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Boers, B. (2019). 100 years and older: responsible ownership in long-lived family firms. In: : . Paper presented at 4th International Family Business Research Forum (IFBRF), April 3-5, 2019, International University of Monaco (IUM), Principality of Monaco.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>100 years and older: responsible ownership in long-lived family firms
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications of responsible ownership in long-lived family firms. Theoretically, the paper draws on responsible ownership. Responsible ownership is suggested as an alternative conceptualization of social responsible behavior in family firms. Empirically, the study draws on in depth case studies from Germany and Sweden. The study focuses on responsible ownership behavior towards two key stakeholders, i.e. employees and the home community. Thereby the study contributes to further the understanding of responsible ownership of family firms.

Keywords
family firms, responsible ownership
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16856 (URN)
Conference
4th International Family Business Research Forum (IFBRF), April 3-5, 2019, International University of Monaco (IUM), Principality of Monaco
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-10-08
Boers, B. & Ljungkvist, T. (2019). A founder's heritage: the development of organizational identity. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 31(1), 73-95
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A founder's heritage: the development of organizational identity
2019 (English)In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 73-95Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to understand how a former family firm strategically makes use of the founder's legacy to preserve its organizational identity. Following a single case study approach, it draws on rich empirical material from semi-structured interviews and extensive archival data. We show how central organizational activities are affected by a founder's heritage long after the formal exit has taken place, illustrating the central, enduring, and distinctive elements of organizational identity a founder has. Regardless of ownership forms, the family company founder's legacy is used to legitimize new owners and maintain the organization's identity. However, centripetal moves complicate the preservation of the organizational identity, whereas a high focus on value leveraging in another ownership form opens up for centrifugal approaches which strengthen the entrepreneurial dimension of organizational identity.

Abstract [fr]

L'objectif de cet article est de contribuer à l’élargissement des connaissances sur la manière dont une ancienne entreprise familiale utilize stratégiquement l'héritage du fondateur pour préserver son identité organisationnelle. En analysant une étude de cas, il utilize une riche matière empirique issue d'entretiens semi-structurés et d'un grand nombre de données d'archives. Nous montrons comment des activités organisationnelles centrales sont influencées par l'héritage du fondateur, longtemps après le départ formel de celui-ci, et ainsi, soulignons les caractéristiques centrales, persistantes et particulières de l'identité organisationnelle que possède le fondateur d'une entreprise familiale. Indépendamment des différents types de possession, l'héritage du fondateur d'une entreprise familiale est utilisé pour légitimer les nouveaux propriétaires et conserver l'identité de l'organisation. Cependant, les mouvements centripètes compliquent la conservation de l'identité organisationnelle, bien qu'un focus important sur la valeur, mettant à profit une autre forme de propriété, s'ouvre à des approches centrifuges qui renforcent la dimension entrepreneuriale de l'identité organisationnelle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
entrepreneurial founder heritage, organizational identity, case study, Sweden, héritage entrepreneurial du fondateur, identité organisationnelle, étude de cas, Suède
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15144 (URN)10.1080/08276331.2018.1466849 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052052476 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-11 Created: 2018-05-11 Last updated: 2019-11-13Bibliographically approved
Henschel, T. & Boers, B. (2019). A necessary evil or useful tool?: Crisis management in family firms. In: : . Paper presented at 64th Annual International Council for Small Business World Congress. The Future of Entrepreneurship. ICSB 2019. Cairo, Egypt, June 18-20, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A necessary evil or useful tool?: Crisis management in family firms
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper is to explore and understand how family firms manage a crisis by applying a processual perspective.  Our objective is to find out how crisis management is approached by family firms in Sweden, Scotland, and Germany. Further, we aim to examine the role of the owning family in creating and solving a crisis in family firms. Finally, we will provide recommendations on how family firms can improve their crisis management practices.

Keywords
Crisis management, family firms, case studies, Sweden, Scotland, Germany
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17316 (URN)
Conference
64th Annual International Council for Small Business World Congress. The Future of Entrepreneurship. ICSB 2019. Cairo, Egypt, June 18-20, 2019
Available from: 2019-06-27 Created: 2019-06-27 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Ljungkvist, T. & Boers, B. (2019). A theory of venture capital family business (VCFB): professionalization trajectories. In: : . Paper presented at 15th EASIM Workshop on Family Firm Management Research, Family Entrepreneurship and Society, Nantes, France, May 23-25, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A theory of venture capital family business (VCFB): professionalization trajectories
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Venture capital as well as family firms are very heterogeneous populations of firms. Extant literature has studied the interaction and connection between the groups of firms. However, only recently, researcher began to look at those firms which are part of both group at the same. Firms which are labeled venture capital family businesses (VCFB) (Ljungkvist & Boers, 2017). Recent research suggests that the interaction of family firms and VC firms can be distinguished into three separate phases (Schickinger, et al., 2018). Based on these phases, the paper develops propositions on how VCFB firms develop their professionalization trajectories in these phases. Thus, the presented propositions highlight how the family owners’ actions and behavior are related to professionalism and how it influences the three phases of investing.

National Category
Social Sciences Economics and Business
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17036 (URN)
Conference
15th EASIM Workshop on Family Firm Management Research, Family Entrepreneurship and Society, Nantes, France, May 23-25, 2019
Available from: 2019-06-12 Created: 2019-06-12 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Boers, B. & Henschel, T. (2019). Being Entrepreneurial in a Crisis?: The Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in Crisis Management of Family Firms. In: René Maurer, Sophia Braun (Ed.), Embracing uncertainty: Entrepreneurship as a key capability for the 21st century. Paper presented at RENT XXXIII, the Research in Entrepreneurship and Small Business Conference, Berlin, November 28-29, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Being Entrepreneurial in a Crisis?: The Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in Crisis Management of Family Firms
2019 (English)In: Embracing uncertainty: Entrepreneurship as a key capability for the 21st century / [ed] René Maurer, Sophia Braun, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17930 (URN)
Conference
RENT XXXIII, the Research in Entrepreneurship and Small Business Conference, Berlin, November 28-29, 2019
Available from: 2019-11-27 Created: 2019-11-27 Last updated: 2019-12-03
Ljungkvist, T., Boers, B., Andersén, J. & Nordqvist, M. (2019). Rapid growth of founder-led companies: the role of resource orchestration. In: : . Paper presented at International Academy of Business and Economics (IABE)-2019, Los Angeles, June 14-16, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rapid growth of founder-led companies: the role of resource orchestration
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of resource orchestration in rapidly growing founder-led companies.  

Design/methodology/approach – Based on a comparative case study of founder-led companies, the resource orchestration in a founder-led family firm is compared with a founder-led one. To comprehend the complexity of resource orchestration, a large amount of archival data and interviews are used. By using data derived from a period of ten years, the present study has a longitudinal approach.

Findings – By uncovering the resource management process, the findings indicate a difference in focus between the founder-led family firm and the founder-led firm. The resource orchestration in the family firm focuses to a greater extent on the early stages of the resource management process, i.e. the recruitment of new staff, the incorporation and the control of “right” values and norms. On the other hand, the founder-led business puts a higher focus on performance metrics and the documented coordination of teams and customers. However, both companies rely largely on self-organizing teams. By revealing the management role in a dynamic industry, the present study criticizes and extends general findings of the resource orchestration literature. Moreover, it contributes to the organizational culture and firm growth entrepreneurship literature.      

Practical implications – The study shows how founder-based companies can grow successfully in a dynamic environment. Furthermore, it reveals how software companies’ resources can be managed and bundled in a successful manner.

Originality/value – the present study conveys fine-grained insights in complex management processes operating in a dynamic environment.

Keywords
resource orchestration, growth, medium-sized companies, case study, Sweden
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17428 (URN)
Conference
International Academy of Business and Economics (IABE)-2019, Los Angeles, June 14-16, 2019
Available from: 2019-07-10 Created: 2019-07-10 Last updated: 2019-09-04
Boers, B. (2019). The codetermined family business: a paradox?: Comparing cases from Sweden and Germany. In: : . Paper presented at "Paternalistic Work Regimes. Historical and Contemporary Perspectives" Seminar at the IUC Dubrovnik (April 8-9, 2019).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The codetermined family business: a paradox?: Comparing cases from Sweden and Germany
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this comparative case study is to understand codetermination in two family firms. Empirically, this study draws on an interpretive case study of two family businesses. Its findings extends earlier research, by exploring and introducing the phenomenon of codetermination in the family business literature. Theoretically, the study draws on the control-collaboration paradox which helps understanding the phenomenon of codetermination. Findings highlight the need for professional governance structures in order to facilitate cooperation between family owners, the management, and employee representatives.

Keywords
Codetermination, paternalism, comparative case study, family firms, Germany, Sweden
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16857 (URN)
Conference
"Paternalistic Work Regimes. Historical and Contemporary Perspectives" Seminar at the IUC Dubrovnik (April 8-9, 2019)
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved
Ljungkvist, T., Boers, B. & Samuelsson, J. (2019). Three stages of Entrepreneurial Orientation: The Founder’s role. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three stages of Entrepreneurial Orientation: The Founder’s role
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand the development of the five dimensions ofentrepreneurial orientation (EO) over time by taking a founder’s perspective.Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on an in-depth single-case study. It combinessemi-structured interviews in the company with archival data, such as annual reports, press clips andinterviews in business magazines.Findings – The results indicate that the EO dimensions change from being personalized and directlysolution-oriented to being intangible value-creation-oriented.Originality/value – By suggesting ownership-based EO configurations, this study contributes insights intohow different ownership forms propel EO. These configurations – that is, personal, administrative based andintangible focused – show the impact of the EO dimensions and provide a systematic and theoreticalunderstanding of EO change over time.

Keywords
Venture capital, Entrepreneurial orientation, Family firms, Ownership
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-17880 (URN)10.1108/IJEBR-10-2018-0630 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-11-13 Created: 2019-11-13 Last updated: 2019-11-14Bibliographically approved
Boers, B. & Brozovic, D. (2019). Work-family interface: coping strategies in growing family SMEs. In: : . Paper presented at 15th EIASM Workshop on Family Firm Management Research, Family Entrepreneurship and Society, Nantes, France, May 23-25, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work-family interface: coping strategies in growing family SMEs
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

SMEs may be more vulnerable because of their limited resources (Falkner & Hiebl, 2015). SMEs’ success is often dependent on their owner managers, e.g. their attitude towards growth may differ substantively (Achtenhagen, Naldi, & Melin, 2010; Jaouen & Lasch, 2015). For instance, Davidsson argued that not all small firm owners are willing to grow because they, e.g., fear that growth will endanger employee well-being and the owners will lose control (Davidsson, 1989, 1991). The ability of owner managers to follow a growth strategy may in part also be dependent on how the owner manager is able to handle its life outside the business (Jennings & McDougald, 2007), e.g. the family embeddedness (Aldrich & Cliff, 2003).

More recent research has called for studies investigating, e.g. the work–family (WF) interactions in businesses run by male and female entrepreneurs (Adkins, Samaras, Gilfillan, & McWee, 2013; Ahl, 2006). Extant research has started looking at motives and constrains of female entrepreneurs in regards to the work family interface (Adkins, et al., 2013; Ahl, 2006).

Research on work family interface is, in line with other areas, dominated by studies investigating the US-context, disregarding other contexts (Shaffer, Joplin, & Hsu, 2011). More and more researchers have called for further research on the interface between family and work life (Jaskiewicz, Combs, Shanine, & Kacmar, 2017; Nguyen & Sawang, 2016; Powell & Eddleston, 2017; Powell, Greenhaus, Allen, & Johnson, 2018). Therefore, we offer a new angle by investigating male entrepreneurs who can be considered successful in a Swedish context. Success in this context refers to a sustainable growth strategy in regards to growing the business considerably in both turnover and number of employees over a period of five years.

 Purpose/topic of research

The purpose of this study is to understand the work-family interface in small, growing family firms by answering the following research questions:

Which coping strategies are used to address conflicts in the work family interface?How do these strategies support work/life –balance and how to do they influence firm growth?

Research method

The authors of this study conducted a research project on SMEs which, after a period of stable performance in terms of turnover and number of employees, grew with 50% in bother turnover and number of employees over a consecutive period of five years. The study was conducted in the southwest of Sweden.

For this paper and purpose we selected three companies where the respondents had expressed that work-life-conflicts played a role for being able to focus on and execute a growth strategy.

The figures concerning turnover and number of employees were taken from the publicly available annual reports. The collection of this data was executed in 2017 and included annual reports from 2000 to 2016.

As part of the general study, the selected companies were interviewed. Before the interviews were conducted, the interviewees were contacted by email and afterwards by telephone. In this first telephone conversation, the general purpose of the study was explained. In the following face-to-face interviews the respondents, usually owner-managers, were interviewed, using a structured interview guideline. The guideline entailed open questions and scaled questions concerning reasons for growth, performance, change in ownership and management, entrepreneurial orientation, employee concerns, justice and equality.

 Theories used Coping strategies

The literature has come up with plenty of coping strategies that deal with how individual deal with issues that bothers them. In this study we draw on research with a connection to entrepreneurship and growth (Jennings & McDougald, 2007).

 Coping has been defined in psychological terms by Lazarus and Folkman (1984) as “constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as taxing”. Coping is expending conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, and seeking to master and minimize stress (Weiten & Lloyd, 2008). Psychological coping mechanisms are usually termed coping strategies or coping skills. Unconscious strategies are commonly excluded. The term coping generally refers to adaptive or constructive coping strategies. However, some coping strategies can also be considered maladaptive. Maladaptive coping can be described as non-coping. Furthermore, the term coping commonly refers to reactive coping. This contrasts with proactive coping, in which a coping response aims to head off a future stressor. Coping responses are partly controlled by personality, but also by the social context, particularly the stressful environment (Carver & Connor-Smith, 2010).

On growth

“Most firms start small, live small and die small” (Davidsson 2010, p. 23[BB1] ). Growth is not the norm, and the main reason that most firms do not grow is that they operate in mature industries and serves local markets (Davidsson 2010). For those firms that do grow the entrepreneur often plays an important role. Factors such as motivation, education, management experience, number of founders have been proven to influence growth in a positive direction. However, there is a lack of research regarding how different factors related to work-life balance affects firm growth.

Growth is usually defined as an increase in the amount of some measurable outcome, e.g. sales or employment (Cyron & Zoellick, 2018)(Cyron & Zoellick 2018, Davidsson 2010).

 Contribution of research

The research contributes insights on which and how male entrepreneurs use coping strategies to address conflicts in the work family interface.

Findings reveal the complex role of family which can both be an origin but also a solution to these conflicts.

The study further contributes to the ongoing debate concerning growth intension and growth ambition in the entrepreneurship literature. Especially in small family firms, growth is not only hindered by limited resources. At the same time, resources and obstacles for growth are complex.

Keywords
Coping strategies, family SMES, Growth, Work-life interface
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship; Knowledge and Innovation Management (KIM)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-16919 (URN)
Conference
15th EIASM Workshop on Family Firm Management Research, Family Entrepreneurship and Society, Nantes, France, May 23-25, 2019
Available from: 2019-05-27 Created: 2019-05-27 Last updated: 2019-08-08
Boers, B., Ljungkvist, T. & Brunninge, O. (2018). Giving Up The Family Name While Staying A Family Business: The Family Business As Acquirer. In: : . Paper presented at 14th Workshop on Family Firm Management Research: 'Entrepreneurial Families Across Generations, Larnaca, Cyprus, May 17-19, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Giving Up The Family Name While Staying A Family Business: The Family Business As Acquirer
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Strategic Entrepreneurship
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:his:diva-15470 (URN)
Conference
14th Workshop on Family Firm Management Research: 'Entrepreneurial Families Across Generations, Larnaca, Cyprus, May 17-19, 2018
Available from: 2018-06-08 Created: 2018-06-08 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4776-0085

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