-2798-3 (ISBN)
Konferens
2017 IEEE/ACM 4th International Workshop on Software Engineering Research and Industrial Practice (SER&IP), May 21, 2017 - May 21, 2017, Buenes Aires, Argentina
Forskningsfinansiär
KK-stiftelsen
Tillgänglig från: 2017-06-01 Skapad: 2017-06-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-11-16Bibliografiskt granskad
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