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  • Johansson, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Rosenberg, Therese
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Förstagångsmammors upplevelse av professionellt amningsstöd på BB2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breastfeeding is beneficial for mother and child. A positive lactation start may benefit breastfeeding. In recent decades breastfeeding rates in Sweden have fallen. Breastfeeding is not an innate ability but a process that must be learned by both mother and child. Professional support from the staff during the stay at maternity ward can provide a prerequisite for continued breastfeeding. Aim: To investigate first-time mothers experience of professional breastfeeding support in maternity ward. Method: Data was collected through questionnaires with an open question and analyzed by qualitative content analysis with inductive approach. 16 women participated. Results: The women described the importance of being seen as unique individuals during breastfeeding. The information and support they received from staff would be individualized to make them feel confirmed. The results of the study are presented in two categories: Being seen as unique individual in professional breastfeeding support and how the professional support offered is important for breastfeeding. These categories together form the theme: Personalized professional breastfeeding support causes first-time mothers to experience safety in the breastfeeding situation. Conclusion: First-time mothers who from the staff at maternity ward receive individualized professional breastfeeding support feel safe when breastfeeding and in the role of new mothers.

  • Alvvinter, Angelica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Gustafsson, Ida
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    ”Mitt KUB grumlade hela graviditeten”: Kvinnors upplevelser relaterat till genomfört KUB2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The demand on prenatal diagnosis increases among expecting parents. CUB is the most common method for the matter but doesn’t provide any diagnosis. CUB only calculates the probability of a fetus with trisomy 13, 18 or 21. Women aren’t always aware of this. Hence, careful preparations and information are necessary. This study was performed to enhance knowledge in women’s experiences in relation to have undergone CUB. Aim: To describe women’s experiences related to having undergone CUB. Method: A qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach was used. Internet was used for data collection. This collection resulted in 10 threads from bulletin board Familjeliv.se and 12 blogs which became the base for data analysis. Result: The analysis resulted in one theme: CUB is seen as an opportunity to confirm the pregnancy but leads to mixed feelings which the midwives need to support in a trustful way. Anxiety and fear are the most common emotions mentioned among women who have undergone CUB. Women felt that midwives didn’t always provide enough information or the requested information. The encounters with midwives during CUB were described as stressful and even unpleasant. Conclusion: CUB is seen as an early way to confirm the pregnancy. To reduce the anxiety, midwives need to give individualised information. Anxiety tends to obscure the pregnancy and remain a long time.

  • Larsson, Malin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Pettersson, Sandra
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Tillit och tvivel går hand i hand- gravida kvinnors tankar inför sitt första barns födelse: kvalitativ innehållsanalys baserad på kvalitativa frågeformulär2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Becoming a mother is a transition that leads the woman from a known to an unknown existence, both social and professional support can facilitate this revolutionary event. In order to offer a good support, more knowledge about women's thoughts on the birth of their first child is needed. Aim:To describe pregnant women's thoughts before the birth of their first child. Method: Qualitative content analysis with inductive approach. Qualitative questionnaires were answered by 18 informants. Findings: Four main categoriesreveal; thoughts about their own ability and experience, thoughts about the childbirth environment, thoughts about the partnerand thoughts about the unborn child. The theme that reveals is that pregnant women's thoughts about the birth of their first child commute between trust and doubt.Conclusion: Women have confidence in their own ability but at the same time concern about the unknown. Thoughts that the delivery may affect the experience, therefore it is important that the midwife helps the woman to handle her thoughts so that she gains realistic expectations. Women have ambivalent thoughts about the support she will be offered. Professional and social support is important for achieving a positive childbirth experience and therefore continuous support should be offered during childbirth.

  • Rendon, Patricia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Att arbeta förebyggande, ett viktigt men tidskrävande arbete: Vårdpersonalens erfarenheter av munvård hos personer med demenssjukdom2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Personer med demens har kognitiva nedsättningar. De får svårt att sköta sin egen munhygien, detta leder till en förvärring av den kroniska sjukdomen. Bemötandet är avgörande då de behöver känna tillit personen som hjälper till med munvården. Hinder uppstår vid kunskapsbrist och motstånd. Senior alert är hjälpmedel där dålig munhälsa kan identifieras. Syfte: Att beskriva vårdpersonalens erfarenheter av att främja munhälsan hos personer med demens. Metod: Litteraturöversikt med kvantitativ och kvalitativ ansats. Resultat: Två teman uppkom: Kunskap ger kompetens som innebär att kunskap om demens symtom, munhygien samt munvård är viktiga delar till en god munvård. En god kommunikation med gott samarbete personal emellan samt gentemot patienter är även detta viktiga delar. Hinder ger känsla av obehag innefattar när munvården blir svår att utföra då personal upplever organisatoriska hinder som tidsbrist och otillräcklig personal tillsättning samt hinder från patienter som verbalt och fysiskt motstånd. Konklusion: Kunskap om demens och munvård är viktigt för att kunna bibehålla en bra munhälsa där utbildning är nyckeln till kunskapen. Denna bör ges under utbildningen men även under arbetstiden. Även ges kontinuerligt då det sker personalomväxlingar och forskning går framåt.

  • Petersson, Louise
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Johansson, Michelle
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Förpackning och förpackningsavfall: Vem bär ansvar i en tänkt försörjningskedja för en plastförpackning för livsmedel2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An increased use of packaging has contributed to an increase of packaging waste. The purpose of this study is to identify how different organizations and consumer in a conceived supply chain affect waste disposal of packaging, how organizations and consumer can act and what obstacles and opportunities they encounter to contribute to a more environmentally friendly food packaging.

    The aesthetic ability of plastics, low weight and that the material is relatively inexpensive contributes to increase the use of plastic for packaging every year, as well as plastic packaging waste. Plastics can cause damage to animals and nature when the waste goes to landfill, and the raw material extraction of fossil raw materials continues if the packaging material is not minimized, reused or recycled. A certain packaging design and choice of material can contribute to increased profitability for the company, e.g. through resource minimization, marketing advantages and easier handling of packaging in the logistics flow. The design can also attract consumers to purchases as well as contribute to reuse, recycling, energy recovery or landfill waste of packaging. The increase in packaging has contributed to policy guidelines on waste management and statutory producer responsibility has develop. Food manufacturers are therefore responsible for the packaging they sell on the market even after consumers have used the product, which means they are responsible for establish collection- and recycling stations as well as waste minimization for packaging.

    The empirical research consists of ten interviewed companies and an anonymous consumer survey, which is divided into six different positions that may exist in a supply chain. All interviews and consumer research have touched upon subjects such as materials, recycling and environmental work that are associated with packaging. Due to the position of the different organizations and consumer in the supply chain and their views, actions and knowledge in different areas of the report, there is a variation in the collected data.

    Despite the organizations different viewpoints of packaging, packaging design and its environmental impact is influenced and influence all the organizations and consumer in the supply chain. To reduce the environmental impact of packaging the organization and consumer should consider packaging design, choice of materials and contribute to more sustainable actions for organizations and consumer. For example, through collaborations, reduced raw material extraction through material minimization, reuse and/or recycling, marketing, sorting waste and recycling processes.

  • Andersson, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Hermansson, Annika
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    #Kroppsuppfattning: En socialpsykologisk studie om hur unga individer upplever den egna kroppen när de använder Instagram2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett samhällsproblem i dagens Sverige är att fler individer i större utsträckning påverkas negativt av sociala medier. Instagram är ett av de största sociala medier som används idag och de bilder som publiceras på Instagram är oftast inriktade på kroppen. Denna kvalitativa fenomenologiska studie har som syfte att utforska och förstå unga individers upplevelse av kroppen vid användandet av Instagram. Studien använder kroppsuppfattning, utseendeideal, social jämförelse, social påverkan och kritiskt tänkande som teoretiska utgångspunkter för att skapa en djupare förståelse kring studiens fenomen och essens. Studien bidrar till en förståelse för det socialpsykologiska perspektivet gällande individens subjektiva upplevelse av kroppen utifrån Instagramanvändning. Tio informanter i åldrarna 18–25 år deltog i semistrukturerade intervjuer som analyserades utifrån en tematisk analysmetod. Resultatet visade att majoriteten av informanterna upplevde den egna kroppen negativt vid användandet av Instagram då de upplevde att kroppen som framställs på Instagram är snyggare, smalare och mer vältränad. Jämförelse mellan den egna kroppen och kroppen på Instagram visade sig därför vara av stor betydelse för hur informanterna upplevde kroppen. Resultatet visade även att kritiskt tänkande är en viktig del i hur nformanterna upplevde deras kroppsuppfattning vid användandet av Instagram.

  • Krus Hansson, Eric
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Default Mode Network and Its Role in Major Depressive Disorder2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates the relationship between a malfunctioning Default Mode Network (DMN) and the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A deeper understanding of how the DMN affects those brain processes which are implicated in MDD may offer new approaches to reduce the suffering of the very large number of MDD-afflicted patients. The MDD-DMN relationship has been investigated by studying scientific articles within the field of cognitive neuroscience and searching the articles for clues on how a malfunctioning DMN might correlate with the diagnosis of MDD. The essay concludes that there is much experimental evidence in support of there being a strong coupling between a malfunctioning DMN and the diagnosis of MDD.

  • Ringeby, Sebastian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Andersson, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Returhantering av kläder inom e-handel: Öka lönsamheten genom att minimera onödiga returer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med e-handelns starka tillväxt så har även antalet returer ökat och e-handelsföretag kan ha upp till 50 % i returandel vilket kan medföra höga kostnader. Detta har inneburit att returhanteringen blivit en allt viktigare del för e-handelsföretag.

    Syftet med denna studie är att få en bättre förståelse för hur returhanteringen ser ut hos e-handelsföretag inom klädbranschen. Problemfrågorna berör vilka utmaningar står e-handlare inför idag och vilka aktiviteter kan de använda sig av för att överkomma dessa utmaningar men även hur stort fokus olika stora företag bör lägga på sina returaktiviteter.

    Studien baseras på en litteraturgenomgång samt en intervjustudie på fyra olika stora e-handelsföretag. De intervjuade företagen är olika stora och har ett olika stort fokus på sin e-handel. Denna studie visar på vad de olika e-handelsföretagen har för fokus på sina returaktiviteter och vad det kan leda till.

    Returhanteringen och dess utmaningar ser annorlunda ut för olika e-handelsföretag. För att överkomma de utmaningar som e-handelsföretag står inför är det viktigt att ha väl fungerande aktiviteter inom avoidance, gatekeeping och returpolicy som stöds av den operativa returhanteringsprocessen. För både stora och små företag är det viktigt att ha en hög medvetenhet men för mindre företag behöver det inte vara kostnadseffektivt att lägga ett allt för stort fokus på sina returaktiviteter. Syftet med returhantering är att skapa en balans mellan försäljning och kostnader.

  • Schyllert Römo, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Raage, Yonis
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Vilka logistiska åtgärder kan ett grossistföretag vidta för att behålla lönsamheten i en mogen bransch?: En fallstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Till följd av IT-utvecklingen har grossisters roll i försörjningskedjan allt mer minskats på grund av effektiviseringsåtgärder i kedjan. Detta har medfört att många grossistföretag befinner sig under press att försöka bevara sitt nuvarande verksamhetsområde och därigenom lönsamheten. Företagets lönsamhet är direkt associerade med dess kostnader, något som visar på att sänkta kostnader är en nödvändighet för att generera en bättre lönsamhet. enna rapport omfattas av en fallstudie där syftet är att undersöka vilka logistiska åtgärder som ett grossistföretag kan vidta för att bibehålla lönsamheten i en mogen bransch. Denna problemfrågeställning har specificerats ytterligare i två delfrågor inom hemtagningskostnad och lagerhållningskostnad. Detta för att se på huruvida områdena kan bidra till en förbättrad lönsamhet. Studien omfattas av en kombination av kvantitativ och kvalitativ data för få en bred infallsvinkel över fallföretagets nuvarande situation och problematik.

    Total cost of ownership är en metod som bland annat omfattar ett företags lagerhållnings- och hemtagningskostnader. Den metod som grossistföretag kan använda sig av att minska sina hemtagnings- och lagerhållningskostnader är framförallt artikelklassificering. Metoden kan bidra med att särskilja vilka artiklar i ett företags lagersortiment som är strategisk viktiga och därmed ligga till grund för vilka artiklar som bör anskaffas mot lagerhållning samt moterhållna kundorders. I materialanskaffningssammanhang kan grossistföretag med fördel tillämpa en teoretisk mall för att beräkna den totala hemtagningskostnaden och därefter jämföra potentiella leverantörsalternativ för att välja de mest ekonomiskt fördelaktiga. För att beräkna lagerhållningskostnaden kan en formel användas för att få fram den årliga lagerhållningskostnaden per enhet. Formeln kan även visa på den kostnad som en viss lagerhållning förorsakar.

  • Tuğsal, Fatma Kübra
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Examination of primary school children's playing habits through digital puzzle games, and the impact of non-educational commercial puzzle games on the development of logical thinking in primary school children: An ethnographic case study with Supaplex2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Supaplex is a single player video-game released at the beginning of the 90's which known as a challenging puzzle game developed for MS-DOS and Amiga. Although Supaplex did not get an intense interest and did not become a "POP" icon like PacMan or Super Mario or Sonic during the 90's, it was quite popular among people who like puzzle games such as Boulder Dash. This paper aims to revive this nostalgic video-game and show if Supaplex help to improve the development of logical thinking in primary school children. This paper examines how can Supaplex effect on primary school children's way of developing problem-solving techniques. Moreover, this case study examines primary school children's playing habits at their own homes. The paper is based on an ethnographic case study in which I collaborated with a Turkish family to let their children play Supaplex at their home as a spare-time activity approximately five-month long period. During this five-month period, I went to their home and played Supaplex with the triplets.

  • Nordlöf, Johanna
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Könets påverkan på karaktärer i rollspel: En kvalitativ studie om könets påverkan på män och kvinnors uppfattning av karaktärer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker på hur karaktärer uppfattas av kvinnliga och manliga spelare beroende på vilket kön karaktären har i ett digitalt textbaserat rollspel. I arbetets bakgrund tas termer som genus, stereotyper och rollspel upp och diskuteras. Bakgrunden visar även hur dessa appliceras i spelvärlden samt presenterar vilken genusforskning som har utförts inom området med anknytning till digitala spel.

     Studien infattar en kvalitativ undersökning som inkluderar intervjuer och en spelbar artefakt. Frågeställningen undersöks genom att tolv deltagare, sex stycken kvinnor och män, får spela en av två versioner av en och samma artefakt där den enda skillnaden är den spelbara karaktärens kön. 

    Resultatet visar att få stereotyper förkommer när kvinnliga och manliga spelare ska uppfatta och skapa karaktärer vars kön enbart existerar i text. Majoriteten av karaktärerna får en varierad karaktärsbeskrivning med olika kroppsbyggnader och personligheter.

  • Dristig, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Sparande och svårighet: En komparativ studie i hur sparfunktionens utformning påverkar svårighetsgraden i spel2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sparfunktionen är ett betydelsefullt och vanligt förekommande inslag i digitala spel, vilket inte givits speciellt mycket uppmärksamhet av forskningen. Denna undersökning har utforskat hur utformningen av sparfunktionen påverkar spelarens upplevda svårighet i ett digitalt spel.En kvantitativ undersökning har genomförts, i vilken två grupper av respondenter tilläts spela varsin version av ett enklare FPS-spel. Den enda skillnaden mellan versionerna var deras respektive sparfunktioners utformning. Den ena versionen hade en manuell sparfunktion, den andra en automatisk. Data samlades in medelst ett frågeformulär och datafiler i artefakten.Resultatet tyder på en viss skillnad i upplevd svårighet mellan grupperna. Det gick dock inte att slå fast någon statistiskt signifikant skillnad. Därtill var undersökningens respondenter för få för att resultatet skulle vara generaliserbart på en större population.

  • Fredriksson, Albin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Holm, Sebastian
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning: Förändringar i det praktiska arbetet till följd av nytt lagkrav2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate social responsibility is increasingly being discussed, as the general public has become more aware of how companies influence their surroundings in aspects as the environment and the society. Sustainability reports have in that sense become a way for companies to show how they work with these issues. For the public it has also been important that the companies are as transparent as possible so that they can get as much information as possible about the companies’ sustainability work. In Sweden it has previously been voluntary to have a sustainability report, but now it is a legal requirement from the the Swedish Parliament that companies of a certain size must have one.The study aims to map out whether changes have been made in their practical work to establish their sustainability reports after the new law in Sweden has been introduced. Changes in the practical work have in previous studies shown to have an effect on the completeness and transparency of the sustainability reports. A quantitative method has been used in the form of a questionnaire survey where companies covered by the new law and companies which had provided sustainability reports before the law have beenselected to answer. The theoretical basis consists of previous studies in sustainability reporting and the structurational theory to help us analyze the data which is collected. The study has shown that some companies have had to change their practical work to provide their sustainability report in line with the new law. These changes have taken place in different parts of the business and to a different extent the in the various parts.

  • Riveiro, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Pallotta, Giuliana
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, USA.
    Vespe, Michele
    Directorat e for Space, Security and Migration,Demography, Migration & Governance Unit,European Commission, Joint Research Centre(JRC), Ispra, Italy.
    Maritime anomaly detection: A review2018In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, ISSN 1942-4787, Vol. 8, no 5, article id e1266Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surveillance of large sea areas normally requires the analysis of large volumes of heterogeneous, multidimensional and dynamic sensor data, in order to improve vessel traffic safety, maritime security and to protect the environment. Early detection of conflict situations at sea provides critical time to take appropriate action with, possibly before potential problems occur. In order to provide an overview of the state‐of‐the‐art of research carried out for the analysis of maritime data for situational awareness, this study presents a review of maritime anomaly detection. The found articles are categorized into four groups (a) data, (b) methods, (c) systems, and (d) user aspects. We present a comprehensive summary of the works found in each category, and finally, outline possible paths of investigation and challenges for maritime anomaly detection.

  • Hussaini, Inas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Marigona, Bytyqi
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Skolkuratorns känslor i samband med hantering av mobbning: En kvalitativ studie om skolkuratorns perspektiv och problematiken de upplever2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bullying in today's Sweden is a societal problem since the number of children and teenagers who are exposed to it in the school environment is increasing. This study is focused on the school counsellors’ perspective on bullying, focusing on their thoughts, feelings, and interpretations. The focus of this study is the perspective of the school counsellor, and the purpose is to gain a deeper understanding of how they handle bullying issues while regulating their feelings and the problems they experience in connection with this. The theoretical framework consists of emotional work and bullying, using the concepts of feeling rules, action programs against bullying and emotional burden, explaining how the feelings of the school counsellor are influenced in dealing with bullying. This study has a qualitative approach where semi-structured interviews were used as a tool. The selection consists of 10 high-school counsellors in Gothenburg. The results show that the school counsellors’ emotional regulation and emotional work can affect how he or she handles the bullying and even affect the school students in a positive or a negative 3 way. The respondents described the management of bullying as a high emotional burden that contributed to strong concerns that could be difficult to release. At the same time, the school counsellors thought that they were dealing with important tasks that felt very meaningful and rewarding.

  • Johansson, Helén
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Tysk, Carina
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Hallå Intressent!: En studie om identifiering och engagerande av intressenter hos företag som hållbarhetsredovisar.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability reporting, in which firms can display their sustainability efforts regarding environmental, social and economic character, has developed through the years. Sustainability reporting is considered an important means of communication, where firms can portray a responsible organization through their work and activities regarding sustainability, to their stakeholders. Firms identify their stakeholders of essence for their organization as well as the content, in conjunction with the sustainability report.

    We have made an attempt trying to answer the question how firms identify and engage their stakeholders, in regards to the sustainability report and if stakeholders can influence what is reported, through qualitative interviews with respondents from five Swedish listed firms.

    The analysis indicates that firms identify their stakeholders in different ways. All the identified stakeholders were regarded as primary stakeholders, internal as well as external. It seemed like most attention were given to the stakeholders significant for the firms’ existence. These stakeholders could in some cases influence on how the report was written.

    All firms that participated in the study were engaging with their stakeholders on a regular basis in different dialogues, which could take place by the initiative of the stakeholders’.  The firms got reassurance in this way, that their work with sustainability and reporting were satisfactory to the stakeholders’ need of information.  Though the result shows that stakeholders had very little influence over the sustainability report. Mostly the firms only did some modification under what was reported, under the already established sustainability areas.

  • Virén, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Dahlström, Sandro
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Communication of Environmental Issues: A Comparison Between Sustainability Reports and Social Media in the Automotive Industry2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is a topic that has become increasingly important for companies over the last decades. The increasing pressure from stakeholders has led to communication of sustainability to be very important for companies who wish to be seen as sustainable. The main way corporations communicate their sustainability activities are through the annual report. Whether in a standalone sustainability report or as an integrated part of the whole annual report, most of the larger companies today have some form of sustainability reporting. Over the last years, other ways of communicating sustainability activities have surfaced. The social media boom has created an excellent communication channel for companies to directly communicate with its stakeholders.  In the automotive industry environmental issues have been a focus point for many companies over the last decades. Pressure from society and stakeholders to produce more environmentally friendly vehicles have only increased over the last years. This leads us to the purpose of this study, which is to compare the communication of environmental issues in social media and in sustainability reports in the automotive industry.

    The study has been done by conducting a content analysis of the sustainability reports and posts on social media sites. Beside the content analysis, our thesis contains a quantitative part to emphasize which environmental topics the companies communicate about. The Global Reporting Initiatives environmental indicators have been used to do the quantitative part of this study. This has helped us divide the different information into various environmental topics to see what is being communicated. The timeframe for the study have been 1st of January 2015 to 31st December 2017, which means we have looked at three years of social media activity and three sustainability reports for the companies in the study. The companies involved in the study are BMW, Groupe Renault, Volvo Cars, and Volkswagen.

    The results of our study show that social media and sustainability reports to be very different types of communication channels. Social media revolves around short promotional messages, while sustainability reports aim to give a more fair and broad view of the companies’ environmental engagements. In sustainability reports we have found information to cover most of the environmental indicators, while on social media there is a focus on a smaller amount of topics. Another finding concerns target audience which differ for the studied communication channels. Social media are more directed towards the customer type of stakeholders, while the sustainability reports are more directed towards an investor type of stakeholder.

  • Nord, Natalie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Tegehall, Sigfrid
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Revisionsplikten: Revisorers perspektiv på hur hög redovisningskvalitet bland mindre företag kan upprätthållas utan revision som den är utformad idag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is an ongoing debate whether or not the thresholds for mandatory audit in Sweden should be increased or decreased. FAR, the only trade association for auditors claims that the mandatory audit for the smallest companies should be reinstated. In support of their positions, they have a report from the Swedish National Audit Office which shows that the effects of the intentions with the abolition of the mandatory audit for the smallest companies have failed in general, and that it instead has had negative consequences. At the same time, several trade associations claim that Sweden can handle the small companies accounting without reinstating the mandatory audit and rather that the mandatory audit thresholds should be increased. Since most of Sweden’s companies are small companies with fewer than ten employees where the owner and management is the same person, they claim that there is no need for an independent control function as the audit. It is clear that the current situation is not desirable. Small companies need services which enable them to utilize the resources in the best possible way, whereas the government needs to ensure that laws are followed, tax is not avoided and that economic crime is prevented. The question remains how these two needs are best addressed.       

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe professional auditors’ view in order to identify how high accounting quality can be maintained without the audit and the mandatory audit in its current form and still maintain the reliability of the accounting. In this way we aim to increase legislators’ and standard setters’ understanding on how laws and standards should be designed in order to achieve this.

    Method: In this study, a qualitative method based on an abductive research approach has been used. In order to answer the research questions of the study, semi structured interviews of eight professional auditors in Skaraborg, Sweden have been conducted at both smaller and larger audit firms.   

    Conclusion: The study shows that some form of review/control may be needed in smaller companies in order to maintain high accounting quality without auditing. In the smallest companies the need for advice and focus on that the accounting is done correctly seems to be more important than a completely independent audit. This view is most prominent among auditors from smaller auditing firms. Existing auditing standard results in too much documentation and checklist-based focus in smaller companies, wherein greater emphasis should be placed on the auditor’s professional judgment in order for the audit to be cost-efficient.

  • Beydon, Mimmi
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Lilja, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Rekrytera utan fördomar: En kvalitativ studie om hur rekryterare kan hantera svårigheter med omedveten diskriminering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People is often considered to be the organization's most important resource. For this reason, it is exceedingly important that the right candidate is being hired to the right company. It is not always quite easy to be objective as a recruiter in the choice of candidates. This is based on the fact that we humans may have a difficulty in distinguishing our personal opinions about the candidate from what is actually considered relevant in a recruitment context. People tend to like other people who share similar attitudes, personality traits and economic status as themselves. This in turn may lead recruiters to making hasty conclusions due to preconceptions and unconsciously create prejudices against candidates.

    Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative study is therefore to create an understanding of why recruiters have difficulties in making fair assessments of candidates and what they can do to deal with these difficulties in reducing the risk of unconscious discrimination. The reason for choosing this area is that despite the fact that there are research on how prejudices affect the assessment of other people, there are not many studies that highlight this from a recruitment context.

    Method: The empirical material of the study has been collected through interviews with recruiters from ten different companies in different industries. Theories and effects have been used in this study for the purpose of analysing interview answers and these are the following: the liking-similarity effect, balance theory, kompetensblomman (the competence flower), the halo effect, the devil effect and the five-factor model of personality.

    Conclusion: The results of the study have shown that the different companies make use of prejudices in recruitment unknowingly. It has been shown, among other things, that respondents views on candidates' appearance are a decisive factor in the recruitment process. However, it has also been shown that recruiters can work against prejudice by having clearly structured interview questions, so as not to risk asking irrelevant questions for the work positions concerned. A recruiter can also work against prejudices by having clear demands on the candidates they request. Those candidates who do not meet the requirements will therefore not be able to be called on interview.

  • Müntzing, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Evaluating NMP Quality of Service: Experiment with JackTrip regarding Latency versus Packet Jitter/Dropouts with High Quality Audio via LAN and WAN2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has developed a method to create an, to a big extent, automated testing system for NMP (Networked Music Performance) communication over LAN and WAN to be able to benchmark the UDP streaming engine JackTrip using a client-server model. The method is not locked into using JackTrip only, it could be used to do experiments with other engines too. The study tried to answer the question if latency correlates to amount of correctly aligned audio, and to what extent the audio is correctly aligned in respect to tolerated latency (based on earlier research) when at least two musicians remote-conducting musical pieces together. There were 13 different buffer settings tested, which used no redundancy and redundancy of 2, and which were sent through 4 different LAN/WAN-scenarios. A big dataset was produced, with about 82 minutes’ worth of audio per test. To post-process the data a phase cancelling method was used to measure correctly aligned audio, while the latency was measured by counting the number of samples from the start of each audio file to the first sample that were not null or not under a certain threshold. The results showed clear correlations of buffer sizes impact of latency and amount of correctly audio sent over the network. If the buffer sizes are greater, it will produce higher latency and increase the amount of correctly aligned audio, and on the opposite side, if using less buffer, it will produce lower latencies and less correctly aligned amount of audio. The study also showed that there was very little impact of using higher redundancies, both regarding latency and amount of correctly audio. When analysing the amount of correct data when respecting the tolerated level of latency, the study showed a support for correctly aligned amount of streamed audio up to 65% when using JackTrip.

  • Martinovsky, Josef
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Score as a substitute for goals: The impact of score on intrinsic goals in free-form design2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose for this study is to examine the impact score has on free-form designed games:games without designed goals. The study is aimed towards smaller products and is meant tohelp designers who are looking to implement score into their game with how it could affect theplayer’s relationship to the defined goal, their intrinsic goal, and the purpose of the game. Aprototype game was created that would simulate the free-form design method. The game hadtwo modes: mode A without score and mode B with score added to one of the actions. Resultsfrom observations and semi-structured interviews show that score has a direct impact on theway participants defined both their intrinsic goals and the one set by the game. Participants’perception of the game defined goal shifts as score is added by giving them a clear andunambiguous extrinsic reward.

  • Cinarli, Pembe
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Strategy to tag Actin II in Plasmodium berghei2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Malaria is a disease that is caused by parasite called Plasmodium spp. and trasmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes to the host. The disease has great impact around the world and there are half a million deaths and several hundred million infections every year. Studies revealed that there are two actin isoforms in the parasite, actin I and actin II. Absence of actin II has severe effect on the development of the parasite in the mosquito but the molecular function is still unknown. Identification of interacting proteins is of great importance to understand further the function of the protein. To achieve this goal actin II has to be enriched and this required a tagged version of the protein. In this project purification of the protein was to be achieved through biotinylation. In this method the protein of interest is biotinylated by BirA ligase in the cell and is then purified by , streptavidin. The project involved transfection of vector for Plasmodium berghei, containing the BirA gene and a stage-specific promoter (cdpk4). The construct was integrated in the chromosomal locus Sil6 and introduced to wild-type and actin II knock out parasites. Genotyping by PCR revealed integration of the insert in wild type parasites and phenotypic anaylsis showed no difference between BirA wild type and wild type control parasites. The expression of the BirA ligase in the parasite was investigated with Western blot but no signal was detected.

  • Bagler, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Normbrytande form på spelrollen Tank: Kan en spelkaraktär med de spelmekaniska egenskaperna hos rollen Tank upplevas annorlunda om den har en kroppstyp som inte normalt är associerad med den rollen?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersöker om personer med erfarenhet av hjältebaserade spel kan kategorisera en karaktär som rollen Tank, när karaktären har en kroppstyp som inte normalt är associerad med rollen. De fem deltagarna i undersökningen fick se två karaktärer, en med bred kroppsform och en med smal kroppsform. Båda karaktärerna finns i två versioner, en spetsig och en rund, och deltagarna fick sedan gissa deras roll i ett hypotetiskt spel.    

    Resultatet visar att en karaktär med smal kroppsform har svårare att få deltagarna att uppfatta den som Tank än en bred karaktär. Överlag var svaren att karaktärsrollen inte var Tank.     

  • Romin, Rebecca
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Spelares syn på huvudkaraktärers kön i spel: En kvantitativ studie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Majoriteten av huvudkaraktärer i spel är manliga vilket enligt exponeringseffekten kan innebära att spelare som exponeras för manliga karaktärer börjar acceptera och uppskatta det manliga könet som det rätta könet på huvudkaraktärer i spel. Dock visar studier kring identifikation i spel att spelare, om möjlighet ges, oftast skapar avatarer med sitt eget kön för att kunna identifiera sig med dem. Med hjälp av ett textbaserat spel med en könsneutral huvudkaraktär utfördes en kvantitativ undersökning med frågeställningen: “Hur ser korrelationen ut mellan vilket kön spelare identifierar sig med och vilket kön de läser in i en könsneutral huvudkaraktär?”. Resultatet visade att majoriteten av respondenterna läste in sitt eget kön på grund av identifikation, men att fall även fanns där inget eller det motsatta könet lästes in. Alltså är det fler faktorer än identifikation som påverkar valet av inläsning av kön. Framtida arbete kan kretsa kring vilka dessa faktorer är.

  • Bergmark, Allis
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Kvinnliga spelare och deras uppfattning och val av kvinnliga karaktärer med bred representation: Kroppsform, ras (hudfärg) och ålder2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning har fokuserat på kvinnliga spelare och deras uppfattning och val av kvinnliga spelkaraktärer då representationen av kvinnliga karaktärer i spel är mindre varierad än den av manliga. Målet med undersökningen var att undersöka vilken av de fyra karaktärerna i undersökningen de valde baserat på utseende, och spelklass, samt ifall de kände sig representerade av någon av karaktärerna och hur de motiverade sina val. Detta för att undersöka vad av utseende och spelklass som väger tyngst hos kvinnliga spelare och, ifall utseende väger tyngre; vilka designval de anser mest viktiga hos karaktären. Resultaten av undersökningen tyder på att spelklass är viktigare vid val av karaktär men att det även finns en efterfrågan gällande en bredare representation av kvinnliga spelkaraktärer.

  • Kvick, Malin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Nilsson, Lina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Den Fysiska aktivitetens positiva påverkan på cancerdrabbade personer: Litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Bankler, Jon Victor
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    A chinese view on indie: How is ‘indie’ defined by professionals within the Chinese indie game industry?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to explore which philosophies and opinions professionals within the Chinese indie game industry hold in relation to the indie concept. Indie is a short form of the word "independence”, and is used to describe certain products and creative practices within media such as video games. The term’s exact definition is however subject to discussion. This study aims to include Chinese game professionals in this discussion.

    The study was carried out in China through Game Hub Scandinavia (Game Hub Scandinavia, 2018) and in cooperation with Indienova. The participants that were interviewed in this study were all professionals within the Chinese game industry. The research tools developed for these interviews were two playable demos and a survey. The answers provided constituted as basis for the study’s concluding analysis.

    The data indicated that the Chinese indie developers define indie as a creative endeavour which products and underlying ambitions contrasts the commercially motivated game industry in China.

  • Gustavsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Inverkan av spelmusikens instrumentation: Hur instrumentationen i spelmusik påverkar spelarens val i en virtuell värld2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Musik har en värdefull plats i spelvärlden, strävan efter att skapa något unikt och innovativt präglar varje kompositör. Är det möjligt att subliminalt förmedla och påverka spelarens val i en virtuell värld, genom musik? Den här studien fokuserar på om hur instrumentationsbyte inom spelmusik kan ha en inverkan på spelarens handlingar i spelet Minecraft (2011).

    För att besvara detta skapades en artefakt som i samband med intervjuer och observationer av informanter fastställde ett resultat. Artefakten uppstod från spelet Minecraft (2011), musikstycket ”Sweden” av C418 (C418 u.å.) samt en nykomponerad version av ”Sweden” som innehåller en ny instrumentering. Undersökningen bestod av 7 informanter som tog del av artefakten i en spelsession på 10 minuter samtidigt som en skärminspelning tog plats. Efter spelsessionen intervjuades informanterna angående deras upplevelse.

    Resultatet visade att deltagarnas val inte styrdes av musikens instrumentation utan endast av medvetna handlingar. Musiken hade dock en inverkan på informanternas spelsession då den bidrog till inlevelsekänslan. En fortsättning av detta arbete skulle troligtvis präglas av problematiken att mäta reaktionerna hos spelarna enbart baserat på förändringen i musikens instrumentering. Möjlighet till att förändra frågeställningen i samband med en ny och förbättrad artefakt kan medföra en starkare insikt i denna kombinerade värld av psykologi, spel och musik.

  • Marcus, Hesselgren
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Vestberg, Victor
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Reducering av ställtider: Verktygshantering2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This final year project has been carried out at a legomanufacturing company and they work, among other things, with cutting-edge processing which this work has focused on. The production type at the company is usually called HVLV production. This means that the products they produce are often made for the first time and that the recurring work are few. Which results in long lead-times.

    The purpose of this final year project was to identify which activities that the operators spent the most time on and then select a focus area. Furthermore, map the selected focus area "setup", with time studies and spaghetti charts to define more specific goals. Reduce the number of tool-related activities that occur in a setup by 50%, reduce movements between machine and setup-location by 75% and reduce the search of tools during a setup by 50%. This were the goals that lay as a foundation for the final year project. To achieve these goals, some suggested improvements were made. A number of tools that always will be used in the machines, so-called standardtools were selected and implemented. Related tool lists with relevant information about the tools and their design have also been created in order to facilitate the operators work. The tools were selected with flexibility in focus to fit the HVLV production. This were made through comparing purchase price, the most purchased tools from their largest tool supplier, processing times and the operators own experience. Based on the standard tools a routine was made which the operators should follow, from programming until the operator is ready to start the machine.

    A review of previous work was made to see in what extent the selected standardtools could be used. This showed that 40% of the previously reviewed work could have been manufactured using only the selected standardtools. Furthermore, a theoretical comparison with previous mapping showed that with the standardtools and routine, the number of tool-related activities could be reduced by approximately 40%. This mostly due to the elimination of uncertainties regarding which tools and toolholders that were located in the machines. This also eliminated the search of tools where the target was 50% reduction. According to the mapping of the setups the operator made more transportations to the machine than the number of tools that were to be set. If the operators follow the routine and use the tool carrier, only one transportation to the machine is required after all the tools are set. This results in a great reduction of movements to and from the machine. The result shows that about 90% of the movements in one of the mapped setups had been reduced.

  • Amandusson, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Perceptionen av ljud i en stadsmiljö: Kan det påverka uppfattningen av instruktioner?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete handlar om ifall perceptionen av ljud i stadsmiljöer kan påverka uppfattningen av instruktioner och minne. I den litterära bakgrunden presenteras vad ett ljud är, vad skillnaden är mellan Hi-fi och Lo-fi ljudlandskap samt en generell överblick om vad noise är och hur människans minne fungerar. Frågeställningen som undersöktes var om perceptionen av olika ljud i en stadsmiljö kan påverka uppfattningen av instruktioner. För att kunna svara på frågeställningen skapades tre olika ljudsekvenser, där två av sekvenserna innehåller ljuden som kan påverka instruktionerna och en är kontrollsekvensen för att se om instruktionerna är lätta att följa. Den urvalsgrupp som deltog fick lyssna och utföra olika instruktioner samt svara på kvalitativa frågor. Detta användes sedan för nå en slutsats. Vid ett framtida arbete och fördjupning av undersökningen kan det leda till att information och ljud i spel inte går förlorade i mängden av andra ljud, perspektivet av dem finns kvar.

  • Lundbeck, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Binaural Beats i TV-spel: Hur påverkar det spelarens prestation?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Binaural Beats är ett fenomen som undersöks av diverse forskare kring dess påverkan på hjärnaktivitet och välmående. Kan detta påverka vår prestation i spel? Denna undersökning fokuserar på Theta-zonen som är en av hjärnans tillståndszoner. Med hjälp av specifika ljudfrekvenser (Binaural Beats) kan hjärnvågor stimuleras och bestämt börja arbeta i valfritt tillstånd, i det här fallet Theta-zonen somrepresenterar det lugna och djupt avslappnande stadiet hos människan. För att ta reda på svaret till denna frågeställning skapades en artefakt/ett spel som mätte spelarens prestation genom poänginsamling. Undersökningen samlade in värden i poäng och puls under spelsessionen, som därefter avslutades med en intervju. Resultaten analyserades och sammanfattades till en slutsats i koppling till arbetets frågeställning. Undersökningen och slutsatsen diskuteras och dras vidare till framtida arbeten om förbättringar och utökning av metoden, samt fortsatta studier inom liknande områden.

  • Karlsson, Louise
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Stress: From a biological, social, and psychological perspective2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years stress has been a term lacking one clear and specific definition. In general, the term stress has been used mostly as an explanation of a response or reaction to a stressor. A stressor can be of both physiological and behavioral character. The experience of stress can occur both due to a real or a perceived stressor. In this literature review, the concept of stress is viewed with insights from biological, psychological, and social perspectives. The stress response is described biologically with the central nervous system (CNS), the brain, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Social and psychological stress are concepts related to how stress is perceived by the mind and due to social surroundings which is described in relation to social support, self-efficacy, the locus of control and cognitive appraisal. Dealing with stress can be done through coping which refers to the individual capacity to handle a stressor and has generally been divided into two categories, active/passive coping and problem-focused/emotion-focused coping. Depending on the individual resources to cope with a stressor and the ability to decrease the stress response when needed, the long-term effects of stress can therefore vary between individuals. It has been found that positive coping (known as reducing stress) can increase the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volume and decrease anxiety and depression. The prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus, and the amygdala are closely linked to the ACC and affect emotions, learning, and memory related to the stress response.

  • Johansson, Pontus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Does quartal harmony affect the mood in computer games?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background explains musical concepts of consonance, dissonance and quartal harmony which are the central parts of this work. Emotion in- and application of music is explained as well, to give an understanding to how the music is being used.

    The problem is what was studied, and the method shows how it was to be studied. The goal of this work was to see what kind of harmony is better at inducing stress in a player playing a game, quartal or triad harmony. Two different harmonizations of the same songs were composed and implemented into a game sequence. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were held to collect data.

    The result of this study showed that both harmonizations induced the same amount of stress, not leading to any concrete answer.

  • Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Jiang, Yuning
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Jeusfeld, Manfred A.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ding, Jianguo
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Combitech.
    Haglund, Daniel
    Combitech.
    Lindström, Björn
    Combitech.
    Cyber-threat analysis for Cyber-Physical Systems: Technical report for Package 4, Activity 3 of ELVIRA project2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart grid employs ICT infrastructure and network connectivity to optimize efficiency and deliver new functionalities. This evolu- tion is associated with an increased risk for cybersecurity threats that may hamper smart grid operations. Power utility providers need tools for assessing risk of prevailing cyberthreats over ICT infrastructures. The need for frameworks to guide the develop- ment of these tools is essential to define and reveal vulnerability analysis indicators. We propose a data-driven approach for design- ing testbeds to evaluate the vulnerability of cyberphysical systems against cyberthreats. The proposed framework uses data reported from multiple components of cyberphysical system architecture layers, including physical, control, and cyber layers. At the phys- ical layer, we consider component inventory and related physi- cal flows. At the control level, we consider control data, such as SCADA data flows in industrial and critical infrastructure control systems. Finally, at the cyber layer level, we consider existing secu- rity and monitoring data from cyber-incident event management tools, which are increasingly embedded into the control fabrics of cyberphysical systems.

  • Kärrström, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Neural correlates of mindfulness related to stress: How mindfulness promotes wellbeing2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mindfulness practice is used to treat mental and physical symptoms. The problem is that research on the long-term effects and the neural changes involved, correlated with well-being, are inconsistent. The purpose of this review is to create a deeper understanding of mindfulness and its neural correlates related to stress. In mindfulness, one can use focused attention meditation (FA), involving anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal areas, thalamus, visual cortex, intraparietal sulcus, and amygdala. In open monitoring meditation (OM), ACC, PFC, insula, somatosensory cortex, limbic areas and amygdala are involved. In exposure to a high amount of stress, the grey matter volume decreases in the hippocampus, PFC, and amygdala. Research has also shown that 19 000 hours of mindfulness practice increases activation in areas involved in FA and OM. This increased activation might also enhance the subject’s ability to control emotions. After 44 000 hours of meditation, areas involved in FA showed less activation which might imply that more hours of mindfulness practice involve less cognitive activity and a calmer state of mind. Regardless of hours spent on meditating, a decreased activation in the amygdala and ACC occurs, which correlates with less response towards negative stimuli. The neural changes involved in mindfulness practice was related to less experienced stress and enhanced psychological well-being. For future research, an investigation of the interaction between attentional networks and stress would be of relevance.

  • Garcia Rivera, Francisco
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Hoyos Rodriguez, David
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Implementation of Metallic Profiles in Social Houses2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a metallic structural solution for communities with minor resources, which is able to adapt to the climatic conditions of La Guajira (Colombia). The mains objectives of this structure are to reach good quality and reduce execution time as well as cost.

    The structure was designed by using Light Weight Steel Framing method, due to its simplicity as well as its ease in the assembly due to the lack of resources in those communities. The design was calculated by using an iterative method in which a compromise solution between prices and strength was reached.

    This paper concludes that the same structure which was being built, can be improved (decreasing of the price, and industrialisation of the method) by using the structural solution proposed by this work.

  • Svensson, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Zahir, Fatima
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med bröstcancer: En litteraturbaserad studie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer that affects women. Around 20 women are affected each day and approximately 9000 are diagnosed with breast cancer each year. Breast cancer is an experience that involves a lot of vulnerability and deep despair. Purpose: The purpose with this study was to describe women´s experiences of living with breast cancer.Method: Literature based study with 11 qualitative articles. Results: The results showed three main categories; experiences from a new life situation, experiences of support and perspective on life. There were also eight subcategories. Discussion: The women felt that breast cancer changed their whole life. They faced several difficulties and several emotions that were difficult to handle. Many existential issues appeared and there was a need to be seen and heard.  The women wished that the support from the health care had been adapted based on their individual needs. When the patients accepted their diagnose of breast cancer, it became easier to live with it and they could return to their previous daily lives. Conclusion: Healthcare professionals have a major influence on how patients experience living with breast cancer based on the care they receive.In order to give the patients the desired care there must first be an improvement in the communication between the patient and the health care professionals.

  • Martínez Enguita, David
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Identification of personalized multi-omic disease modules in asthma2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Asthma is a respiratory syndrome associated with airflow limitation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and inflammation of the airways in the lungs. Despite the ongoing research efforts, the outstanding heterogeneity displayed by the multiple forms in which this condition presents often hampers the attempts to determine and classify the phenotypic and endotypic biological structures at play, even when considering a limited assembly of asthmatic subjects. To increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and functional pathways that govern asthma from a systems medicine perspective, a computational workflow focused on the identification of personalized transcriptomic modules from the U-BIOPRED study cohorts, by the use of the novel MODifieR integrated R package, was designed and applied. A feature selection of candidate asthma biomarkers was implemented, accompanied by the detection of differentially expressed genes across sample categories, the production of patient-specific gene modules and the subsequent construction of a set of core disease modules of asthma, which were validated with genomic data and analyzed for pathway and disease enrichment. The results indicate that the approach utilized is able to reveal the presence of components and signaling routes known to be crucially involved in asthma pathogenesis, while simultaneously uncovering candidate genes closely linked to the latter. The present project establishes a valuable pipeline for the module-driven study of asthma and other related conditions, which can provide new potential targets for therapeutic intervention and contribute to the development of individualized treatment strategies.

  • Daniel, Strand
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Undersökning om Användning av digitala resurser i Förskolans pedagogiska verksamhet2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien undersöks förskollärares syfte med val av digitala resurser och deras attityder och åsikter om dessa i förskolans pedagogiska verksamhet. Studien har sin teoretiska utgångspunkt inom det sociokulturella perspektivet. Studien är en kvalitativ intervjustudie med åtta förskollärare på sex förskolor i en mindre kommun i Sverige. Resultatet visar på skillnader mellan hur förskollärare väljer och använder digitala resurser. Det varierar också hur långt de olika förskolorna har kommit med att använda dem. Förskollärarna menar att läroplanen är styrande och att surfplattor och andra digitala hjälpmedel inte ska vara ett tidsfördriv för barnen utan ett pedagogiskt verktyg och ett hjälpmedel som stimulerar samspel och kommunikation mellan barnen.

  • Wahlström, Ole
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Valörers betydelse i spel: En studie om att upptäcka föremål2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens fokus var att undersöka hur olika nivåer av valörer, påverkar tiden det tar att upptäcka objekt i spel. Områden som hur kontraster och immersion kan påverka detta tas upp, likaså hur affordance påverkar hur lätt en spelare anpassar sig efter de förutsättningar som ett spel erbjuder. En spelbar mod skapades för att undersöka om korrigerade valörer på några modifierade vapen kunde visa på några tendenser i hur lång tid olika valörer tar att upptäcka. Den tid det tog varje informant att hitta sagda vapen, jämfördes med den totala tid som varje vapen fanns på skärmen innan upptäckt. Resultatet pekade sedan mot att ljusare valörer gjorde det lättare att upptäcka objekt, medan mörkare valörer gjorde det svårare. Ett fortsatt framtida arbete skulle gynnas av fler informanter och fler spelmiljöer för att få ett mer trovärdigt resultat.

  • Skoglund, Anette
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Ett steg fram och två tillbaks: En fenomenografisk studie om lärares uppfattningar och upplevelser om digitalisering i vuxenutbildningen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this master thesis have been the perception of teachers about Skolverkets requirements (2017), regarding extended digitizing in the education, which in turn requires an extended digital knowledge with the teachers. Qualitative interviews have been conducted at a public school for adults in Västra Götaland, Sweden. Five teachers at the school were interviewed regarding the concept of digital competence, feelings before the extended requirements and the further training needed. This study was done with a phenomenographic method, which means the data was studied to find patterns which could get categorized, which in turn was made into different themes. The goal with this method was also to find what is unspoken, the things that are "said between the lines". In the results it was clear that mainly five factors affect extended digitizing; time, collegial learning, digital tools, digital skills and further education. The teachers felt like the needed more time to implement extended digitizing and that more education is needed. The teachers were predominantly positive towards extended digitizing and the unspoken did also emerge in the results in form of different feelings with the teachers. The feelings were about frustration, worry and tiredness about how time will suffice for everything, that they sometimes got the feeling of it being "one step forward, two steps back".

  • Thim, Amanda
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Spoil the Story, Spoil It Not: Spoilers’ Effect on Player Choice in Branching Storyline Games2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Spoilers are in everyday life often seen as something to be strictly avoided. Nonetheless, earlier studies researching short stories found that spoilers can enhance the enjoyment of a story, rather than destroying it. At the same time, there are studies that have reached opposite results, but the placement and style of the spoiler may affect how it is received. When it comes to games there are no, or only a few, studies on the subject. When unspoiled, players generally choose non-aggressive options, but they are also strongly influenced by what role the character they play has in the narrative. The spoiler can upset this. By knowing what may happen players act differently, as well as thinking about the story in other ways than unspoiled players do. 

  • Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Pesonen, Henri
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Department of Computer Science, Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Peace of mind and anxiety in the waking state are related to the affective content of dreams2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 12762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waking mental well-being is assumed to be tightly linked to sleep and the affective content of dreams. However, empirical research is scant and has mostly focused on ill-being by studying the dreams of people with psychopathology. We explored the relationship between waking well-being and dream affect by measuring not only symptoms of ill-being but also different types and components of well-being. Importantly, this is the first time peace of mind was investigated as a distinct aspect of well-being in a Western sample and in relation to dream content. Healthy participants completed a well-being questionnaire, followed by a three-week daily dream diary and ratings of dream affect. Multilevel analyses showed that peace of mind was related to positive dream affect, whereas symptoms of anxiety were related to negative dream affect. Moreover, waking measures were better related to affect expressed in dream reports rather than participants’ self-ratings of dream affect. We propose that whereas anxiety may reflect affect dysregulation in waking and dreaming, peace of mind reflects enhanced affect regulation in both states of consciousness. Therefore, dream reports may possibly serve as markers of mental health. Finally, our study shows that peace of mind complements existing conceptualizations and measures of well-being.