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Atif, Y., Kharrazi, S., Ding, J. & Andler, S. F. (2020). Internet of Things data analytics for parking availability prediction and guidance. European transactions on telecommunications
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Internet of Things data analytics for parking availability prediction and guidance
2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: European transactions on telecommunications, ISSN 1124-318X, E-ISSN 2161-3915Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Cutting-edge sensors and devices are increasingly deployed within urban areas to make-up the fabric of transmission control protocol/internet protocol con- nectivity driven by Internet of Things (IoT). This immersion into physical urban environments creates new data streams, which could be exploited to deliver novel cloud-based services. Connected vehicles and road-infrastructure data are leveraged in this article to build applications that alleviate notorious parking and induced traffic-congestion issues. To optimize the utility of parking lots, our proposed SmartPark algorithm employs a discrete Markov-chain model to demystify the future state of a parking lot, by the time a vehicle is expected to reach it. The algorithm features three modular sections. First, a search pro- cess is triggered to identify the expected arrival-time periods to all parking lots in the targeted central business district (CBD) area. This process utilizes smart-pole data streams reporting congestion rates across parking area junc- tions. Then, a predictive analytics phase uses consolidated historical data about past parking dynamics to infer a state-transition matrix, showing the transfor- mation of available spots in a parking lot over short periods of time. Finally, this matrix is projected against similar future seasonal periods to figure out the actual vacancy-expectation of a lot. The performance evaluation over an actual busy CBD area in Stockholm (Sweden) shows increased scalability capa- bilities, when further parking resources are made available, compared to a baseline case algorithm. Using standard urban-mobility simulation packages, the traffic-congestion-aware SmartPark is also shown to minimize the journey duration to the selected parking lot while maximizing the chances to find an available spot at the selected lot.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2020
Nyckelord
smart parking, stochastic model, markov chain, internet of things, sumo, data analytics, autonomous cars
Nationell ämneskategori
Transportteknik och logistik Data- och informationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Distribuerade realtidssystem (DRTS)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-18081 (URN)10.1002/ett.3862 (DOI)000506093200001 ()
Projekt
SmartPark
Forskningsfinansiär
Vinnova, 2017-03028
Tillgänglig från: 2020-01-10 Skapad: 2020-01-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-01-16Bibliografiskt granskad
Jiang, Y., Atif, Y., Ding, J. & Wang, W. (2019). A Semantic Framework With Humans in the Loop for Vulnerability-Assessment in Cyber-Physical Production Systems. In: : . Paper presented at The 14th International Conference on Risks and Security of Internet and Systems, Hammamet, Tunisia, October 29-31, 2019.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Semantic Framework With Humans in the Loop for Vulnerability-Assessment in Cyber-Physical Production Systems
2019 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Criticalmanufacturingprocessesinsmartnetworkedsystems such as Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPSs) typically require guaranteed quality-of-service performances, which is supported by cyber- security management. Currently, most existing vulnerability-assessment techniques mostly rely on only the security department due to limited communication between di↵erent working groups. This poses a limitation to the security management of CPPSs, as malicious operations may use new exploits that occur between successive analysis milestones or across departmental managerial boundaries. Thus, it is important to study and analyse CPPS networks’ security, in terms of vulnerability analysis that accounts for humans in the production process loop, to prevent potential threats to infiltrate through cross-layer gaps and to reduce the magnitude of their impact. We propose a semantic framework that supports the col- laboration between di↵erent actors in the production process, to improve situation awareness for cyberthreats prevention. Stakeholders with dif- ferent expertise are contributing to vulnerability assessment, which can be further combined with attack-scenario analysis to provide more prac- tical analysis. In doing so, we show through a case study evaluation how our proposed framework leverages crucial relationships between vulner- abilities, threats and attacks, in order to narrow further the risk-window induced by discoverable vulnerabilities.

Nyckelord
Cyber-Physical Production System Security, Human-in-the-Loop, Vulnerability Assessment, Semantic Model, Reference Model
Nationell ämneskategori
Inbäddad systemteknik Annan elektroteknik och elektronik Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik Människa-datorinteraktion (interaktionsdesign)
Forskningsämne
Distribuerade realtidssystem (DRTS); Produktion och automatiseringsteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17754 (URN)
Konferens
The 14th International Conference on Risks and Security of Internet and Systems, Hammamet, Tunisia, October 29-31, 2019
Projekt
ELVIRA
Anmärkning

EU ISF Project A431.678/2016 ELVIRA

Tillgänglig från: 2019-10-03 Skapad: 2019-10-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-07
Jiang, Y., Atif, Y. & Ding, J. (2019). Cyber-Physical Systems Security Based on A Cross-Linked and Correlated Vulnerability Database. In: Simin Nadjm-Tehrani (Ed.), Critical Information Infrastructures Security: 14th International Conference, CRITIS 2019, Linköping, Sweden, September 23–25, 2019, Revised Selected Papers. Paper presented at the 14th International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, Linköping, Sweden, 23-25 September 2019 (pp. 71-82). Springer, 11777
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Cyber-Physical Systems Security Based on A Cross-Linked and Correlated Vulnerability Database
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Critical Information Infrastructures Security: 14th International Conference, CRITIS 2019, Linköping, Sweden, September 23–25, 2019, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Simin Nadjm-Tehrani, Springer, 2019, Vol. 11777, s. 71-82Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Recent advances in data analytics prompt dynamic datadriven vulnerability assessments whereby data contained from vulnerabilityalert repositories as well as from Cyber-physical System (CPS) layer networks and standardised enumerations. Yet, current vulnerability assessment processes are mostly conducted manually. However, the huge volume of scanned data requires substantial information processing and analytical reasoning, which could not be satisfied considering the imprecision of manual vulnerability analysis. In this paper, we propose to employ a cross-linked and correlated database to collect, extract, filter and visualise vulnerability data across multiple existing repositories, whereby CPS vulnerability information is inferred. Based on our locally-updated database, we provide an in-depth case study on gathered CPS vulnerability data, to explore the trends of CPS vulnerability. In doing so, we aim to support a higher level of automation in vulnerability awareness and back risk-analysis exercises in critical infrastructures (CIs) protection.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Springer, 2019
Serie
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 11777
Nyckelord
Cyber-Physical System Security, Vulnerability Analysis, Correlated Database Management, SCADA
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan elektroteknik och elektronik Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Forskningsämne
Distribuerade realtidssystem (DRTS)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17753 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-37670-3_6 (DOI)978-3-030-37669-7 (ISBN)978-3-030-37670-3 (ISBN)
Konferens
the 14th International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, Linköping, Sweden, 23-25 September 2019
Projekt
EU ISF Project A431.678/2016 ELVIRA
Anmärkning

Also part of the Security and Cryptology book sub series (LNSC, volume 11777)

Funded by EU Internal Security Funds

Tillgänglig från: 2019-10-03 Skapad: 2019-10-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-12-27Bibliografiskt granskad
Ye, X., Backlund, P., Ding, J. & Ning, H. (2019). Fidelity in Simulation-based Serious Games. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Fidelity in Simulation-based Serious Games
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, ISSN 1939-1382, E-ISSN 1939-1382Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The extensive use of Simulation-based Serious Games (SSGs) has made a revolution in educational techniques. As a potentially significant feature for SSG design and evaluation, the term fidelity (the similarity between an SSG and its real reference) emerges and attracts increasing attention. The study of fidelity not only benefits the design, development, and analysis of an SSG with the consideration of improving the learning effect but also contributes to the investment reduction of an SSG. However, the term fidelity is used inconsistently in current literature. The introduction of new technologies (e.g. virtual reality) and the blend of multiform SSGs also facilitate the extension of fidelity with new connotations. All lead to confusing concepts and vague measure metrics. Besides, the relationship between fidelity and learning effect is still uncertain. A new vision and a comprehensive conceptual framework of fidelity for more general applications are in need. In this paper, further exploration and discussion of these issues in relation to fidelity of SSGs are presented through a systematic review. A general conceptual framework considering both aspects of the SSG system itself and the learners is developed and applied to analyze fidelity in SSGs. Based on that, a discussion on fidelity related issues of SSG design and development is presented.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE, 2019
Nyckelord
fidelity, simulation, serious games, learning, educational games, virtual reality
Nationell ämneskategori
Data- och informationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Interaction Lab (ILAB); Distribuerade realtidssystem (DRTS)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17735 (URN)10.1109/TLT.2019.2913408 (DOI)
Forskningsfinansiär
Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak, NYPS 20200428
Tillgänglig från: 2019-09-27 Skapad: 2019-09-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-08Bibliografiskt granskad
Jiang, Y., Jeusfeld, M. A., Atif, Y., Ding, J., Brax, C. & Nero, E. (2018). A Language and Repository for Cyber Security of Smart Grids. In: Selmin Nurcan, Pontus Johnson (Ed.), 2018 IEEE 22nd International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC 2018): . Paper presented at 2018 IEEE 22nd International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC), Stockholm, Sweden, October 16-19, 2018 (pp. 164-170). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Language and Repository for Cyber Security of Smart Grids
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2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: 2018 IEEE 22nd International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC 2018) / [ed] Selmin Nurcan, Pontus Johnson, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE, 2018, s. 164-170Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Power grids form the central critical infrastructure in all developed economies. Disruptions of power supply can cause major effects on the economy and the livelihood of citizens. At the same time, power grids are being targeted by sophisticated cyber attacks. To counter these threats, we propose a domain-specific language and a repository to represent power grids and related IT components that control the power grid. We apply our tool to a standard example used in the literature to assess its expressiveness.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE, 2018
Serie
Proceedings (IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference), ISSN 2325-6354, E-ISSN 2325-6362
Nyckelord
cyber security, enterprise architecture, domain-specific language, taxonomy
Nationell ämneskategori
Data- och informationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Distribuerade realtidssystem (DRTS); Informationssystem (IS)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16403 (URN)10.1109/EDOC.2018.00029 (DOI)2-s2.0-85059076918 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-4139-2 (ISBN)
Konferens
2018 IEEE 22nd International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC), Stockholm, Sweden, October 16-19, 2018
Projekt
EU ISF Project A431.678/2016 ELVIRA
Anmärkning

Funded by EU Internal Security Funds

Tillgänglig från: 2018-11-16 Skapad: 2018-11-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-02-08Bibliografiskt granskad
Jiang, Y., Atif, Y. & Ding, J. (2018). Agent Based Testbed Design for Cyber Vulnerability Assessment in Smart-Grids. In: : . Paper presented at CySeP summer school 2018/SWITIS, CySeP, 2018.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Agent Based Testbed Design for Cyber Vulnerability Assessment in Smart-Grids
2018 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Poster (med eller utan abstract) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Smart grid employs Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure and network connectivity to optimize efficiency and deliver new functionalities. This evolution is associated with an increased risk for cybersecurity threats that may hamper smart grid operations. Power utility providers need tools for assessing risk of prevailing cyberthreats over ICT infrastructures. The need for frameworks to guide the development of these tools is essential to define and reveal vulnerability analysis indicators. We propose a data-driven approach for designing testbeds to allow the simulation of cyberattacks in order to evaluate the vulnerability and the impact of cyber threat attacks. The proposed framework uses data reported from multiple smart grid components at different smart grid architecture layers, including physical, control, and cyber layers. The multi-agent based framework proposed in this paper would analyze the conglomeration of these data reports to assert malicious attacks.

Nationell ämneskategori
Elektroteknik och elektronik
Forskningsämne
INF303 Informationssäkerhet; Distribuerade realtidssystem (DRTS)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16069 (URN)
Konferens
CySeP summer school 2018/SWITIS, CySeP, 2018
Projekt
ELVIRA (http://www.his.se/en/Research/informatics/Distributed-Real-Time-Systems/Infrastructure-resilience/)
Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-22 Skapad: 2018-08-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-11-21Bibliografiskt granskad
Jiang, Y., Ding, J., Atif, Y., Jeusfeld, M., Andler, S., Lindström, B., . . . Haglund, D. (2018). Complex Dependencies Analysis: Technical Description of Complex Dependencies in Critical Infrastructures, i.e. Smart Grids. Work Package 2.1 of the ELVIRA Project. Skövde: University of Skövde
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Complex Dependencies Analysis: Technical Description of Complex Dependencies in Critical Infrastructures, i.e. Smart Grids. Work Package 2.1 of the ELVIRA Project
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2018 (Engelska)Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

This document reports a technical description of ELVIRA project results obtained as part of Work-package 2.1 entitled “Complex Dependencies Analysis”. In this technical report, we review attempts in recent researches where connections are regarded as influencing factors to  IT systems monitoring critical infrastructure, based on which potential dependencies and resulting disturbances are identified and categorized. Each kind of dependence has been discussed based on our own entity based model. Among those dependencies, logical and functional connections have been analysed with more details on modelling and simulation techniques.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Skövde: University of Skövde, 2018. s. 22
Serie
IIT Technical Reports ; HS-IIT-TR-18-003
Nyckelord
Dependencies, Interdependencies, Modelling and Simulation, Influence Factors
Nationell ämneskategori
Data- och informationsvetenskap Inbäddad systemteknik
Forskningsämne
Distribuerade realtidssystem (DRTS); Informationssystem (IS)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15114 (URN)
Projekt
ELVIRA
Anmärkning

HS-IIT-TR-18-003 This is a technical report related to the ELVIRA project www.his.se/elvira

Tillgänglig från: 2018-05-02 Skapad: 2018-05-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-03-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Atif, Y., Jiang, Y., Jeusfeld, M. A., Ding, J., Lindström, B., Andler, S. F., . . . Lindström, B. (2018). Cyber-threat analysis for Cyber-Physical Systems: Technical report for Package 4, Activity 3 of ELVIRA project. Skövde: University of Skövde
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Cyber-threat analysis for Cyber-Physical Systems: Technical report for Package 4, Activity 3 of ELVIRA project
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2018 (Engelska)Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Smart grid employs ICT infrastructure and network connectivity to optimize efficiency and deliver new functionalities. This evolu- tion is associated with an increased risk for cybersecurity threats that may hamper smart grid operations. Power utility providers need tools for assessing risk of prevailing cyberthreats over ICT infrastructures. The need for frameworks to guide the develop- ment of these tools is essential to define and reveal vulnerability analysis indicators. We propose a data-driven approach for design- ing testbeds to evaluate the vulnerability of cyberphysical systems against cyberthreats. The proposed framework uses data reported from multiple components of cyberphysical system architecture layers, including physical, control, and cyber layers. At the phys- ical layer, we consider component inventory and related physi- cal flows. At the control level, we consider control data, such as SCADA data flows in industrial and critical infrastructure control systems. Finally, at the cyber layer level, we consider existing secu- rity and monitoring data from cyber-incident event management tools, which are increasingly embedded into the control fabrics of cyberphysical systems.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Skövde: University of Skövde, 2018. s. 18
Serie
IIT Technical Reports ; HS-IIT-TR-18-004
Nyckelord
vulnerability analysis, cyber-threats, cyberphysical systems, clustering, multiagent systems
Nationell ämneskategori
Data- och informationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Distribuerade realtidssystem (DRTS); Informationssystem (IS)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16092 (URN)
Projekt
This research has been supported in part by the EU ISF Project A431.678/2016 ELVIRA (Threat modeling and resilience of critical infrastructures), coordinated by Polismyndigheten/Sweden
Anmärkning

I publikationen: HS-IIT-18-004

Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-29 Skapad: 2018-08-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-02-18Bibliografiskt granskad
Jiang, Y., Atif, Y. & Ding, J. (2018). Data Fusion Framework for Cyber Vulnerability Assessment in Smart Grid.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Data Fusion Framework for Cyber Vulnerability Assessment in Smart Grid
2018 (Engelska)Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Smart grid adopts ICT to enhance power-delivery management. However, these advanced technologies also introduce an increasing amount of cyber threats. Cyber threats occur because of vulnerabilities throughout smart-grid layers. Each layer is distinguished by typical data flows. For example, power-data stream flows along the physical layer; command data are pushed to and pulled from sensor-control devices, such as RTUs and PLCs. Vulnerabilities expose these data flows to cyber threat via communication networks, such as local control network, vendor network, corporate network and the wider internet. Thus, these data could be used to analyse vulnerabilities against cyber threats. After data collection, data analysis and modelling techniques would be used for vulnerability assessment.

Nationell ämneskategori
Elektroteknik och elektronik
Forskningsämne
Distribuerade realtidssystem (DRTS); INF303 Informationssäkerhet
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16070 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-22 Skapad: 2018-08-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-09-10Bibliografiskt granskad
Atif, Y., Jiang, Y., Lindström, B., Ding, J., Jeusfeld, M., Andler, S., . . . Haglund, D. (2018). Multi-agent Systems for Power Grid Monitoring: Technical report for Package 4.1 of ELVIRA project. Skövde: University of Skövde
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Multi-agent Systems for Power Grid Monitoring: Technical report for Package 4.1 of ELVIRA project
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2018 (Engelska)Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

This document reports a technical description of ELVIRA project results obtained as part of Work- package 4.1 entitled “Multi-agent systems for power Grid monitoring”. ELVIRA project is a collaboration between researchers in School of IT at University of Skövde and Combitech Technical Consulting Company in Sweden, with the aim to design, develop and test a testbed simulator for critical infrastructures cybersecurity. This report outlines intelligent approaches that continuously analyze data flows generated by Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, which monitor contemporary power grid infrastructures. However, cybersecurity threats and security mechanisms cannot be analyzed and tested on actual systems, and thus testbed simulators are necessary to assess vulnerabilities and evaluate the infrastructure resilience against cyberattacks. This report suggests an agent-based model to simulate SCADA- like cyber-components behaviour when facing cyber-infection in order to experiment and test intelligent mitigation mechanisms. 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Skövde: University of Skövde, 2018. s. 16
Serie
IIT Technical Reports ; HS-IIT-TR-18-002
Nyckelord
Smart grid security, Agent model, Multi-agent system
Nationell ämneskategori
Data- och informationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Distribuerade realtidssystem (DRTS); Informationssystem (IS)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15111 (URN)
Projekt
Elvira project funded by EU Internal Security Fund (ISF) A431.678-2016
Anmärkning

HS-IIT-TR-18-002

Tillgänglig från: 2018-05-02 Skapad: 2018-05-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-03-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Organisationer
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8927-0968

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