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  • Hantoft, Linda
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Specialist på det oförutsedda?: Anestesisjuksköterskans roll vid stora olyckor och katastrofer2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: För att upprätthålla en så normal kvalitet på vården som möjligt och minska det psykiska och fysiska lidandet vid stora olyckor och katastrofer måste resurserna ledas och fördelas på ett annat sätt än i sjukvårdens vardagsorganisation. Detta medför en omställning i sättet att bedriva sjukvård på till katastrofmedicinsk metodik. Anestesisjuksköterskan är en viktig del i den katastrofmedicinska beredskapen men hur anestesisjuksköterskan själv uppfattar sin roll är ett sparsamt utforskat område. Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva anestesisjuksköterskans uppfattning om sin roll vid stora olyckor och katastrofer. Metod: En kvalitativ metod användes, där 10 semistrukturerade intervjuer med anestesisjuksköterskor har analyserats med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultat: Efter analys framkom fyra kategorier; vara en del i något större, vara närmast patienten, genom sin profession känna trygghet och medvetenhet och få förutsättningar att fungera i sin roll. Det genomgående temat i anestesisjuksköterskans uppfattningar är att genom sin profession vara en livsviktig nyckelfunktion med vilja att verka i den på bästa sätt. Konklusion: Anestesisjuksköterskan har en betydelsefull och komplex roll i den katastrofmedicinska beredskapsorganisationen men efterfrågar kunskap och utbildning för att kunna verka effektivt och säkert. Den katastrofmedicinska beredskapen måste lyftas och medvetandegöras i verksamheten.

  • Andersson, My
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Pettersson, Annika
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Förutsättningar att vårda patient med trauma nivå-1: En kvalitativ intervjustudie av operationssjuksköterskans erfarenheter2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Trauma care is included in Swedish healthcare services. A patient in need of trauma care is treated by the severity of injuries. According to national guidelines trauma is divided into two different levels, level-1 being the most severe that often require lifesaving efforts. Operating theater nurses is one of the team members that is part of the operative care. Professional competence is required along with stress resistance in the pre- and intraoperative care.

    The aim: The aim of the study was to illustrate experiences of operating theater nurse´s care of patients with trauma level-1 with focus on qualifications.  

    Method: A qualitative method was used where the data material was analyzed with qualitative content analysis. The data is based on interviews with ten operating theater nurses from a University hospital and a regional hospital.

    Results: One main theme with three underlying categories emerged. Operating theater nurses participation in provided care and sense of safety is an overall theme that contains three categories which are personal and professional resources, learning resources and organizational resources, each with associated subcategories.

    Conclusion: Participation in the trauma care, sense of safety and a variety of learning sources was evident as qualifications for care. Structure and leadership was further conditions that emerged as important parts for collaboration that enhances the possibility for the operation theater nurse to perform trauma care level-1.

  • Holmgren, Gustav
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Ulfenborg, Benjamin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Asplund, Annika
    R&D, Hepatocyte Product Development, Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Toet, Karin
    Department of Metabolic Health Research, TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Andersson, Christian X.
    R&D, Hepatocyte Product Development, Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Ann
    The Lundberg Laboratory for Diabetes Research, Departments of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hanemaaijer, Roeland
    Department of Metabolic Health Research, TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Küppers-Munther, Barbara
    R&D, Hepatocyte Product Development, Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Characterization of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes with Mature Features and Potential for Modeling Metabolic Diseases2020In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 21, no 2, article id E469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong anticipated future for human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes (hiPS-HEP), but so far, their use has been limited due to insufficient functionality. We investigated the potential of hiPS-HEP as an in vitro model for metabolic diseases by combining transcriptomics with multiple functional assays. The transcriptomics analysis revealed that 86% of the genes were expressed at similar levels in hiPS-HEP as in human primary hepatocytes (hphep). Adult characteristics of the hiPS-HEP were confirmed by the presence of important hepatocyte features, e.g., Albumin secretion and expression of major drug metabolizing genes. Normal energy metabolism is crucial for modeling metabolic diseases, and both transcriptomics data and functional assays showed that hiPS-HEP were similar to hphep regarding uptake of glucose, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and fatty acids. Importantly, the inflammatory state of the hiPS-HEP was low under standard conditions, but in response to lipid accumulation and ER stress the inflammation marker tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) was upregulated. Furthermore, hiPS-HEP could be co-cultured with primary hepatic stellate cells both in 2D and in 3D spheroids, paving the way for using these co-cultures for modeling non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Taken together, hiPS-HEP have the potential to serve as an in vitro model for metabolic diseases. Furthermore, differently expressed genes identified in this study can serve as targets for future improvements of the hiPS-HEP.

  • Strålman, Malin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Österlund, Felicia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Ett dolt yrke: Sjuksköterskors uppfattning om operationssjuksköterskans profession2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a shortage specialized nurses both national and international which leads to increasing waiting time for surgery and a suffering for the patient. The lack of operating theater nurses makes it important to examine how the profession is seen and if it needs to be illuminated to make it more interesting. Purpose: The purpose was to examine nurses' perceptions of the operation theatre nursing profession. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach containing qualitative elements based on web survey with open and closed response options. Result: Nurses consider the knowledge of the operating nursing profession to be satisfactorily. The profession is considered as important, physical demanding and unknown for nurses outside the operating ward. Conclusion: The operating theater nurse is considered as important for the patient safety and is an important part of the surgical team. Despite that nurses consider themselves having knowledge of the profession the operating theater nurse is considered a hidden profession and there is a need to further make the profession visible. 

  • Gustafsson, Lisa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Olofsson, Anine
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Följsamhet av basala hygienrutiner på operationssal2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Verksamheter som innefattas av Hälso- och sjukvårdslagen ska följa föreskriften om basal hygien i vård och omsorg vilket är det mest grundläggande åtgärden för att förebygga vårdrelaterade infektioner. Årligen drabbas 65 000 människor av vårdrelaterade infektioner som leder till stora kostnader för samhället och patienter utsätts för onödigt lidande. För att förhindra uppkomsten av vårdrelaterade infektioner har samtliga på en operationssal ett gemensamt ansvar att försöka förhindra det. Syfte: Syftet är att undersöka vårdpersonalens följsamhet av basala hygienrutiner på operationssal. Metod: En strukturerad deskriptiv observation med kvantitativ ansats. Studien omfattade 22 observationstillfällen på två sjukhus i Västra Götaland. Resultat: Resultatet visar att majoriteten av anestesisjuksköterskorna och pass använde engångsförkläde. Majoriteten av operationssjuksköterskorna förhöll sig till hygienrutinerna vid klädseln av den sterila delen av operationen. Följsamheten till hygienrutinerna uppnåddes vidare i varierande grad. Under observationerna öppnades dörrarna totalt 393 gånger och 149 människor har befunnit sig på operationen. Konklusion: Studien visar att det finns brister vad gäller följsamheten av hygienrutiner. Det är viktigt att uppmärksamma för att kunna planera förbättringsarbete på de avdelningar observationerna ägt rum. Konsekvenserna blir både ekonomiska märkbara och patienten blir utsatt för ett vårdlidande. Därför är det viktigt att på en operationsavdelning jobba på ett systematiskt sätt för att förbättra rutinerna kring hygien.

  • Cederqvist, Elin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Torsson, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Propofols väg till patienten: Anestesisjuksköterskors följsamhet till och uppfattningar av aseptiska hygienrutiner vid iordningställande och administrering av propofol2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: previous research shows evidence of multiple risks while administering drugs in an anesthetic context which lead to in iatrogenic contamination and health-care related infections. This leads to increased patient suffering, prolonged hospitalization, and increased health-care costs. Partly, this is caused by risk factors which are considered reasonably easy to prevent, preventative by compliance to basic hygiene routines. Within anesthetic care there is broad usage and increased prevalence of propofol-based intravenous anesthesia. Propofol has a predisposition for microbiological growth which means that it is sensitive to contamination, and should be handled aseptically. Aim: examine nurse anesthetists’ compliance to and perceptions of aseptic hygiene routines when preparing and administering propofol. Method: prospective quantitative cross-sectional study with a deductive approach. In this study, 22 nurse anesthetists were observed and were later asked in a questionnaire, to estimate their own perceptions of aseptic conduct while handling propofol. Result: the result demonstrates lack of adherence both in basic hygiene routines and aseptic handling of propofol. Conclusion: lack of adherence to aseptic routines concludes a risk for iatrogenic infections thus leading to patient suffering.

  • Eigert, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Lennartsson, Amanada
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av bemötandet i vården vid endometrios: En kvalitativ metod2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Endometrios är en sjukdom där livmoderslemhinnan växer på annan plats än i livmodern och drabbarca 10-15% av alla kvinnor i fertil ålder. Kvinnor som söker vård drabbas olika av bemötandet. Sjukvården skyller på psykisk ohälsa eller att det är normalt att ha menssmärta, när det fortsätter så leder det til lett vårdlidande för kvinnorna. Syfte: En kvalitativ innebördsanalys som bestod av 17 berättelser. Resultat: I resultatet framkom  två teman; Den långa kampen och Vändpunkten. Det framkom även sju underteman. Konklusion: Sjuksköterskor behöver ökad kunskap om endometrios och hur det påverkar kvinnors hälsa och välbefinnande för att kunna bemöta kvinnorna i vården. Kvinnor behöver ett större stöd från sjuksköterskan i den långa kampen till god vård och ökat välbefinnande. 

  • Ekelund Ugge, Gustaf Magnus Oskar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Annie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Sjöback, Robert
    TATAA Biocenter, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berglund, Olof
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Transcriptional and biochemical biomarker responses in a freshwater mussel (Anodonta anatina) under environmentally relevant Cu exposure2020In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Razzaghi, Milad
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Möjligheter och utmaningar vid användning av GPS-data i Bio feedback-system för analys av fotbollsspelare inom svenska klubbar2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish football is something that develops continuously every year and with the help of various tools within the sport, the sport also gets better based on the quality of the football field. Swedish football teams are getting further out in Europe and playing European championships in both the Champions League and the Europa League. There are small points that are addressed in this study and that is how tools such as biofeedback systems can help players in Swedish football clubs to develop in order for Swedish football standers to be raised and thus make Swedish football become remarkable. In this study, 10 people who work in football are interviewed as either leaders or players from two different clubs, a team where biofeedback systems are used and a team where they use the traditional method of analysis. This distinguishes the clubs because the possibility of better insight into why a system benefits players and the team more should be shown more clearly. They got interview questions they had to answer from their own perspective and how they see it all in biofeedback systems and IT in football and how it has affected football. The football clubs that the respondents come from are BK Häcken and Utsikten BK.

  • Abdulrazzaq, Sama
    et al.
    Department of Bariatric Surgery/Bariatric Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
    Elhag, Wahiba
    Department of Bariatric Surgery/Bariatric Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
    El Ansari, Walid
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Mohammad, Amjad Salah
    Departments of General Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
    Sargsyan, Davit
    Department of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, Qatar.
    Bashah, Moataz
    Department of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, Qatar.
    Primary vs Revisional Gastric Bypass for Weight Loss and Improvements in Comorbidities: Comparisons at Mid-term Follow-up2019In: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Revisional gastric bypass (R-RYGB) surgery is utilized for the management of inadequate weight loss or weight regain observed after some cases of bariatric surgeries. Data on the mid-term effectiveness of primary gastric bypass (P-RYGB) compared to R-RYGB (e.g., post sleeve gastrectomy or gastric banding) are controversial. Methods: Retrospective chart review of all patients who received P-RYGB and R-RYGB (January 2011 - June 2015) at our center. One hundred and twenty patients who underwent P-RYGB and 34 R-RYGB who completed 18 months follow-up were included. We compared the effectiveness of P-RYGB with R-RYGB by assessing four anthropometric, two glycemic, and four lipid parameters, as well as the control of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), hypertension and dyslipidemia in terms of remission, improvement, persistence, relapse and de novo. The current study also assessed mortality and complications rates. Results: There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics of patients who received P-RYGB with those who received R-RYGB in terms of age, gender and preoperative BMI. However, at 18 months: a) Patients who received P-RYGB had lower mean weight (P = 0.001) and BMI (P <0.001), reflected by a higher mean delta BMI (P = 0.02), TWL%(P <0.0001) and EWL%(P < 0.0001); b) No differences were observed between the two patients groups in terms of glycemic parameters, lipid profiles, and control of T2DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia; and, c) No deaths were reported among both patients groups, and complication rates were comparable. Conclusion: Although R-RYGB effectively addressed inadequate weight loss, weight regain and recurrence of comorbidities after restrictive bariatric surgery, R-RYGB resulted in inferior weight loss compared to P-RYGB. There were no significant differences between the two procedures in terms of their clinical control of T2DM, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Both procedures exhibited comparable complication rates. 

  • Norén, Oskar
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Konkurrensen mellan röding, sik och lake i Vättern: En djupdykning i tre konsumenters födopreferenser. Två tidsperioder: 1964-1978 samt 2006-20112020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lake Vättern contains Swedens most valuable population of arctic charr (Salvelinus umbla). The stock of this Salmonidae fish showed a negative trend for several decades but has now turned to a more positive one. Too minimize the risk of a new backlash it is important to obtain knowledge about the arctic charr and its interaction with other species. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interspecific competition between arctic charr and two other valuable species i.e. whitefish (Coregonus maraena) and burbot (Lota lota). Data of stomach contents from two periods (1964-1978 & 2006-2011) were analyzed. The consumers were divided into different groups with respect to size and season. The measure of the competition was then answered quantitatively with two indexes (Pianka & Laubmeier). The results support the conclusion that small charr (<30 cm) was exposed of remarkably tough competition from whitefish regarding the older period. This derives from the fact that these two species show a very similar diet including Opossum shrimp (Mysis relicta) and Monoporeia affinis. With increasing size charr turns to a more piscivore diet and begins to compete with burbot. The piscivorous charr consumes mostly smelt (Osmerus eperlanus) while burbot shows a more diverse behavior of  its selection of fish species as a resource. The fact that these three species can coexist despite tough competition likely derives from the fact that Vätterns food web contains a lot of actors at the lower trophic levels.

  • Hammad, Yasser
    et al.
    Department of Anesthesiology, ICU and Perioperative Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, Box 3050, Doha, Qatar / Department Clinical Anesthesiology, Weill Cornell Medicine, Doha, Qatar.
    Elmoghazy, Walid
    Department of Transplant Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / Department of Surgery, Sohag University, Egypt.
    El Ansari, Walid
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Lance, Marcus
    Department of Anesthesiology, ICU and Perioperative Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / Department Clinical Anesthesiology, Weill Cornell Medicine, Doha, Qatar.
    Zaghw, Ahmed
    Department of Anesthesiology, ICU and Perioperative Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
    Shallik, Nabil
    Department of Anesthesiology, ICU and Perioperative Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / Department Clinical Anesthesiology, Weill Cornell Medicine, Doha, Qatar / Department of Anesthesia, SICU, Tanta University, Egypt.
    Experimental effect of different dilutions of blood with human plasma protein fraction and large dose factor one on blood coagulation and chemistry in vitro2019In: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0019-5049, Vol. 63, no 12, p. 1015-1021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: Human plasma protein fraction 5% (PPF5%) is an albumin-based colloid used to expand the plasma volume during volume deficiency. The current basic medical experimental study assessed in vitro coagulation of PPF5% solution and its effects on blood coagulation and chemistry. Methods: The study involved 20 volunteers, and each volunteer donated 20-50 ml of fresh blood. Three dilutions of blood with PPF5% dilutions were prepared (30, 50, and 70%). The fibrinogen dose required to correct coagulation in the 50% diluted samples was assessed (two doses used). The thromboelastogram (TEG) measured the haemostatic parameters (fibrinogen level, initiation of coagulation [R time], kinetics [K], acceleration of coagulation [α angle], maximum amplitude [MA] and coagulation index [CI]), and the ABL gas analyser measured the blood chemistry changes. Results: All dilutions showed significant TEG and blood chemistry changes when compared to controls. The two doses of fibrinogen corrected the clot formation speed with no significant difference in speed between the two doses. Acidosis measured by the strong ion gap (SID) and pH were significant for all dilutions when compared with the baseline. The 30% dilution remained within the lower normal acceptable value while 50% dilution was beyond the critical normal values. Conclusion: In vitro PPF5% to replace blood loss up to 50% dilution did not have significant coagulation and blood chemistry effects while coagulopathy should be expected in extreme dilutions (70%). Fibrinogen in a dose equivalent to 4 gm/70 kg adult improved clot strength at 50% dilution. 

  • Scholtes, Rosalie A.
    et al.
    Diabetes Centre, Department of Internal Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Centres, location VUmc, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    van Raalte, Daniël H.
    Diabetes Centre, Department of Internal Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Centres, location VUmc, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Correa-Rotter, Ricardo
    Nephrology and Mineral Metabolism, National Medical Science and Nutrition Institute Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Toto, Robert D.
    University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States.
    Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.
    Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Netherlands.
    Cain, Valerie
    Bogier Clinical and IT Solutions Inc., Raleigh, NC, United States.
    Sjöström, C. David
    AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stefánsson, Bergur V.
    AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The effects of dapagliflozin on cardio-renal risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes with or without renin-angiotensin system inhibitor treatment: a post hoc analysis2019In: Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, ISSN 1462-8902, E-ISSN 1463-1326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) are the most effective treatments for diabetic kidney disease but significant residual renal risk remains, possibly because of other mechanisms of kidney disease progression unrelated to RAS that may be present. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors reduce albuminuria and may complement RASi by offering additional renal protection. This post hoc analysis investigated the effects of dapagliflozin on cardio-renal risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with increased albuminuria treated with or without RASi at baseline. Materials and methods: We evaluated the effects of dapagliflozin 10 mg/day over 12–24 weeks across 13 placebo-controlled studies in patients with T2D with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥30 mg/g at baseline. Patients were divided into two subgroups based on treatment with or without RASi at baseline. Results: Compared with patients with RASi at baseline (n = 957), patients without RASi (n = 302) were younger, had a shorter duration of diabetes (7 vs. 12 years), higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and lower UACR, serum uric acid (sUA), body weight and systolic blood pressure. Placebo-adjusted treatment effects of dapagliflozin on UACR, eGFR, glycated haemoglobin and haematocrit over 24 weeks were similar across groups. Mean reductions in body weight and sUA were more distinct in patients without RASi treatment at baseline. Conclusions: Treatment with dapagliflozin over 24 weeks provides similar clinically relevant improvements in metabolic and haemodynamic parameters, and similar reductions in UACR, in patients with T2D with elevated albuminuria treated with or without RASi at baseline. © 2019 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • Buck, Christoph
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology, BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lauria, Fabio
    National Research Council, Institute of Food Sciences, Avellino, Italy.
    Konstabel, Kenn
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Page, Angie
    Centre for Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences, School for Policy Studies, Bristol, United Kingdom / NIHR Bristol Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, University of Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology, BIPS, Bremen, Germany / Faculty of Mathematics/Computer Science, University of Bremen, Germany.
    Pigeot, Iris
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology, BIPS, Bremen, Germany / Faculty of Mathematics/Computer Science, University of Bremen, Germany.
    Urban Moveability and physical activity in children: Longitudinal results from the IDEFICS and I.Family cohort2019In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical activity (PA) is one of the major protective behaviours to prevent non-communicable diseases. Positive effects of the built environment on PA are well investigated, although evidence of this association is mostly based on cross-sectional studies. The present study aims to investigate the longitudinal effects of built environment characteristics in terms of a moveability index on PA of children in their transition phase to adolescence using data of the IDEFICS/I.Family cohort. Methods: We used data on 3394 accelerometer measurements of 2488 children and adolescents aged 3 to 15 years old from survey centres of three countries, Germany, Italy, and Sweden, who participated in up to three surveys over 6 years. In network-dependent home neighbourhoods, a moveability index was calculated based on residential density, land use mix, street connectivity, availability of public transport and public open spaces such as green spaces and public playgrounds in order to quantify opportunities for PA of children and adolescents. Linear trajectories of light PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) were estimated using linear mixed models accounting for repeated measurements nested within individuals. Least squares means were estimated to quantify differences in trajectories over age. Results: LPA and MVPA declined annually with age by approximately 20 min/day and 2 min/day respectively. In girls, the moveability index showed a consistent significantly positive effect on MVPA (β $ \hat{\beta} $ = 2.14, 95% CI: (0.11; 4.16)) for all ages, while in boys the index significantly lessened the decline in LPA with age for each year. (β $ \hat{\beta} $ = 2.68, 95% CI: (0.46; 4.90)). Availability of public open spaces was more relevant for MVPA in girls and LPA in boys during childhood, whereas in adolescence, residential density and intersection density became more important. Conclusion: Built environment characteristics are important determinants of PA and were found to have a supportive effect that ameliorates the decline in PA during the transition phase from childhood to adolescence. In childhood environmental support for leisure time PA through public open spaces was found to be the most protective factor whereas in adolescence the positive influence of street connectivity and residential density was most supportive of physical activity. © 2019 The Author(s).

  • Islam, M. S.
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, K. Svante
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Peeling of metal foil from a compliant substrate2019In: The journal of adhesion, ISSN 0021-8464, E-ISSN 1563-518XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large displacement peel was studied for cases where a compliant substrate leads to a large value of the root rotation. An existing simplified beam model to calculate the peel fracture energy was modified to allow for a kinematic hardening beam model of the foil. The steady-state peel force and the root rotation were used as input data to the resulting analytical beam model. Test results from the literature were analysed. A more elaborate finite element model was also studied, using cohesive elements for the interface layer between the foil and the substrate. The cohesive zone parameters used were the fracture energy, the cohesive strength and a shape parameter. An optimization scheme for the cohesive zone parameters was developed and optimized against experimental steady-state peel force and root rotation. The optimization scheme was effective to characterize the cohesive parameters. The method yields similar values of fracture energy for the two peel angles, with the one for being slightly higher than for . The difference in fracture energies for different peel angles suggests that the fracture energy can be mode dependent.

  • Abbay, Yonas Afewerki
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Patienters upplevelser av egenvård vid typ 2-diabetes2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund – Typ 2 diabetes mellitus är en av Värdens folksjukdomar som kraftigt ökar nedåt i åldrarna, med förändring i näringsvanor och stillasittande livsstil. Människor med typ 2 diabetes har stora risker att utveckla mikro- och makrovaskulära komplikationer och detta ökar behandlingskostnader och förkortar personens livslängd. Behandlingen för sjukdomen kräver att personen gör ett antal livsstilsförändringar i bland annat kost och motion. Syfte - syfte av denna studie är att beskriva patienters upplevelser av egenvård vid typ-2 diabetes. Metod - Denna studie genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt baserad på vetenskapliga artiklar med kvalitativ design. Resultat - analysen resulterade i olika upplevelser av egenvård och dessa har kategoriserats i huvudkategorier med underkategorier: 1) Att anpassa sig till de nya levnadsvanorna: Ny kosthållning och Nya motionsvanor, 2) Behöv av stöd; Stöd från närstående och Stöd från sjuksköterska, 3) Att lära sig nya levnadsvanor. Patienterna upplevde en förändrad livsstil på grund av de omständigheter diabetes gav. Information, motivation och färdigheter var tre viktiga faktorer för att patienterna skulle göra livstilförändring för att egenvård ska lyckas. Diskussion - Patienten själv och relationen till sjuksköterskan är huvudpunkter som påverkar patientens livstilförändringsprocessen för att egenvården ska lyckas. Sjuksköterskan gör allt för att uppnå maximalt stöd för patienten.