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Gamalielsson, J., Lundell, B., Brax, C., Persson, T., Mattsson, A., Gustavsson, T. & Feist, J. (2024). Open Source Software reference implementations for standards issued by different standards setting organisations: availability, perceptions and practices. Journal of Standardisation, 3(2), Article ID 1.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Open Source Software reference implementations for standards issued by different standards setting organisations: availability, perceptions and practices
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2024 (English)In: Journal of Standardisation, ISSN 2772-9249, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Software reference implementations of ICT standards have an important role for verifying that a standard is implementable, supporting interoperability testing among other implementations, and providing feedback to the standard development process. Providing reference implementations and widely used implementations of a standard as Open Source Software promotes wide deployment in software systems, interoperability, longevity of systems and associated digital assets, and avoidance of different lock-in effects. In this paper results are reported on the availability of, and perceptions and practices concerning, reference implementations and widely deployed implementations provided as Open Source Software for standards issued by different standards setting organisations. Specifically, findings draw from observations and analyses related to software implementations for identified standards and policy statements, issued by ETSI, IEC, IEEE, IETF, ISO, ITU-T, OASIS, and W3C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TU Delft Open, 2024
Keywords
ICT standards, Reference implementations, Open Source Software, Standards setting organisations
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science Information Systems
Research subject
INF304 Open Source; Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23663 (URN)10.59490/jos.2024.7140 (DOI)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

CC BY 4.0 DEED

Corresponding author: jonas.gamalielsson@his.se

This research has been financially supported by the Swedish Knowledge Foundation (KK-stiftelsen) and participating partner organisations in the SUDO project.

Available from: 2024-03-19 Created: 2024-03-19 Last updated: 2024-03-20Bibliographically approved
Gamalielsson, J., Lundell, B., Brax, C., Persson, T., Mattsson, A., Gustavsson, T. & Feist, J. (2023). On availability of Open Source Software reference implementations for standards issued by different standards setting organisations. In: Kai Jakobs (Ed.), Joint Proceedings EURAS & SIIT 2023: (Responsible) Standardisation for Smart Systems. Paper presented at 27th EURAS Annual Standardisation Conference & 12th International Conference on Standardisation and Innovation in Information Technology (SIIT), 28 - 30 June 2023, Aachen, Germany (pp. 97-116). Aachen: Verlag Mainz
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On availability of Open Source Software reference implementations for standards issued by different standards setting organisations
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2023 (English)In: Joint Proceedings EURAS & SIIT 2023: (Responsible) Standardisation for Smart Systems / [ed] Kai Jakobs, Aachen: Verlag Mainz , 2023, p. 97-116Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Software reference implementations of ICT standards have an important role for verifying that a standard is implementable, supporting interoperability testing among other implementations, and providing feedback to the standard development process. Providing reference implementations and widely used implementations of a standard as Open Source Software also promotes wide deployment in software systems, avoidance of different lock-in effects, interoperability, and longevity of systems and associated digital assets. In this paper results are reported on the availability of reference implementations and widely deployed implementations provided as Open Source Software for standards issued by different standards setting organisations. Specifically, findings draw from observations and analyses related to software implementations for identified standards issued by ETSI, IEC, IEEE, IETF, ISO, ITU-T, OASIS, and W3C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aachen: Verlag Mainz, 2023
Series
EURAS contributions to standardisation research ; 18
Keywords
Open source software, reference implementations, standard setting organisations
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-23328 (URN)978-3-95886-491-7 (ISBN)3-95886-491-0 (ISBN)
Conference
27th EURAS Annual Standardisation Conference & 12th International Conference on Standardisation and Innovation in Information Technology (SIIT), 28 - 30 June 2023, Aachen, Germany
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2023-10-25 Created: 2023-10-25 Last updated: 2023-10-25Bibliographically approved
Butler, S., Gamalielsson, J., Lundell, B., Brax, C., Mattsson, A., Gustavsson, T., . . . Lönroth, E. (2023). On business adoption and use of reproducible builds for open and closed source software. Software quality journal, 31(3), 687-719
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On business adoption and use of reproducible builds for open and closed source software
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2023 (English)In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 687-719Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reproducible builds (R-Bs) are software engineering practices that reliably create bit-for-bit identical binary executable files from specified source code. R-Bs are applied in someopen source software (OSS) projects and distributions to allow verification that the distrib-uted binary has been built from the released source code. The use of R-Bs has been advo-cated in software maintenance and R-Bs are applied in the development of some OSS secu-rity applications. Nonetheless, industry application of R-Bs appears limited, and we seekto understand whether awareness is low or if significant technical and business reasonsprevent wider adoption. Through interviews with software practitioners and business man-agers, this study explores the utility of applying R-Bs in businesses in the primary and sec-ondary software sectors and the business and technical reasons supporting their adoption.We find businesses use R-Bs in the safety-critical and security domains, and R-Bs are valu-able for traceability and support collaborative software development. We also found thatR-Bs are valued as engineering processes and are seen as a badge of software quality, butwithout a tangible value proposition. There are good engineering reasons to use R-Bs inindustrial software development, and the principle of establishing correspondence betweensource code and binary offers opportunities for the development of further applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2023
Keywords
Reproducible builds, Software integrity, Software engineering, Open source software
National Category
Software Engineering
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-22091 (URN)10.1007/s11219-022-09607-z (DOI)000889385000001 ()2-s2.0-85143160581 (Scopus ID)
Funder
University of SkövdeKnowledge Foundation
Note

CC BY 4.0

Published: 29 November 2022

Simon Butler simon.butler@his.se

Correction in: Software Quality Journal. doi:10.1007/s11219-024-09664-6

Open access funding provided by University of Skövde. This research has been financially supported by the Swedish Knowledge Foundation (KK-stiftelsen) and participating partner organisations in the LIM-IT project.

© 2022 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Part of Springer Nature.

Available from: 2022-11-30 Created: 2022-11-30 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Butler, S., Gamalielsson, J., Lundell, B., Brax, C., Persson, T., Mattsson, A., . . . Öberg, J. (2022). An Exploration of Openness in Hardware and Software Through Implementation of a RISC-V Based Desktop Computer. In: Gregorio Robles; Amel Charleux; Igor Steinmacher; Javier Arroyo; Antonio Balderas; Gemma Catolino; Alexandre Decan; Francisco Martín-Rico; Amit Kumar Verma (Ed.), OpenSym '22: Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Open Collaboration. Paper presented at OpenSym 2022: The 18th International Symposium on Open Collaboration, Madrid, Spain, September 7 - 9, 2022. New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Article ID 4.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Exploration of Openness in Hardware and Software Through Implementation of a RISC-V Based Desktop Computer
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2022 (English)In: OpenSym '22: Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Open Collaboration / [ed] Gregorio Robles; Amel Charleux; Igor Steinmacher; Javier Arroyo; Antonio Balderas; Gemma Catolino; Alexandre Decan; Francisco Martín-Rico; Amit Kumar Verma, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022, article id 4Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Open hardware and open source software platforms bring benefits to both implementers and users in the form of system adaptability and maintainability, and through the avoidance of lock-in, for example. Development of the \riscv\ Instruction Set Architecture and processors during the last ten years has made the implementation of a desktop computer using open hardware, including open processors, and open source software an approaching possibility. We use the SiFive Unmatched development board and Ubuntu Linux, and the recorded experiences of system builders using the Unmatched board to explore the extent to which it is possible to create an open desktop computer. The work identifies current limitations to implementing an open computer system, which lie mainly at the interface between the operating system and hardware components. Potential solutions to the challenges uncovered are proposed, including greater consideration of openness during the early stages of product design. A further contribution is made by an account of the synergies arising from open collaboration in a private-collective innovation process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022
National Category
Software Engineering
Research subject
INF304 Open Source; Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-21967 (URN)10.1145/3555051.3555065 (DOI)001066190000004 ()2-s2.0-85139156421 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-9845-9 (ISBN)978-1-4503-9846-6 (ISBN)
Conference
OpenSym 2022: The 18th International Symposium on Open Collaboration, Madrid, Spain, September 7 - 9, 2022
Note

CC BY 4.0

Available from: 2022-10-18 Created: 2022-10-18 Last updated: 2023-10-13Bibliographically approved
Butler, S., Gamalielsson, J., Lundell, B., Brax, C., Mattsson, A., Gustavsson, T., . . . Lönroth, E. (2022). Considerations and challenges for the adoption of open source components in software-intensive businesses. Journal of Systems and Software, 186, Article ID 111152.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Considerations and challenges for the adoption of open source components in software-intensive businesses
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 186, article id 111152Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Component-Based Software Development is a conventional way of working for software-intensive businesses and OpenSource Software (OSS) components are frequently considered by businesses for adoption and inclusion in softwareproducts. Previous research has found a variety of practices used to support the adoption of OSS components, in-cluding formally specified processes and less formal, developer-led approaches, and that the practices used continue todevelop. Evolutionary pressures identified include the proliferation of available OSS components and increases in thepace of software development as businesses move towards continuous integration and delivery. We investigate workpractices used in six software-intensive businesses in the primary and secondary software sectors to understand currentapproaches to OSS component adoption and the challenges businesses face establishing effective work practices to eval-uate OSS components. We find businesses have established processes for evaluating OSS components and communitiesthat support more complex and nuanced considerations of the cost and risks of component adoption alongside matterssuch as licence compliance and functional requirements. We also found that the increasing pace and volume of softwaredevelopment within some businesses provides pressure to continue to evolve software evaluation processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Component-based software development, software adoption, open source software
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
INF304 Open Source; Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-20817 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2021.111152 (DOI)000750027000016 ()2-s2.0-85122228228 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160104
Note

CC BY 4.0

Corresponding author: simon.butler@his.se (Simon Butler)

Available online 24 December 2021

Available from: 2021-12-27 Created: 2021-12-27 Last updated: 2022-04-11Bibliographically approved
Lundell, B., Butler, S., Fischer, T., Gamalielsson, J., Brax, C., Feist, J., . . . Mattsson, A. (2022). Effective Strategies for Using Open Source Software and Open Standards in Organizational Contexts: Experiences From the Primary and Secondary Software Sectors. IEEE Software, 39(1), 84-92
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effective Strategies for Using Open Source Software and Open Standards in Organizational Contexts: Experiences From the Primary and Secondary Software Sectors
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2022 (English)In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 84-92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Open source software (OSS) and open standards have become increasingly important for addressing challenges related to lock-in, interoperability and long-term maintenance of systems and associated digital assets. OSS projects operate under different conditions and many projects and organisations consider successful governance and strategic involvement with projects to constitute major challenges. Today, many companies seek to establish work practices which facilitate strategic engagement with OSS projects. Based on findings from collaborative research which draws from rich insights and extensive experiences from practice, the paper presents seven actionable strategies for organisations that seek to leverage long-term involvement with OSS projects. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2022
Keywords
Collaboration, Companies, Interoperability, Linux, Open source software, Software systems, Standards
National Category
Information Systems Computer Sciences Computer Systems
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-19521 (URN)10.1109/MS.2021.3059036 (DOI)000733943900015 ()2-s2.0-85100845589 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, The LIM-IT project
Note

CC BY 4.0

Tidigare titel: Effective Organizational Strategies for Use of Open Source Software and Open Standards in Organizational Contexts

Available from: 2021-03-04 Created: 2021-03-04 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Gamalielsson, J., Lundell, B., Butler, S., Brax, C., Persson, T., Mattsson, A., . . . Öberg, J. (2022). On engagement with ICT standards and their implementations in open source software projects: the case of WebRTC. In: Kai Jakobs; Dong-hyu Kim (Ed.), Proceedings 26th EURAS Annual Standardisation Conference: Standards for Digital Transformation: Blockchain and Innovation. Paper presented at 26th EURAS Annual Standardisation Conference – Standardisation and Open Source, 8 – 10 June 2022, Glasgow, Scotland (pp. 143-162). Aachen: Verlag Mainz
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On engagement with ICT standards and their implementations in open source software projects: the case of WebRTC
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2022 (English)In: Proceedings 26th EURAS Annual Standardisation Conference: Standards for Digital Transformation: Blockchain and Innovation / [ed] Kai Jakobs; Dong-hyu Kim, Aachen: Verlag Mainz , 2022, p. 143-162Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Real-time communication (RTC) technologies for the web provide opportunities for individuals and organisations to work and collaborate remotely, and the need for such technologies has recently increased. Use of RTC technologies and tools for the web involves a number of challenges concerning data privacy and lock-in effects, such as dependency to specific suppliers and proprietary technologies. Use of open standards for RTC and open source software (OSS) implementing such standards can create conditions for avoiding issues related to data privacy and lock-in, and thereby provides opportunities for long-term sustainable solutions. The paper characterises how engagement with standardisation of WebRTC in the context of IETF and W3C is related to engagement with the WebRTC OSS project.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aachen: Verlag Mainz, 2022
Series
EURAS contributions to standardisation research ; 17
Keywords
Engagement, ICT standards, Open source software projects, WebRTC
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
INF304 Open Source; Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-21697 (URN)978-3-95886-446-7 (ISBN)
Conference
26th EURAS Annual Standardisation Conference – Standardisation and Open Source, 8 – 10 June 2022, Glasgow, Scotland
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2022-08-19 Created: 2022-08-19 Last updated: 2023-10-25Bibliographically approved
Gamalielsson, J., Lundell, B., Butler, S., Brax, C., Persson, T., Mattsson, A., . . . Öberg, J. (2022). On Engagement with Open Source Software, Open Source Hardware, and Standard Setting: The Case of White Rabbit. In: Gregorio Robles; Amel Charleux; Igor Steinmacher; Javier Arroyo; Antonio Balderas; Gemma Catolino; Alexandre Decan; Francisco Martín-Rico; Amit Kumar Verma (Ed.), OpenSym '22: Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Open Collaboration. Paper presented at OpenSym 2022: The 18th International Symposium on Open Collaboration, Madrid, Spain, September 7 - 9, 2022. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Engagement with Open Source Software, Open Source Hardware, and Standard Setting: The Case of White Rabbit
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2022 (English)In: OpenSym '22: Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Open Collaboration / [ed] Gregorio Robles; Amel Charleux; Igor Steinmacher; Javier Arroyo; Antonio Balderas; Gemma Catolino; Alexandre Decan; Francisco Martín-Rico; Amit Kumar Verma, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022
Series
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series
Keywords
Engagement, Open source hardware, Open source software, Standard setting, White Rabbit
National Category
Software Engineering Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-21973 (URN)10.1145/3555051.3555072 (DOI)001066190000005 ()2-s2.0-85139174334 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-9845-9 (ISBN)
Conference
OpenSym 2022: The 18th International Symposium on Open Collaboration, Madrid, Spain, September 7 - 9, 2022
Available from: 2022-10-20 Created: 2022-10-20 Last updated: 2023-10-13Bibliographically approved
Butler, S., Gamalielsson, J., Lundell, B., Brax, C., Sjöberg, J., Mattsson, A., . . . Lönroth, E. (2021). On Company Contributions to Community Open Source Software Projects. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 47(7), 1381-1401
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Company Contributions to Community Open Source Software Projects
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2021 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 1381-1401Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The majority of contributions to community open source software (OSS) projects are made by practitioners acting on behalf of companies and other organisations. Previous research has addressed the motivations of both individuals and companies to engage with OSS projects. However, limited research has been undertaken that examines and explains the practical mechanisms or work practices used by companies and their developers to pursue their commercial and technical objectives when engaging with OSS projects. This research investigates the variety of work practices used in public communication channels by company contributors to engage with and contribute to eight community OSS projects. Through interviews with contributors to the eight projects we draw on their experiences and insights to explore the motivations to use particular methods of contribution. We find that companies utilise work practices for contributing to community projects which are congruent with the circumstances and their capabilities that support their short- and long-term needs. We also find that companies contribute to community OSS projects in ways that may not always be apparent from public sources, such as employing core project developers, making donations, and joining project steering committees in order to advance strategic interests. The factors influencing contributor work practices can be complex and are often dynamic arising from considerations such as company and project structure, as well as technical concerns and commercial strategies. The business context in which software created by the OSS project is deployed is also found to influence contributor work practices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021
Keywords
Collaboration, Companies, company contribution, Interviews, Licenses, Open source software, Software, Technological innovation, work practices, Computer software, Industry, Motivation, Open systems
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects Software Engineering
Research subject
Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17466 (URN)10.1109/TSE.2019.2919305 (DOI)000673623000005 ()2-s2.0-85068577239 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

CC BY 4.0

The LIM-IT project

Available from: 2019-07-22 Created: 2019-07-22 Last updated: 2021-11-19Bibliographically approved
Gamalielsson, J., Lundell, B., Butler, S., Brax, C., Persson, T., Mattsson, A., . . . Lönroth, E. (2021). Towards open government through open source software for web analytics: The case of Matomo. eJournal of eDemocracy & Open Government, 13(2), 133-153
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards open government through open source software for web analytics: The case of Matomo
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2021 (English)In: eJournal of eDemocracy & Open Government, E-ISSN 2075-9517, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 133-153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Web analytics technologies provide opportunities for organisations to obtain information about users visiting their websites in order to understand and optimise web usage. Use of such technologies often leads to issues related to data privacy and potential lock-in to specific suppliers and proprietary technologies. Use of open source software (OSS) for web analytics can create conditions for avoiding issues related to data privacy and lock-in, and thereby provides opportunities for a long-term sustainable solution for organisations both in the public and private sectors. This paper characterises use of and engagement with OSS projects for web analytics. Specifically, we contribute a characterisation of use of OSS licensed web analytics technologies in Swedish government authorities, and a characterisation of organisational engagement with the Matomo OSS project for web analytics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Krems: Department for E-Governance and Administration, Danube University Krems, 2021
Keywords
Open source software, web analytics, government authorities, Matomo
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
INF304 Open Source; Software Systems Research Group (SSRG)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-20995 (URN)10.29379/jedem.v13i2.650 (DOI)2-s2.0-85131351814 (Scopus ID)
Note

CC BY 3.0

Available from: 2022-03-21 Created: 2022-03-21 Last updated: 2022-06-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2161-164X

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