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  • Habibovic, Sanel
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORKS: An Analysis of the Performance in State-of-the-Art Virtual Private Network solutions in Unreliable Network Conditions2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to identify the differences between state-of-the-art VPN solutions on different operating systems. It was done because a novel VPN protocol is in the early stages of release and a comparison of it, to other current VPN solutions is interesting. It is interesting because current VPN solutions are well established and have existed for a while and the new protocol stirs the pot in the VPN field. Therefore a contemporary comparison between them could aid system administrators when choosing which VPN to implement. To choose the right VPN solution for the occasion could increase performance for the users and save costs for organizations who wish to deploy VPNs. With the remote workforce increasing issues of network reliability also increases, due to wireless connections and networks beyond the control of companies. This demands an answer to the question how do VPN solutions differ in performance with stable and unstable networks?

    This work attempted to answer this question. This study is generally concerning VPN performance but mainly how the specific solutions perform under unreliable network conditions.It was achieved by researching past comparisons of VPN solutions to identify what metrics to analyze and which VPN solutions have been recommended. Then a test bed was created in a lab network to control the network when testing, so the different VPN implementations and operating systems have the same premise. To establish baseline results, performance testing was done on the network without VPNs, then the VPNs were tested under reliable network conditions and then with unreliable network conditions. The results of that were compared and analyzed.

    The results show a difference in the performance of the different VPNs, also there is a difference on what operating system is used and there are also differences between the VPNs with the unreliability aspects switched on. The novel VPN protocol looks promising as it has overall good results, but it is not conclusive as the current VPN solutions can be configured based on what operating system and settings are chosen. With this set-up, VPNs on Linux performed much better under unreliable network conditions when compared to setups using other operating systems.

    The outcome of this work is that there is a possibility that the novel VPN protocol is performing better and that certain combinations of VPN implementation and OS are better performing than others when using the default configuration. This works also pointed out how to improve the testing and what aspects to consider when comparing VPN implementations.

  • Tagesson, Samuel
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Anti-forensik mot minnesforensik: En litteraturstudie om anti-forensiska metoder mot minnesdumpning och minnesanalys2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IT forensics face many difficulties in their work of obtaining and analyzing data. Criminals are using more and more anti-forensic methods to hide evidence that can be used against them. One common anti-forensic method is encryption. In order for IT forensics to access the encrypted information, the encryption key can be found in the memory of the computer. This makes the computer's memory valuable to retrieved and analyze. However, there are several anti-forensic methods that a criminal can use to prevent the memory from being retrieved or analyzed. This study performs a systematic literature study to identify the current anti-forensic methods against memory analysis and memory dumping on Windows system. Several methods are addressed where, among other things, the operating system is modified or built-in security functions on the CPU are used to prevent information being retrieved or analyzed from memory.

  • Public defence: 2019-11-22 13:00 G110, Skövde
    Gudfinnsson, Kristens
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Towards facilitating BI adoption in small and medium sized manufacturing companies2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work concerns how to support Small and Medium sized Manufacturing Enterprises(SMMEs) with their Business Intelligence (BI) adoption, with the long term aim of supporting them in making better use of their BI investments and becoming (more)data-driven in their decision-making processes. Current BI research focuses primarily on larger enterprises, despite the fact that the majority of businesses are small or mediumsized. Therefore, this research focuses on the body of knowledge concerning how SMMEs can be more intelligent about their business, and better adopt BI to improve decision-making. Accordingly, the overall research aim is to create an artefact that can support SMMEs to facilitate BI adoption. An understanding of the current situation of BI adoption within SMMEs needs to be attained to achieve this, which is the focus for the first research question: What is the current state-of-practice in relation to BI adoption in SMMEs? The research question adds to current knowledge on how SMMEs are taking advantage of BI and highlights which functions within companies are currently supported by BI. Research question two identifies the main challenges that SMMEs are facing in this context: What are the main challenges for BI adoption in SMMEs? This question adds to knowledge regarding some of the barriers and hindrances SMMEs face in BI adoption. Finally, the third research question addresses how SMMEs can address the challenges in successfully adopting BI: How can the main challenges be addressed? The research question is answered by providing descriptions of work in four participating companies addressing different types of problems. Many of the challenges from literature (and from empirical data from the participating companies) regarding BI adoption are met. The outcome adds to the literature a hands-on approach for companies to address chosen problems in their settings, and addressing many of the factors previously found in the BI adoption literature. An action design research (ADR) method is used to fulfill the overall research aim. The ADR method is used to guide the development of a framework artefact based on previousliterature, and on empirical findings from working with participating companies. Theoretical background was obtained through a literature review of BI adoption and usage. Empirical material was gathered both through interviews and by reviewing documents from the companies. The work that was done in participating companies was supported by previous literature in several ways: through the use of an elicitation activity, through the core concepts of BI, and by focusing on categories presented in a BI maturity model. The principal contribution of the research is in the form of a framework: the Business Intelligence Facilitation Framework (BIFF), which includes four phases. All phases contain activities that support companies in addressing BI adoption challenges from the literature and empirical data, in order to achieve the overall research aim. This research contributes both to research and practice. From a research point of view, the framework provides a way to address many of the factors previously identified in literature that need to be in place to increase the likelihood of successful BI adoption. From a practice perspective, the framework supports practitioners offering guidance in how to improve their BI adoption, providing activities for them to take, and guidance in how to carry out the activities.

  • Junger, Felicia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Moll, Oskar
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Samband mellan skärmtid och psykisk ohälsa: framtidens folkhälsoutmaning?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion Användningen av digitala skärmar ökar drastiskt världen över. Parallellt ökar även förekomsten av psykisk ohälsa, vilket numera är ett globalt växande folkhälsoproblem. Psykisk ohälsa är den tredje främsta orsaken till den totala sjukdomsbördan i Världen.

    Syfte Syftet med studien var att belysa samband mellan ST och psykisk ohälsa. Metod Studien använde sig av en systematisk litteraturöversikt som studiedesign. 21 vetenskapliga artiklar inkluderades och analysen genomfördes enligt en systematisk textkondensering.

    Resultat Resultatet tyder på att det finns ett samband mellan skärmtid och psykisk ohälsa. Resultatet tyder även på att det verkar föreligga skillnader mellan hur skärmtid påverkar män och kvinnors psykiska hälsa. Fyra teman identifierades: depression, ångest, stress och övriga psykiska besvär.

    Slutsats Denna studie visar på att det verkar finnas ett samband mellan skärmtid och psykisk ohälsa. För att i framtiden skapa rekommendationer och riktlinjer kring skärmanvändade, krävs mer forskning kring orsakssamband, samt för att få en djupare förståelse för mekanismerna bakom skärmtidens effekt på människors psykiska hälsa.

  • Hemeren, Paul
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Reverse Hierarchy Theory and the Role of Kinematic Information in Semantic Level Processing and Intention Perception2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many ways, human cognition is importantly predictive (e.g., Clark, 2015). A critical source of information that humans use to anticipate the future actions of other humans and to perceive intentions is bodily movement (e.g., Ansuini et al., 2014; Becchio et al., 2018; Koul et al., 2019; Sciutti et al., 2015). This ability extends to perceiving the intentions of other humans based on past and current actions. The purpose of this abstract is to address the issue of anticipation according to levels of processing in visual perception and experimental results that demonstrate high-level semantic processing in the visual perception of various biological motion displays. These research results (Hemeren & Thill, 2011; Hemeren et al., 2018; Hemeren et al., 2016) show that social aspects and future movement patterns can be predicted from fairly simple kinematic patterns in biological motion sequences, which demonstrates the different environmental (gravity and perspective) and bodily constraints that contribute to understanding our social and movement-based interactions with others. Understanding how humans perceive anticipation and intention amongst one another should help us create artificial systems that also can perceive human anticipation and intention.

  • Liu, Yu
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Strand, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Review of simulation-based life cycle assessment in manufacturing industry2019In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 490-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry has a duty to minimize its environmental impact, and an increasing body of legislation mandates environmental impact evaluations from a life cycle perspective to prevent burden shift. The manufacturing industry is increasing its use of computer-based simulations to optimize production processes. In recent years, several published studies have combined simulations with life cycle assessments (LCAs) to evaluate and minimize the environmental impact of production activities. Still, current knowledge of simulations conducted for LCAs is rather disjointed. This paper accordingly reviews the literature covering simulation-based LCAs of production processes. The results of the review and cross-comparison of papers are structured in terms of seven elements in line with the ISO standard definition of LCA and report the strengths and limitations of the reviewed studies. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Hamilton Institute, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Ireland.
    Random dictatorship for privacy-preserving social choice2019In: International Journal of Information Security, ISSN 1615-5262, E-ISSN 1615-5270, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social choice provides methods for collective decisions. They include methods for voting and for aggregating rankings. These methods are used in multiagent systems for similar purposes when decisions are to be made by agents. Votes and rankings are sensitive information. Because of that, privacy mechanisms are needed to avoid the disclosure of sensitive information. Cryptographic techniques can be applied in centralized environments to avoid the disclosure of sensitive information. A trusted third party can then compute the outcome. In distributed environments, we can use a secure multiparty computation approach for implementing a collective decision method. Other privacy models exist. Differential privacy and k-anonymity are two of them. They provide privacy guarantees that are complementary to multiparty computation approaches, and solutions that can be combined with the cryptographic ones, thus providing additional privacy guarantees, e.g., a differentially private multiparty computation model. In this paper, we propose the use of probabilistic social choice methods to achieve differential privacy. We use the method called random dictatorship and prove that under some circumstances differential privacy is satisfied and propose a variation that is always compliant with this privacy model. Our approach can be implemented using a centralized approach and also a decentralized approach. We briefly discuss these implementations.

  • Babovic, Elvir
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    ADHD och risken för kriminellt beteende senare i livet: en litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]


    ADHD is a neuropsychiatric disorder belonging to the spectrum of neuro-cognitive functional that increases the risk of getting into crime later in life. Individuals with the disorder may be incapable of controlling their impulses, which means that the individuals with the problem is not capable of evaluating consequences of his/her behavior. ADHD is also something that increases the risk of becoming a victim of abuse and destructive behavior


    A literature review with 10 knowledge-based articles was used in the study for the basis of the result. The articles were reviewed and processed to obtain as strong a reliability as possible. The database launched was Pubmed which gave many hits according to the keywords but the included studies were carefully selected based on the delimitation by the aim of the study and the relevance of the chosen area.


    The aim of the work was to explore the connection between the diagnosis of ADHD and subsequent risk of criminal behavior.


    Adolescents diagnosed with ADHD showed a clear increased risk of developing addiction problems. The ADHD symptoms had often become more difficult during childhood or adolescence and persons with ADHD were also more probably imprisoned as adults. The most common drugs that were used by the individuals with ADHD and had developed addiction were stimulants such as alcohol and benzodiazepines. The adolescents with ADHD and developed addiction had performed significantly poorer in tests and in school and showed poorer results than those who had not diagnosed ADHD

    Discussion Clear results were common to many of the selected articles as there was a clear correlation between ADHD and risk of becoming a victim of abuse and subsequent criminal behavior. Several of the articles mention that young people with the diagnosis of ADHD have obvious problems in gaining education and that this in turn leads to exclusion and poor social adaptation

  • Rodin, Lika
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Robo-Revolution: A Marxist Approach to Social Uprising in the High-Tech Age2019In: Sociologiceskoe Obozrenie, ISSN 1728-192X, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 224-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing role of technological agents in contemporary society, questions surrounding the future of socio-economic organization are intensely debated. A variety of predictions have been made, ranging from conservative views that emphasize the gradual integration of techno-actors into human social collectives to radical outlooks that assume the inevitability of a dramatic historic break This study employs the method of simulation, exploring the ongoing path towards automation with the help of classical Marxism. It seeks to understand whether robots and artificial intelligence (AI) might become new value producers and a revolutionary social class. As demonstrated, the continuity of capitalist relationships may facilitate the formation of new social groups and recast class-based political agendas.

  • Karlberg, Pontus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    FÄRGERS PÅVERKAN PÅ TIDSUPPLEVELSE: Kopplingen mellan designartefakter och användares upplevelse av tid utifrån ett UXperspektiv.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt tidigare forskning upplever människor att tiden går fortare i lugna trygga miljöer och går långsamt i påfrestande situationer. Något som skapar lugna trygga känslor hos människor är färgen blå medans färgen gul som har ett ständigt tröttande ljus upplevs som påfrestande. Vilket i teorin ska innebära att människor som tittar på något blått upplever att tiden går snabbare än de som betraktar något gult. I föreliggande studie har detta undersökts med två experiment, i första experimentet fick deltagarna slå multiplikationstal på kalkylatorn på en dator medan det var en blå eller gul bakgrund. I det andra experimentet fick deltagarna se en snurra på en gul eller blå bakgrund. I inget av experimenten upptäcktes någon signifikant skillnad. I experimentet var det dessutom fler som svarade att de ville använda den blåa bakgrunden om den fick tiden att upplevas gå fortare än den gula.

  • Billing, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Sciutti, Alessandra
    Italian Institute of Technology, Genova, Italy.
    Sandini, Giulio
    Italian Institute of Technology, Genova, Italy.
    Proactive eye-gaze in human-robot interaction2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Ahumada, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Uppfattningar om barnfetma och om myndigheternas åtgärder bland invånarna i Viña del Mar - Chile2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Obesity development is one of the most obvious - and at the same time, one of the most neglected - public health problems (WHO, 2018). Objective: The primary purpose was to investigate the understanding of the factors behind childhood obesity in a limited group of participants living in three areas in Viña del Mar, Chile; Reñaca Alto, Santa Inés and Center. The secondary purpose of the study was to elucidate the perception of the authorities' health-promoting efforts among participants in different socio-economic groups in these areas. The two main research questions were: What are the views of the residents of Viña del Mar about the factors behind childhood obesity? What are the opinions of residents of Viña del Mar about measures to counteract the problem? Method: The study is a cross-sectional survey (n = 63) and the data were collected and analysed using SPSS statistical program and an Excel program. The results are presented through descriptive statistics, in the form of tables. Results: The survey was answered by 63 persons, representing 63 families, consisting of a total of 231 persons, divided into 156 adults and 75 children. The results show that 15% of the participants do not know the severity of child obesity. Furthermore, 88% of the participants perceive that the household economy is the main significant risk factor for child obesity, followed by a high consumption of sugar and sugar-containing products. In addition, participants perceive that it is possible to influence the childhood obesity epidemic and 84% of participants feel that the family can have a positive influence on childhood obesity, but more tools are needed in the form of knowledge and support. The results show that only 10% of the participants think that the authorities are making a considerable effort, while 49% (n = 25) think that they are not doing enough. Behaviour-changing measures show a better result in population groups with a high SEP (Socio Economic Position) than in those with a low, since the former are more influenced by the information. However, a multidisciplinary holistic perspective is needed on health promotion work. If the SES gap (Socio Economic Status) is reduced and SEP equated, more people can get advice and be given the opportunity to have a healthy lifestyle. Socioeconomic factors affect the risk of childhood obesity in particular in economic transition processes. If SEP and SES, both individually and socially, change from poor to rich, child obesity in society increases and Chile is an example of this phenomenon. The health promotion efforts in the country are multifaceted and innovative in many ways and there are many actors working with these. However, the question is how effective the efforts are when the work is done in many different forms and often without being anchored to one another. Finally, prevention efforts should be developed and implemented in collaboration with the target groups.

  • Kärmander, Adam
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Nori, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Produktionstekniskt förbättringsarbete hos Dava Foods: Förbättrande av en maskin2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har utförts på Dava Foods i Skara. Det är ett företag där hönsägg i olika kvaliteter bearbetas. Där finns en äggknäckningsprocess som består av två maskiner. Organisationen har problem med maskinen som har till uppgift att separera brickor och ägg. Den stannar alltför ofta och därför har företaget bett om hjälp.

    Syftet med arbetet var att ta reda på vilka orsaker som ligger bakom stoppen och att ge förbättringsförslag för att förhindra framtida oönskade stopp. Observationer och intervjuer genomfördes för att få en bättre förståelse för hur maskinen fungerar. Därefter utfördes fyra stopptidsanalyser för att dokumentera stilleståndstider och för att det skulle vara möjligt att se vad som får maskinen att stanna. Metoden 5 x varför användes för att hitta rotorsakerna till problemen. Förbättringsförslag gavs utifrån de rotorsaker som identifierades och även utifrån egna tankar och idéer. Dessa förslag placerades även in i två PICK-charts så att organisationen eventuellt kan välja att implementera några av dessa i framtiden.

    Arbetet resulterade i 12 unika förbättringsförslag. 2 av dessa hade med brickornas material att göra. Det ena förslaget innebar att endast använda plastbrickor och det andra var en blandning av plast- och pappersbrickor. Ytterligare ett förslag var brickor med 5x5 ägg, vilket innebär att brickan ska ha plats för 5 ägg på bredden och 5 på längden. Tre förbättringsförslag hade med människor att göra. Dessa handlade om att operatören ska försöka vara mer noggrann med avståndet mellan brickor på första rullbandet, att människor ska vara försiktiga vid transport och hantering av äggen samt att det ska vara tre personer som arbetar vid maskinen. Några mer omfattande förbättringsförslag var ett längre första rullband, en robot vid första rullbandet, en bättre funktion som separerar brickor, en ny maskin och en annan layout. Det föreslogs även att minska hastigheten på den så kallade cylindern.

    Slutsatsen är att det finns tre förbättringsförslag som verkligen bör övervägas. Dessa är användning av plastbrickor istället för pappersbrickor, införskaffande av en ny maskin samt tre personer som arbetar vid maskinen. Om plastbrickor används istället för pappersbrickor så hade det blivit mycket mindre stopp. Detta gäller även för en ny maskin som kan hantera både plast- och pappersbrickor. Om tre personer arbetar vid maskinen så kan den tredje personen ha som arbetsuppgift att upptäcka och åtgärda fel innan dessa får maskinen att stanna.

  • Fjordstig, Andréas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Separating Post-perceptual Processes From Auditory Awareness: An Electrophysiological Study With a No-response Task2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two theories of consciousness have different ideas about when consciousness happens and what neural processes enable conscious experience. The recurrent processing theory supports an early onset of consciousness caused by recurring loops of information between sensory areas. Contrary to this belief, the global workspace theory claims that consciousness appears later, through global recurrent loops of information between sensory and higher order brain areas such as the visual cortex and frontoparietal areas. Electrophysiological studies have found an event-related negativity arising in primary visual areas around 200 ms that correlates to awareness. This activity suits the predictions of an early onset of consciousness made by the recurrent processing theory. It is followed by a later positive amplitude appearing around 400 ms. This activity is in line with predictions made by the global workspace theory. The current study transition from visual to auditory awareness research in order to find the neural correlates of consciousness in audition. A sound detection task with tones calibrated to each participants threshold value was used in the experiment and two electrophysiological measurements of auditory awareness were found. An auditory awareness negativity that appears around 200 ms after stimulus onset and a late positivity appearing around 400 ms. Researchers disagree about if these event-related potentials correlate with awareness or unrelated cognitive mechanisms. In order to solve this problem, the current experiment was devised to test if they were affected by response conditions. A no-response paradigm with reversed response conditions was used to separate pre- and post-conscious mechanisms from the auditory awareness negativity and the late positivity. Results showed that auditory awareness negativity was independent of response condition and thus free from post-perceptual processes. The late positivity amplitude seems to be dependent on response condition but the result was inconclusive.