The threat superiority effect refers to an ability to quickly and efficiently detect threatening cues in one’s environment. Hence, ensuing and appropriate behavioral defense responses entail greater chances of survival for an organism. Some researchers argue that natural selection has led us to automatically prioritize threats that would have been salient during the period of evolutionary adaptation; as for example snakes. However, others have also argued that activation of our defense response system is more flexible, thus able to also be triggered to dangers of more recent age: such as guns or airplane crashes. The present study has sought to impact this debate, by measuring the electrodermal activity (EDA) – more specifically the skin conductance responses (SCRs) – of subjects who were visually presented with both evolutionary (snakes and spiders) and modern (guns and knives) fear-relevant stimuli. The results demonstrated no significant difference between the two categories within subjects, suggesting that both evolutionary and modern threatening cues activate the defense response system in a similar manner. Although the results are preliminary, and would need further verification in higher powered studies, they can be seen to favor the view that our defense response system is flexibly adaptive in relation to the age of a given threat.
The aim of this study is to take a closer look at how customization, or the lack thereof, affectsthe player to character emotional bond and identification in a digital game. Examining previousarticles and studies with similar aim, the lack of study pertaining to a certain game formatsurfaced and sparked a research interest. To gain some clarity into how character customization,and the identification and bond it inspires in players, would be affected by a non-audiovisualbranching stories digital game the researcher created a small game for this study. This paperexplores if previous research results on RPGs can be transferred to the format of a text-basednon-audiovisual branching story game. For this qualitative study, ten people, divided in twogroups, played a version of the game and answered follow-up questions in the form of aquestionnaire. In addition, some observations were carried out of the game play sessions. Theseanswers were studied to give the individuals perspective, as well as allowing for the study of thephenomena by reviewing multiple perspectives to distinguish patterns. The results indicate thatcaring for a character takes longer if the player is not allowed to customize it. It was also indicated that the actual customization was more important than the character created.
Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur lärarna på handelsprogrammet arbetar med ett inkluderande arbetssätt, samt deras uppfattningar om arbetet med ett inkluderande arbetssätt, tillgänglighet och individanpassning i undervisningen. Syftet kompletteras med att introducera ett annat begrepp - digitalisering och dess påverkan över omtalade områdena. Undersökningen är av kvalitativ art och bedrivs i form av en fallstudie med holistisk infallsvinkel där analysenheten är handelsprogrammet, ett yrkesprogram på en gymnasieskola. För att kunna betrakta praktiken ur olika infallsvinklar samlades empirin genom klassrumsobservationer kompletterade med semistrukturerade intervjuer. Studien bekräftar tidigare forskning och visar en spänning mellan lärarnas handling och uppfattning när det gäller begreppen inkluderande arbetssätt och tillgänglighet, samt påpekar ett behov av utvidgning i lärarnas förståelse över koncepternas innebörd genom kollegialt lärande eller under lärarutbildningen. Studien utmynnar även i en diskussion om begreppsanvändning och yrkesspråk som pelare av lärarprofessionaliteten. Digitalisering ses i generella drag ha en positiv påverkan över lärarnas arbete med ovannämnda områdena men ses komma hand i hand med självdisciplin och som källa till förändringar på olika plan: i undervisningen, lärares planeringsarbete, och lärarens roll i klassrummet.
This paper examines the relationship between identities and the bicycle as portrayed in films. The analysis finds that taking the viewpoint of the bicycle emancipates the bicycle from being subjected to closure, as the constructionists would have it, and thus articulates the differences with which the bicycle can communicate to its rider. The paper examines the bicycle as depicted in three films: Premium Rush (Davis Koepp, 2012), A Sunday in Hell (Jørgen Leth, 1977) and Life on Earth (Abderrahmane Sissako, 1998). It engages with the concept of ‘interpretative flexibility’ and the development of the bicycle, as examined by Wiebe Bijker and others, and argues that the interpretative flexibility of bicycles does not cease just because the high-wheeler was abandoned and the ‘safety’ bicycle was universally accepted. The fight for the role of the bicycle continues and the bicycle is subject to constant transformations in order to reconstruct it according to human needs. Andrew Feenberg’s modified constructivism is applied to re-examine the technical development of the bicycle, claiming that technology is dependent on specific social structures as well as human agency. The paper argues that just as social structures are negotiable and unfixed at any point in time, the bicycle too is never neutral but remains negotiable and unfixed. Consequently, since the bicycle constantly ‘speaks’ back to the user, there is never closure in the technical development of the bicycle. Drawing on the writings of Bruno Latour and the Deleuzian idea of assemblages, the bicycle and its rider are considered as an organic entity that is constantly forged and un-forged. Understanding the rhetoric of the bicycle machine helps the convergence of a bicycle becoming with becoming a rider, marking the bicycle as equal to its rider. Viewed in this way, the hierarchy of agency collapses and a crystallization emerges out of the rider and bicycle entwinement.
Nöje är en viktig aspekt i spel som spelas för underhållning. För att kontrollera om ett spel är roligt krävs speltestning, men i denna process uppstår det flera nivåer av störvariabler som påverkar tolkningen av resultatet. Det tycks alltså finnas ett behov av objektiva och mätbara variabler i speltestning. Därför ämnade denna studie besvara frågan om vad sambandet mellan antal misslyckanden och upplevt nöje är. I undersökningen bjöds 18 respondenter in för att spela ett pusselspel, som hade konstruerats enligt etablerade designprinciper och med syftet att tydligt visa när spelarna gör felaktiga handlingar som resulterar i misslyckanden. Därefter besvarade de inbjudna respondenterna på en frågeenkät, som utformades enligt Sweetser och Wyeths GameFlow-modell, för att uppskatta deras upplevda nöje. Två potentiella samband kunde uppmärksammas: Pusselspel tycks ha en mängd misslyckanden, ett gyllene intervall, som resulterar i mest nöje, och gradvisa förändringar i antal misslyckanden i nivåer som följer varandra ökar spelarens upplevelse av nöje.
"Man is the only creature that in some interesting and developed sense educate their offspring." (Säljö, 2015, p. 11). From an existential point of view, the question why is easy to answer. Human beings´ survival in the present and their offspring's life chances and survival in the future increases by education. In Sweden, the ability to swim and knowledge about swimming have been given a great cultural value both in primary socialization (education by the family, relatives and friends) as well as in secondary socialization (curriculum-driven education in school).In more recent years, many people have migrated to Sweden, to escape war and persecution in their home countries. In school, it becomes evident that many children and adolescents who have recently migrated to Sweden cannot swim. In the learning outcomes for grade 6 and grade 9 in physical education, it states clearly that: "Students can also swim 200 meters with 50 meters in the supine position" (Skolverket, 2011, pp. 51-54). The student must be able to fulfil this requirement in order to at least achieve the grade E in physical education. An important issue is then to understand the kinds of experiences with swimming and more in general their confidence with water that these children and adolescents carry from their countries of origin. The aim of this study is to develop teachers professional skills by gaining knowledge and understanding of young migrants prior understanding of swimming and what adjustments need to be made for students to meet proficiency requirements to fulfil the learning outcomes concerning swimming in the Swedish school system for year 6 and year 9.Undertaken was a mixed design study were initially a explorative survey of perceptions and experiences in swimming and later follow-up qualitative research interviews with newly migrated adolescents, aged 12-16 years. Finally, qualitative research interviews were conducted with expert adults working in Swedish schools and sharing the migrants´ cultural background. Qualitative data was analysed using a categorical content analysis. The statistical data from the survey was triangulated against the adolescent informants´ and the adult informants´ stories. The results show lack of aquatic experience both in primary and secondary socialization; a pronounced effect of socio-economic status; tradition combined with religious traits can also be inhibiting factors for swimming ability, especially by gender. Results are important for teachers educating migrants in physical education and adapting learning situations.