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  • Brunoson, Oscar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Fredriksson, Morgan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utveckla förbättringsförslag och minska omställningstider2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nolato Gota AB is a company based in Götene. They manufacture plastic products for the automotiveindustry, such as battery boxes, covers and other panels. Volvo Cars AB is the largest customer andaccounts for approximately 70 % of all orders.The thesis was carried out in the department called the blue group. At Nolato Gota AB, there are severalmachine parks which produce plastic products by injection molding of thermoplastics. The bluegroup is one of the oldest departments in the company. The thesis has been carried out on machineswith a clamping force of over 500 tons.Nolato Gota AB is aware that their changeover process is often lengthy and varied, but there is currentlyno data to confirm this. The purpose of the thesis is to present improvement proposals on NolatoGota AB's changeover process through extensive data collection. Several production engineeringmethods and tools such as SMED, five why, time studies and work sampling will be used to generateimprovement proposals.The theoretical frame of reference has been used as a basis for choosing which production techniquesand tools to use during the thesis. Thanks to the literature study, it was possible to avoid problemsthat have arisen during other people’s work in similar areas.The empirical part of the work was carried out by using observations and interviews with changeoverstaff. A time study was performed according to the continuous method and, as a complement, worksampling was also conducted to identify the value-adding time. During the observations and the timestudies, it was clear that the lack of education had a significant impact on the changeover time.The results from the data collection showed that, on average, the changeover times are much longerthan Nolato Gota AB thought. All presented improvement proposals are linked to the collected data.By implementing the presented improvement proposals, the changeover time and variation may bereduced. The reason why no improvement proposals were implemented is that the time frame for thework is too small. Eliminating the wastes enables reducing the changeover time by up to 46 % and anadditional 23,6 % if the improvement proposals are implemented for a total reduction of 69,6 %. Forthe machines were the utilization warrants it the changeover time can be reduced to 74,1 % by the aidof an additional changeover worker. Nolato Gota AB has presented the cost for a machine downtimeto be 540 sek per hour for machines between 500- and 1000-tons clamping force. An optimizedchangeover will save Nolato Gota AB up to 1404 sek per changeover.

  • Arucaj, Behar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Analys av dokumentation och internlogistik av färdiga produkter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This final year project is performed at a Company that produces products in wood that protects prop-erty from fire, sound and burglary and are being produced for any kind of environment where security is a requirement. Such as housing, hotel, hospital, shopping malls and so on. The Company’s products are sold at markets in Scandinavia and in other countries by partner Companies. The Company has innovative design for their products and the production technology is developed within the Company. The Company works constantly with improvements and more efficient production technology. Due to the vigorous growth that the Company had has the last years, focus has been on adapting production to demand, which has led to that internal logistics is fallen behind. Management is experiencing that handling of material from final assembly to delivery for transport to customer is ineffective and takes a lot of resources in time and movements. They also experience that the manual handling of docu-ments at final assembly is hard to understand and often creates problems, especially when new staff is employed.The purpose of the project is to submit one or more improvement suggestions on how the material handling in the area from final assembly to delivery can be optimized, which also includes manual document handling. The aim of the project is to identify and analyse activities that will form the basis for the improvement of non-value creation activities as well as more optimized material and docu-ment management through theoretical and production methods. When it comes to manual document management, the writers, supported by theory and literature studies, should propose alternative methods of document management.To create a structure and achieve the purpose and target in order to get realizable improvement pro-posals, the tool PDCA has been applied in A3-format. To find relevant methods in collect data to this work, studies in theory and literature where made. In that way the writers of this bachelor thesis got a deeper understanding and ideas about suitable and efficient methods available to collect necessary data.The analysis of current status shows that a major part of the total time in order to put together an order for deliverance where used to localize pallets and execute castling’s to get a pallet that should be delivered to the Customer. About 80% of total time of processing an order was due to this activity. Further an average of 8 lifts where performed to move a pallet to the delivery storage. Rootcase- and risk analysis have been performed which, together with time- and frequency studies, have shown major economic consequencesThe improvement proposals that are generated are designed from the results of the empiric studies with connections to the theoretical framework and studies in literature. Proposals of a conventional pallet rack, releasing of area in storage and usage of readers of barcode are presented with reasoned advantages, where the storage can be more productive, functional and secure to reduce unnecessary searching and castling’s. Furthermore, proposals of digitalized documents are being presented to integrate quality assurance. Waists as movements and overproduction would be eliminated as fewer faults would arise, as for example: sloppy notes in documents and/or lost document that are a couple of today’s issues at the Company.

  • Karlsson, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Butoyi, Guy Igor
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Teknisk analys av felkällor kring äggpaketeringen hos DAVA Foods i Skara: med hjälp av produktionstekniska metoder och verktyg2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    DAVA Foods is a food industry that is one of Sweden's largest companies in the processing and packaging of eggs. The company on which this degree project is carried out in is located in Skara and the work has its main focus on the packaging process of the 24-pack as well as 10-pack egg cartons sold for grocery shopping.The thesis work is to do a technical analysis of sources of errors regarding the egg packaging at DAVA Foods. Students will use various production engineering tools to identify and evaluate improvement proposals on 24-packflow. Students will also identify and evaluate improvement proposals on 10-packflow and identify and evaluate improvement proposals to better alert staff when stops occurs in the process.The PDCA planning tool was used to plan and structure the work once and then a current analysis of flows was made. To gain a better understanding of the current state of the process, observations and interviews were used for data collection. The current position analysis was the base for the work's implementation phase where the root cause tool five why and the fishbone chart diagram was used to find root causes for found problems.The technical analysis of flows resulted in the creation of fourteen improvement proposals, of which eight of these improvement proposals belong to 24-packflow and the remainder to 10-packflows. A pick chart was then used to show which improvement proposals the students believe the companies should implement.The conclusion is that there are two improvement suggestions that should be considered in the 24-packflow. These are to smooth the flow with a new wrapping machine and to extend the conveyor belt, which would reduce wastage that occurs in the process.For 10-packflow, there are two improvements suggestions that should be implemented. These are the implementation of new boxes that have a different lock mechanism than the current ones, and the installation of new light beams to alert the staff the different conditions of the process. A rebuilding of the denester that supplies the flow with the packages, where the task of the denester is to separate the bottom package from the magazine and transport it further to the rotary machine that reverses the package, should also be considered to reduce losses that occur as a result of the packages being damaged in the magazine as the package pile bends when these have been stacked too high.

  • Sikka, Pilleriin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Dream affect: Conceptual and Methodological Issuesin the Study of Emotions and Moods Experienced in Dreams2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We experience affect—emotions and mood—not only when we are awake but alsoduring dreaming. Despite considerable research, existing theories and empiricalfindings disagree about the frequency, nature, and correlates of dream affect. In thisthesis, I discuss the conceptual and methodological issues that underlie thesediscrepancies. I present five empirical studies, the overall aim of which was toinvestigate the phenomenology and correlates of dream affect and how resultsregarding these are influenced by study methodology. Studies I–III focusedspecifically on methodological issues, by comparing self- and external ratings ofdream affect (Studies I–II) or the affective content of home and laboratory dreamreports (Study III). Studies IV and V investigated the waking well-being and neuralcorrelates of dream affect, respectively. These studies show that results andconclusions regarding dream affect are very different, even contradictory, dependingon whether dream reports have been collected using sleep laboratory awakenings orhome dream diaries (Study III) or whether dream affect has been measured usingself- or external ratings (Studies I–II). Self- and external ratings of dream affect arealso differently correlated with waking well-being (Study IV). Together, theseresults caution against making broad generalizations about affective dreamexperiences from findings obtained with one type of methodology only. The studiesalso demonstrate that dream affect is related to aspects of waking well-being and illbeing(Study IV) and that certain affective states experienced in dreams, specificallyanger, rely on similar neural processes as in wakefulness (Study V). These findingssuggest that the phenomenology and neural correlates of affective experiences are,at least to some extent, continuous across sleep and wakefulness. Overall, this thesisshows how the conceptual and methodological issues in the study of dream affectmay limit the validity, generalizability, and replicability of findings and,consequently, pose challenges to theory building and theory testing. It contributes todream research by highlighting the need, and suggesting ways, to enhance theconceptual clarity and methodological rigour of research on dream affect. Due to theinterdisciplinary nature of the thesis, the theoretical discussion and novel empiricalfindings also have implications for emotion research, sleep research, well-beingresearch, consciousness research, and affective neuroscience.

  • Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment.
    Att leda genom medarbetarskap i vården2018In: Cancervården, ISSN 1401-6583, no 1, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Chajma, Isbai
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Isuri, Jayasooriya Patabendige
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Vidareutveckling av kylvästar för räddningstjänsten2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet är utfört av två ingenjörsstudenter inom integrerad produktutveckling. Projektet har ett samarbete mellan Räddningstjänsten i Östra Skaraborg och TST Sweden. Syftet var att vidareutveckla en befintlig kylväst som är tillverkad av TST och används av Räddningstjänsten.En förstudie på relevant information kring kylvästen utfördes för att ta fram projektets förutsättningar. En litteraturstudie genomfördes för att samla in information kring brandpersonalens termiska ergonomi och kylvästar. En marknadsundersökning utfördes för att få information om konkurrenternas produkter. Enkät- och observationsresultat bidrog till viktig information om användarnas krav och önskemål. All information som förekom under förstudien sammanställdes i en kravspecifikation, som även uppdaterades under hela projektets gång. Under konceptgenereringen användes olika systematiska och kreativa metoderför att kunna ta fram alternativa koncept. För att ta fram ett slutgiltigt koncept utfördes en konceptsållning och en konceptkombination i samverkan med företaget TST. En prototyp byggdes upp för att kunna förverkliga det slutgiltiga konceptet och ge målgruppen en chans att ge feedback. Resultatet blev ett koncept som motverkar både värme- och arbetsbelastning. De existerande problemen eliminerades genom att storleksanpassa och avlägsna obehag som uppkom vid användning av produkten. Ergonomiska funktioner såsom ett ryggstöd och vadderade axlar har applicerats för att förhindra dålig hållning och underlätta vid tung lyftning. Konceptet har även nya fästen med magnetiska klickspännen som bidrar till bättre justering och en ny funktionellfärg.

  • Kallioinen, Minna
    et al.
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Scheinin, Annalotta
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland / Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Maksimow, Mikael
    Medicity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Finland.
    Långsjö, Jaakko
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland / Department of Intensive Care, Tampere University Hospital, Finland.
    Kaisti, Kaike
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland / Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Oulu University Hospital, Finland.
    Takala, Riikka
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Vahlberg, Tero
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Biostatistics, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Salmi, Marko
    Medicity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Finland / Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, Harry
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland / Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland / Integrative Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Finland.
    Maksimow, Anu
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    The influence of dexmedetomidine and propofol on circulating cytokine levels in healthy subjects2019In: BMC Anesthesiology, ISSN 1471-2253, E-ISSN 1471-2253, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 1-8, article id 222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Surgery and diseases modify inflammatory responses and the immune system. Anesthetic agents also have effects on the human immune system but the responses they induce may be altered or masked by the surgical procedures or underlying illnesses. The aim of this study was to assess how single-drug dexmedetomidine and propofol anesthesia without any surgical intervention alter acute immunological biomarkers in healthy subjects. Methods: Thirty-five healthy, young male subjects were anesthetized using increasing concentrations of dexmedetomidine (n = 18) or propofol (n = 17) until loss of responsiveness (LOR) was detected. The treatment allocation was randomized. Multi-parametric immunoassays for the detection of 48 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors were used. Concentrations were determined at baseline and at the highest drug concentration for each subject. Results: The changes in the concentration of eotaxin (decrease after dexmedetomidine) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, increase after propofol) were statistically significantly different between the groups. Significant changes were detected within both groups; the concentrations of monocyte chemotactic protein 1, chemokine ligand 27 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor were lower in both groups after the drug administration. Dexmedetomidine decreased the concentration of eotaxin, interleukin-18, interleukin-2Ra, stem cell factor, stem cell growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, and propofol decreased significantly the levels of hepatocyte growth factor, IFN-.-induced protein 10 and monokine induced by IFN-gamma, and increased the levels of interleukin-17, interleukin-5, interleukin-7 and PDGF. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine seemed to have an immunosuppressive effect on the immune system whereas propofol seemed to induce mixed pro- and anti-inflammatory effects on the immune system. The choice of anesthetic agent could be relevant when treating patients with compromised immunological defense mechanisms. Trial registration: Before subject enrollment, the study was registered in the European Clinical Trials database (EudraCT number 2013-001496-21, The Neural Mechanisms of Anesthesia and Human Consciousness) and in ClinicalTrials.gov (Principal Investigator: Harry Scheinin, number NCT01889004, The Neural Mechanisms of Anesthesia and Human Consciousness, Part 2, on the 23rd of June 2013).

  • Westin, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Activities to Support Sustainable Inclusive Game Design Processes2020In: EAI Endorsed Transactions on Creative Technologies, ISSN 2409-9708, Vol. 6, no 20, article id e4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The problem addressed in this work is the lack of knowledge of what inclusive game design would mean in practice within existing design processes of game companies. A pilot project was devised to involve both the game industry and disabled people.

    OBJECTIVES: The goal in this study was to identify activities that constitute the biggest obstacles to realising sustainable design processes for inclusive game design.

    METHODS: The study is mainly based on two full-day workshops with the game industry and three game studios, three organisations of disabled youth and authorities.

    RESULTS: Five activities were identified in the analysis of the workshops: 1) Find opportunities for inclusive game design; 2) Raise awareness about inclusive game design; 3) Handle integrity and security; 4) Recruit the right competence; and 5) Adapt workplaces and tools.

    CONCLUSION: The five main activities should be considered to achieve sustainable inclusive game design processes.

  • Su, Yanhui
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Business Intelligence Challenges for Independent Game Publishing2020In: International Journal of Computer Games Technology, ISSN 1687-7047, E-ISSN 1687-7055, Vol. 2020, p. 1-8, article id 5395187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the continuous development of the game industry, research in the game field is also deepening. Many interdisciplinary areas of knowledge and theory have been used to promote the development of the game industry. Business intelligence technologies have been applied to game development for game design and game optimization. However, few systematic research efforts have focused on the field of game publishing, particularly with regard to independent (indie) game publishing. In this paper, we analyse data collected from a set of interviews with small indie game developers. The results indicate that most of the indie game developers have already used business intelligence for game self-publishing, although three main challenges have been identified: first, how to conduct marketing promotion and improve the return on investment (ROI); second, how to collect game publishing data; and third, how to analyse the data in order to guide game self-publishing. Our interviews also reveal that the business model applied to a game significantly impacts the role of game analytics. The study expands and advances the research on how game analytics can be used for game publishing, particularly for indie game self-publishing.

  • Dahlberg, Erika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences.
    Sandberg, Patrik
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences.
    Kombinera två tjänster: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys om anestessjuksköterskors erfarenheter av kombinationstjänst mellen en operationsavdelning och ambulanssjukvård2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Bartlett, Madeleine E.
    et al.
    Centre for Robotics and Neural Systems, University of Plymouth, UK.
    Costescu, Cristina
    Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
    Baxter, Paul
    Lincoln Centre for Autonomous Systems, School of Computer Science, University of Lincoln, UK.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Requirements for Robotic Interpretation of Social Signals “in the Wild”: Insights from Diagnostic Criteria of Autism Spectrum Disorder2020In: Information, E-ISSN 2078-2489, Information, E-ISSN 2078-2489, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last few decades have seen widespread advances in technological means to characterise observable aspects of human behaviour such as gaze or posture. Among others, these developments have also led to significant advances in social robotics. At the same time, however, social robots are still largely evaluated in idealised or laboratory conditions, and it remains unclear whether the technological progress is sufficient to let such robots move “into the wild”. In this paper, we characterise the problems that a social robot in the real world may face, and review the technological state of the art in terms of addressing these. We do this by considering what it would entail to automate the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Just as for social robotics, ASD diagnosis fundamentally requires the ability to characterise human behaviour from observable aspects. However, therapists provide clear criteria regarding what to look for. As such, ASD diagnosis is a situation that is both relevant to real-world social robotics and comes with clear metrics. Overall, we demonstrate that even with relatively clear therapist-provided criteria and current technological progress, the need to interpret covert behaviour cannot yet be fully addressed. Our discussions have clear implications for ASD diagnosis, but also for social robotics more generally. For ASD diagnosis, we provide a classification of criteria based on whether or not they depend on covert information and highlight present-day possibilities for supporting therapists in diagnosis through technological means. For social robotics, we highlight the fundamental role of covert behaviour, show that the current state-of-the-art is unable to charact

  • Zelinka, Zsofia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Tillämpningen av WHO:s checklista vid operation: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Mahmoud, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    The Kaizen Agent: A self-driving car continuously learns by imagination2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For an agent to autonomously interact in a real world environment, it needs tolearn how to behave in the different scenarios that it may face. There are differentapproaches of modeling an artificial agent with interactive capabilities. Oneapproach is providing the agent with knowledge beforehand. Another approachis to let the agent learn from data and interaction. A well-known techniques ofthe former approach is supervised learning. In this approach, data is collected,labeled and provided to train the network as pre-defined input and correct outputas a training set. This requires data to be available beforehand. In a realworld environment however, it is difficult to determine all possible interactionsand provide the correct response to each. The agent thus needs to be able tolearn by itself from the environment to figure out the best reaction in each situation.To facilitate this, the agent needs to be able to sense the environment,make decisions and react back to the environment. The agent repeats this tryingdifferent decisions. To learn from these trials, the agent needs to accumulate oldexperiences, learn and adjust its knowledge and develop progressively after eachinteraction. However, in many applications, experiencing various actions in differentscenarios is difficult, dangerous or even impossible. The agent thereforeneeds an experimental environment where it can safely explore the possibilities,learn from experiences and develop new skills.This research aims to develop a methodology to build an interactive learningagent that can improve its learning performance progressively and perform wellin real world environments. The agent follows the Japanese concept Kaizenwhich refers to activities that continuously improve all functions. It meansstriving for continuous improvement and not radically changing processes. Thecontribution of this research is first to model and develop this agent so thatit can acquire new knowledge based on existing knowledge without negativelyaffecting the old knowledge and skills. Secondly, this research aims to developa novel method to systematically generate synthetic scenarios that contributesto its learning performance.This proposal consists of the background of artificial cognitive systems, acomparison of the theories and approaches in artificial cognitive systems fordeveloping a learning interactive system, and a review of the state of the artin reinforcement learning. Imagination-based learning is discussed and the purposesof imagination are defined. Imagination for creation is used as a scenariogenerator for practicing new skills without the necessity to try them all in thereal world. The research proposal results in the research questions and objectivesto be investigated as well as an outline of the methodology.

  • Mahmoud, Sara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Svensson, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Cognitively-inspired episodic imagination for self-driving vehicles2019In: Towards Cognitive Vehicles: perception, learning and decision making under real-world constraints. Is bio-inspiration helpful?: Proceedings, 2019, p. 28-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The controller of an autonomous vehicle needsthe ability to learn how to act in different driving scenariosthat it may face. A significant challenge is that it is difficult,dangerous, or even impossible to experience and explore variousactions in situations that might be encountered in the realworld. Autonomous vehicle control would therefore benefitfrom a mechanism that allows the safe exploration of actionpossibilities and their consequences, as well as the ability tolearn from experience thus gained to improve driving skills.In this paper we demonstrate a methodology that allows alearning agent to create simulations of possible situations. Thesesimulations can be chained together in a sequence that allowsthe progressive improvement of the agent’s performance suchthat the agent is able to appropriately deal with novel situationsat the end of training. This methodology takes inspirationfrom the human ability to imagine hypothetical situations usingepisodic simulation; we therefore refer to this methodology asepisodic imagination.An interesting question in this respect is what effect thestructuring of such a sequence of episodic imaginations hason performance. Here, we compare a random process to astructured one and initial results indicate  that a structuredsequence outperforms a random one.